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\ 



CELTIC REMAINS. 

LEWIS lOEEIS. 



9rinMi for tilt Cattdtian 9t^tul(i0ical 9mociat(on. 



LONDON : 
J. PARKEE, 377, STRAND. 

KDrrcutlTIII. 



C\>vJ tf'^.^l.'f 



--M'd-^ 



NOV 12 1884 



/ 



y 



LOVBOV : 
t. SICHABDl, 37, GBXAX ({UKKN 8TBXZT, W.C. 



PREFACE. 



After the lapse of upwards of a century after his 
death, the principal literary labour which occupied the 
greater part of the lifetime of Lewis Morris is now for 
the first time made public. With the exception of a 
few pages, by way of specimen, appended to a short 
account of the work and its author, which appeared in 
ike ArchcBologia Cambrensis for 1872, no portion of the 
Celtic Remains is known to have been printed, though 
not unfrequently referred to, and often eulogised, by 
some of our antiquarian writers of a past generation. 

The MS. from which the edition is taken (which may 
be called the Penmaen MS.) is not an autograph, but a 
copy, which is stated to have been "transcribed from 
the original MSS. by me Richard Morris, son of the 
author's Brother, in the year of our Lord 1778'', and 
which bears the following lengt,hy title : 

"Celtic Remains ; or the Ancient Celtic Empire de- 
scribed in the English Tongue. Being a Biographical, 
Critical, Historical, Etymological, Chronological, and 
Geographical Collection of Celtic Materials towards a 
British History of Ancient Times. In two Parts. The 



4 PREFACE. 

First containing the Antient British and Gaulish Names 
of Men, Places, Actions, &c., in an Alphabetical Order ; 
wherein not only the true and real Celtic Names are dis- 
cussed in the ancient and modem Orthography, but also 
the Mistakes and Errors, whether Wilfull or Accidental, 
of the several Writers who have treated of the Ancient 
Affairs of Britain in any language, are explained and 
rectified. The Second Part containing the Latinized 
Celtic Names of Men and Places used by Latin Writers 
who have modelled and twisted them to their own lan- 
guage ; with an Attempt to shew what they were in 
the Original Celtic by comparing them with Ancient 
History and the Languages of the several Branches of 
that people, vizt., the British or Welsh, the Irish, the 
Armoric, the Cornish, and Manx. 1757. By Lewis 
MoKRis, a Cambro-Briton. The Labor of 40 Years.'' 

Lewis Morris (according to his own account, s.v. 
Bardd) was bom in 1701, O.S. ;^ and his death, aa is 

According to the entry in the Register of his native parish, 
Llanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd, Anglesey, *' Lewis, the son of Morris ap 
Bichard, Cooper, and Margaret his wife", was baptised March 2, 1700, 
while most of onr biographical dictionaries give 1702 as the date of 
his birth. According to the same Register, the baptism of Richard 
Morris, generally, but erroneously, regarded as an elder brother of 
Lewis, occurred on Oct. 7, 1702 ; while William, the youngest of 
the three, is therein stated to have been baptised on the 6th of May, 
] 705. In the latter entries the father's name is g^ven as Morris 
Prichard. The same Register records also the burial of a *' Lewis 
Morris, Husbandman", on the 9th of June, 1706, and a slab to his 
memory is preserved in the parish church. No place of abode is, in 
any of these cases, given in the Register ; but there can be no doubt 
as to the family intended. 



PREFACE. 5 

well known, occurred in 1765. If then, as here stated, 
the compilation was completed in 1757, and forty years 
were spent upon it, he must have commenced collect- 
ing his materials while he was only a youth of sixteen. 

The second part referred to in the title, the Editor 
has never had an opportunity of consulting ; but the 
original MS. is said to be preserved in the Cymmrod- 
orion collection in the British Museum ; and in the 
same depository will be found the Introductiony which 
does not occur in the Penmaen MS., and which is here 
printed from a copy obligingly lent for the purpose 
by the Rev. Robert Jones, Vicar of All Saints, Rother- 
hithe. 

The Bephew's transcript, which is carefuUy and legibly 
written, was apparently made for the patriotic Owen 
Jones {Owain Myfyr)^ from whom it passed, by pur- 
chase, to the late Rev. Walter Davies (GwaUterMecfiain), 
who at one time intended to publish it with large addi- 
tions and corrections. This intention, however, was 
never realised ; but the MS. has here and there some 
notes by him, as well as a few by his contemporary, 
lolo Morganwg, through whose hands it appears to 
have passed. Coming from such men, these notes, few 
and brief as they are, it was thought desirable £o re- 
tain; and to distinguish them from the original matter 
they are inserted between square brackets, with the 
initials of their respective writers ( W. D.,1. M.) attached 
to them. In a very few instances the Editor supplied in 
a similar way an occasional blank left in the copy, or 



6 PREFACE. 

corrected an obvious literal error ; while in some cases 
the sequence of the articles has been departed from 
in order to make the alphabetical arrangement more 
complete. 

The author generally refers to Welsh writers, espe- 
cially in the quotations from the bards, by the initials 
of their names, after the fashion adopted by Dr. Davies 
in his Grammar and Dictionary. Most of these names 
have been printed in full, or sufficiently full, to obviate 
the inconvenience of referring to the explanatory lists 
in the now scarce volumes of that eminent scholar. 
On the contrary, the terms nomen loci, nomen proprium 
viriy nomen proprium femin(B^ and the like, which in 
the original are sometimes written in full, and some- 
times more or less contractedly, will almost uniformly 
be found here represented by n. Z., n. pr. v., and n. 
pr. f. The initials J, D., which frequently occur after 
place-names, appear to denote John Davies, the author 
of Display of Herauldry (1716). A few of the contrac- 
tions met with in the MS. the Editor was not able to 
decipher, as the author nowhere explains any of his 
abbreviations. 

With these exceptions, and the omission of a sen- 
tence or two in one of the articles, the MS. has been 
followed with fidelity, no attempt having been made to 
revise either the language or the matter. Any attempt 
of the kind would have marred the character of the 
work, and have amounted to not much less than writ- 
ing the whole anew. The work should in all respects 



PREFACE. 7 

be considered in the light of the period in which it was 
written, when archaeology was little understood, com- 
parative philology unborn, and guesswork the order of 
the day. 

It only remains for me to tender my sincere thanks 
to Miss Davies of Penmaen Dyfi, Merioneth, the 
worthy daughter of Gwallter Mechain, by whose kind- 
ness in allowing me for several years the constant use 
of the MS. which once belonged to her distinguished 
father, the Cambrian Archaeological Association has been 
enabled to present the public with the Celtic Remains 
of Lewis Morris. 

D. Silvan Evans. 



LLafiwrin Beehryy Machynlleth : 
Aiujikct 1, 1878. 



INTRODUCTION. 



SOME THOUGHTS ON THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF 
BRITAIN, AND ON THE MATERIALS REQUISITE TO 
COMPOSE SUCH A HISTORY, WITH AN ENQUIRY 
WHETHER THE COLLECTION NOW BEFORE US IS 
NOT THE RIGHT METHOD TO BE PURSUED IN 
PROVIDING SUCH MATERIALS. 



CHAP. L 

Of the KEGBSsmr of haying the true ksd real names of persons 

AND plages recorded IN BISTORT; IF OTHERWISE, THE 8T0RT IS 
FALSE. 

All men who have the use of letters and of their 
reason know that in reading of history, or an account of 
any transactions ancient or modern^ unless they have 
the true names of the persons acting, and the places 
where they acted, it is no account at all, and is but like 
an apothecary that gives you Ipecacuanha in the room 
of Jallap. Is not this exactly the case of an historian 
who gives you Walganus instead of G walchmai, Breigh- 
mons instead of Eryri-mons, Rududibras for Khun 
Baladr Bras, Halterenes for Allt yr Ynys, Kentigem 
for Cyndeym Garth wys, Gannoc for Dyganwy, Dam- 
nonium for Dyfnaint, Nuevin for Aneurin, etc,, etc. ? Is 
there anybody then that takes a pleasure in reading 
the actions of his ancestors, or the ancient inhabitants 
of Britain and Gaul, in the ancient books that treat of 

6 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

Britain, but what would willingly have the real and 
true names of the people and places that he reads of ? 
The occasion of the errors of authors in this respect 
being either their want of knowledge in the Celtic 
tongue, or owing to the ignorance of transcribers, or to 
the publishers of ancient manuscripts in printing, or 
else to that vicious custom of modelling or Latinizing 
Celtic names, whereas the names of men and places in 
all nations should be transmitted as they are used in 
the language that imposed them. 

It vexes me to see the renowned King of the Britains, 
CaswaUon, nicknamed in Caesar s Commentaries Cassi- 
vellaunus ; and several of the like, as Cjmfelyn, Cuno- 
belinus. To see Cynog Las in that patched piece of 
Gildas called Curioglassus ; and Esgolaind, LanioFulvey 
a yellow butcher — ^a plain mark of forgery ; and in the 
same author, Maelgwn Gwynedd transmographied into 
Maglo Cunus. I am sorry to see the lands oi Gwyr 
and Cydweliy in Glamorganshire, transformed in dif- 
ferent corrupt copies of Nennius to Guiher cet Gwdy, 
Gruher tee Guiliy Guir Gecgadi, Guircat Gueli, and 
Guhir cet gwely. 

I pity the fate of poor Silius, who Galfrid in his 
Latin translation of the British History hath nick- 
named Silvius, whereas the British Silius, as it is in 
the British MSS., should have been Latinized Julius. 

The inhabitants of Ireland are under no obligations 
to Ptolomy or his transcriber for calling their Island 
YovepvL^ instead of lovepBivi^, or, as the Britains wrote it, 

Y Werddynys, i.e., the Green Island ; and at this day, 

Y Werddon. 

Tha ancient city of Derwennydd, on the river Der- 
wennydd, hath with several others undergone the same 



INTRODUCTION, Vll 

ft 

fate in Antoninus's Itinerary^ where it is called Der- 
ventio. 

I shall now pass over Bede, Math. Paris, Westmin- 
ster, William of Neuburg, and all the Saxon and 
English authors that succeeded them, being all swarm* 
ing with errors where they have touched any British 
names of men and places, which are rectified in the fol- 
lowing treatise. 



CHAP. XL 

That the inhabitakts of bbitain and its islands abe a mixtube of 

CELT£, TETTTONS, AND BOMANS, AND HOW THET BECAME SO ; AND THAT 
MOST OF THE ENGLISH HAYE ANCIENT BBITISH BLOOD IN THEIB 
YEINS. 

In the light that I look on the inhabitants of Britain 
and its islands, after I have closely considered the 
several conquests of these islands and the languages of 
the conquerors, I dare affirm there are few among them 
but what have a mixture -of ancient British blood in 
them, and that therefore this performance has a claim 
to the attention of all the people of Britain and its 
islands in general, of what language soever they are. 

Men reckon it always a glorious and an honourable 
thing to be of the race of the first possessors and main- 
tainors of a country, who valiantly fought in defence 
of their rights and liberties, and for their wives and 
children, and successors in that country; i.e., jpro aris 
and focis. 

As far as our histories and traditions reach, we find 
from age to age some new colonies brought to these 
islands from the Continent ; and it could not be other- 
wise, for an itch of dominion and conquest has possessed 



VIU INTRODUCTION. 

men in all ages. But as these colonies^ whether Gauls, 
Teutons, Greeks, Phcenicians, Romans, Norwegians, 
Saxons, Danes, Normans, &c., or whatever other people 
settled and governed here for a while, after leaving 
behind them a few marks of their languages and cus- 
toms, they were swallowed up in the great body of the 
nation, which were always infinitely predominant in 
number to that handful of armed men that conquered 
them. Thus the river Thames takes in a vast number 
of brooks, and yet is called the Thames. Thus, for 
instance, the Romans, who governed in Britain for above 
400 years, have left but very few tracks of their lan- 
guage behind them, which shows the ancient natives 
to be the body of the people to this day. Nobody can 
be so duU as to imagine when the Britains, on the 
decline of the Roman empire, threw off the Roman 
yoke, that they turned out or destroyed all the Roman 
people then in the island. It was never done by any 
nation in the like case ; and it is certain that many 
hundred Roman families who had incorporated them- 
selves with the Britains, and went by the name of 
Roman Britains, remain in Lloegr (now that part of 
Britain called England), and their posterity are there to 
this day mixed with the Saxons and Britains, as well as 
some of their language, which must, of course, stick to 
them and their neighbours. 

North Britain and Wales and Cornwall were less 
mixed with Romans ; and Ireland and the small islands 
very little, but stUl a little. For, as the ingenious 
Sir Thos. Brown observes, the Romans holding a stand- 
ing militia in aU countries, as in Britain, Egypt, Arme- 
nia, Spain, niyria, &c., had mixed the languages of all 
nations. 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

The country now csalled England having been above 
400 years in the hands of the Romans, the inhabitants 
of that country must needs have been after this a 
mixture of Britains and Romans, who called themselves 
civilised Britains, and their neighbours barbarians. 
Britain and its islands was then and before an empire 
of free princes, and the Romans either were not able to 
conquer them all, or else in policy left some of them to 
their ancient customs, to be a curb one to another* 
There was once a prince in Dyfhaint (Cornwall and 
Devon) that wore a coronet or diadem, another in Gwent 
(Monmouthshire), another in Dyved (Pembrokeshire), 
another in Powys, another in Gwynedd (North Wales), 
others in North Britain and the islands. But the chief 
King, that wore the crown of gold, and was supreme 
over the rest in the time of the Britains and Romans, 
was the King oiLloegr (England); and his title, in the 
British tongue, was Brenh^n, q. d. Y Breiniol hynaf ; 
literally in English, the privileged elder. It is now 
wrote Brenhin, and signifies king or supreme ruler, as 
it did then, and the poet knew its etymology : 

Ceinllun teccaf Brenhin hynaf j Brenliinedd. 

How idle then is the derivation of Brennus from hrenin 
in Camden, when this etymology gives such a plain 
account of it. The Romans under the Emperors Con- 
stantino, Maximus, &c., having drained that part of 
Britain called Lloegr of its warriors and youth, that fine 
country, destitute of men in arms, fell a prey to the 
neighbouring princes. ^ 

The Northern Britains, among whom were the Picts 
incorporated (people always in arms against the Roman 
province here), clapped their paws on the country now 



X ' INTRODUCTION. 

called North of England, then called Deifr a Brynaich, 
and by the Romans, Deira and Bemicia. Gwrtheym, 
the Prince of Gwent in Wales, having some claim by 
blood to the crown of Lloegr, as descended from Eudaf, 
father of Helen, the wife of Maximus, thought it a 
proper time to dethrone an Armorican family married 
into a Broman, who had got the Loegrian dominion on 
the death of Gratian Municeps, which he compassed by 
the then usual arts in those cases, and wore the crown. 

The Pictish Northern Britains had also a claim to 
the crown, as descending from Maxen Wledig, the late 
Emperor. Any kind of claim served where there was 
a superior force, and when the Loegrian kingdom as 
well as all other Roman provinces was like a shipwreck. 
Gwrtheym, in this strait, had nothing to do but to hire 
the Saxon pirates, who had been long a plague to the 
Eomaa Britains, and who were weU enough a^uainted 
with the coast, to defend him in his empire, and to 
quell the Northern Britains, and to keep off the Armo- 
ricans and Cornwall men. Had not this Welshman as 
great a right to keep the crown of London, if he could, 
as the Armoricans and other Britains had to claim it ? 
It was a Roman country in effect, and had been long 
so, for which they quarrelled, and everybody that was 
able did then cut slices out of the Roman's loaf. 

Gildas, who gives some account of the misery of the 
Britains. at this time, speaks feelingly and favourably 
of the Roman power, which shows what party he was 
of; and this gives a reason for his bitterness against 
the other princes of Britain then reigning. And it is 
impossible to see the drift of that author without being 
acquainted with these different interests as laid down 
here, and the different powers then in Britain. 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

The Saxons, with whom joined all the people of the 
North, Jutes, Angles, Frisians, Danes, Norwegians, etc., 
being then masters of the sea, poured in so fast when 
they once got a footing in the island, that they grew too 
hard for the Loegrian Britains under Gwrtheym ; and 
when they once got a footing, settled themselves on the 
sea-coast of Kent, Stissex, etc., under their different 
princes ; and by degrees got to be masters of all that 
fine country which had been in the hands of the Komans, 
but which is now called England, — ^a name given it by 
Egbert, one of their princes, who about 400 years after 
their first settling in Britain conquered all the rest 
of these his feUow invaders, and brought them under 
one head. 

Now to come to the point which occasioned me to 
premise this account of the Saxon conquest. Can it be 
even supposed that the Saxons got this country with- 
out fighting ? No. Who fought them on their first 
coming on the spot ? Who but an army of soldiers, like 
themselves, raised among the Loegrian Britains ? who 
were afterwards dispersed, and went to seek for shelter 
to the neighbouring princes of Cornwall, of Cymry, and 
of Prydyn, which last was the name then given by the 
Britains to North Britain (now Scotland). 

The helpless inhabitants of Loegria, that manured the 
land, and followed manufactures of all kinds, and whole 
cities of men yielded their necks to the conqueror s 
yoke ; and this is owned by Gildas. But this was to 
those people only a change of masters, and (except their 
religion) perhaps for the better ; for their late Roman 
masters had left behind them all their vices of oppres- 
sion and pride, so that the British rulers deserved what 
befel them. 



XU INTRODUCTION. 

Without doubt, the Saxons, to settle themselves, de- 
stroyed all the British places of Christian worship wher- 
ever they came, being then infidels; and in their room, 
in eveiy city, put priests of their own religion, as was 
natural to them ; and this brought that glut of clergy 
into Wales in that age, who were founders of vast 
numbers of Welsh churches, and who also set up schools 
of literature, in the nature of colleges, in divers places, 
and by that means kept learning and the Christian 
religion in its purity in Wales and Ireland when quite 
drove out of England, 

It is plain that the Saxons were obliged to keep up 
the same conquering army on foot for the first age after 
their conquest, composed of their own people from the 
Continent; and they had no time to spare from fighting, 
either to till the ground or to carry on manufactures, 
for the islanders from the north, south, and west, under 
their brave princes, Emrys, Uthur, Arthur, Maelgwn 
Gwynedd, etc., kept them in constant action notwith- 
standing all the vast supplies they had from tiie Conti- 
nent. But as the Saxons had not the sense to agree 
among themselves to put themselves under one general 
head, they by their private quarrels prolonged the war 
with the natives of Cornwall, Cambria, and North 
Britain, who held out to dispute their title, and to fight 
them for some hundreds of years. The Britains running 
into the same madness with the Saxons, of falling out 
among themselves, made them incapable of making a 
proper head against their enemies, and at last could 
barely keep their own, being overpowered by numbers. 
In the first age (as I said before) there were but few 
Saxons here that were not warriors, and in constant 
employ. The rest of the inhabitants of Loegria were 



INTRODUCTIOlf. XIU 

Roman Britains, who remained in the land with the 
Saxons' consent as their subjects, and some of them pro- 
bably had the liberty of exercising their own religion ; 
so that in the next age it became the interest of the 
Roman Britains under the subjection of the new con- 
querors to fight for their country, and so keep off the 
barbarous Britains, as they called them, from invading 
their possessions ; which had been their game for many 
ages before, and indeed since the Eoman conquest of 
Britain. 

Doth it not plainly appear then that the main body 
of the people of the country now called England are 
chiefly of Roman and British extraction, but mixed 
..ith Saxons; and that the reason of their falUng in with 
the Saxons in their language, and losing their own, was 
their being a mixture originally of the Belgse and some 
other Northern Teutons (witness Tacitus) as well as of 
Romans and Celtae, and were the more ready to receive 
a language nearly allied to their own dialect as the 
Loegrian British dialect waa, which I shall prove by 
and by 1 



CHAP. m. 

Of the different dialects of the Celtic toncub in Britain and 
its islands at first ; and of the mixture of the people after 
their disputes subsided, on the saxon conquest. 

The clergy of Lloegr, on the Saxon conquest, and 
some of the laity that ran over to Wales, finding the 
British tongue purer and better kept there than in the 
Loegrian province, fell in with the dialect of that 
country, and recovered their ancient language. But 
those of them that ran over to Armorica for shelter 
from the Saxon fury, found there, among their own 

c 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

countrymen, the Loegrian dialect in its full perfection ; 
and so it hath to this day the very marks of the Roman 
language deeply grafted in it. For, from Lloegr, the 
Roman province in Britain, they had gone over there 
with their countryman Constantine, the son of Elen and 
Macsen Wledig (Maximus), and they have retained the 
Loegrian dialect to this day, plainly distinguishable from 
the dialects of the Cambro-Hntains and the Pictish 
Bri tains, but better agreeing with the Cornish dialect. 

Every prince in Britain had some marks of dialect to 
distinguish his people by their tongues from his neigh- 
bours, though all spoke the same language in the main. 
And even to this day the people of North Wales, on the 
north side of the river Dyvi, may be known by their 
dialect from the people of South Wales, on the other side 
of the river ; though the reason of keeping up that dis- 
tinction has ceased these 500 years ago ; and so the 
people of Gwent differ from them, and from the people 
of Dy ved. And this certainly accounts for the different 
dialects in the English tongue in different parts of the 
island to this day, owing to the ancient Saxon Heptarchy, 
where they kept the same distinction. 

After a struggle of about 400 years between the 
Saxons and Britains, and sometimes between Saxons 
and Britains against Saxons, and sometimes of Saxons 
alone against Saxons, and very often of Britains against 
Britains, Egbert, the valiant king of the West Saxons, 
about the year 829, brought all the Saxon Heptarchy 
under one head, but they did not hold it long thus, 
for about a hundred years afterwards, the people of the 
country called then DanemarJc, being masters of the 
sea, and being descendants of the ancient Cimbrians 
of the Cimbrick Chersonese, who had sent a colony of 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

Picts formerly to North Britain, and having also a claim 
to dominion in Britain, as their kings were descended 
from Cyr^farch, a prince of North Britain about the 
time of the Saxon Conquest; and seeing that the 
Saxons had no greater right to the country than any 
other neighbour that could win it and keep it, they 
plundered the coast of Britain and Ireland, and the 
isles, for many years, and at last, under Canute, their 
king, got possession of the crown of London. But 
during the Danish dominion here, which was not thirty 
years, the body of the people remained without any 
great alteration in their language or customs, there 
being a great aflSnity between the languages of all those 
northern people, the Danes, Saxons, and all the branches 
of the Teutonic or German race. (Insert Canute's Grant, 
etc.) 

The Saxons again recovering the dominion, the 
Normans were the next people that, about a hundred 
years after the Danish conquest, got the dominion here 
over the English, and in eflfect demolished all the 
English nobility through the whole kingdom, setting 
up Norman noblemen in their room. But the main 
body of the people through all Britain still remained 
almost the same ; in England a mixture of ancient 
Britains, Romans, Saxons, Danes, and Normans ; in 
Wales Cambro-Britains and some Irish (who settled 
among them at the time of the general fusion on the 
Saxons' first coming, as did also some North Britains) 
and a few Normans ; in North Britain ancient Britains 
mixed with Picts and some Irisy (called first by way 
of derision, Scots), who settled themselves on the 

^ That tbere we are to look ont for the genuine remains of the 
Saxon tongne, and not in England. 



XVI lin'RODUCTlON. 

western skirts against Ireland on the same general con- 
fusion on the Saxons' first coming, with some Saxons in 
what we call now the Lowlands (part of the kingdom of 
Northumbria), where they in vast multitudes retired on 
the coming of these Norman masters. In Cornwall there 
remained then some ancient Britains subject to the 
crown of London, who yet kept their language till of 
late years, and some of them can still speak it. 

All the people of the north on the Continent were, 
in very early times, called by the Britains by a Teutonic 
word Normyn, and their country Normandir — i.e., the 
Northmen's lands, from which the word Normandy was 
formed after their settlement in Gaul, by melting 
the r. 

These Normans, afterwards inhabitants of Normandy, 
in France, and subjects to the Duke of Normandy, 
who held under the crown of France since their first 
Duke, Rollo, a.d. 912, came to England, as aforesaid, 
with a claim to the crown of London, which cannot be 
properly called a conquest of the EnglisL The Norman 
language was a mixture of French and ancient Gaulish, 
for the Franks, a German people about the river Rhine, 
on the conquest of that coimtry of Normandy, so called 
from their being Northmen, about the same time that 
the Saxons settled in Britain, mixed with the old 
Gauls — which mixture of language was brought here 
by the Normans and grafted on the Saxon. But still 
the Saxon language as to the main body of it kept its 
ground here, especially in the Lowlands of Scotland. 
And, as it is observed by a very learned Englishman, 
** From the French (meaning the Normans) we have 
borrowed many substantives and adjectives, and some 
verbs ; but the great body of numerals, auxiliary verbs, 



INTRODUCTION. XVU 

articles^ pronouns, adverbs, conjunctions, and preposi- 
tions, which are the distinguishing and lasting parts of 
a language, remain with us from the Saxon/' (Sir Tho. 
Brown's Hydriotaphia, c. 2.) Therefore the English 
borrowed with the French a mixture of the ancient 
Gaulish ; and he might have added, if he had thought 
of it, that a great deal of the body of the language of 
the English was had from the Loegrian Britains, the 
native people that remained in the land on the Saxon 
conquest. And by that means abundance of words, 
agreeing with the Welsh and Latin, are now found in 
the English tongue, which were naturally incorporated 
into the Saxon language on the Saxon conquest of 
Loegria, and not borrowed from the Welsh or Latin 
since. 

Doth not everybody see, when he hath read thus far, 
that all the inhabitants of Britain and its islands are 
only a mixture of CeltaB, Teutons, and Romans, and 
also of Greeks, if our ancient traditions don't mistake ? 

That the CeltsB and Teutons mixed here in very early 
times is plain, from Tacitus, if we had no other autho- 
rity, for the Belgic Gauls were originally Germans. 
But the Triades also says it. 



CHAP. IV. 

That the wblsh or ancient British tonque is the chief remains 
of the celtic tongue, proved from a comparison between it 
and the other branches of the celtic, viz., the armoric, the 
irish, the cornish, and the ersh in the hiqhlands of scotland. 

I SHALL not engage here in the dispute whether Ireland 
received a colony from Spain near its first plantation, 
though I believe something of that kind has happened. 



XVIU INTRODUCTION. 

which hath made the Irish tongue diflfer vastly from 
the British. 

As Ireland must have been, as is most probable and 
natural, originally peopled from North Britain, and 
Britain from Gaul, the Irish and British tongues 
would have agreed, excepting a variation of dialect, if 
some strange powerful colony, which was neither Teu- 
tonic nor Celtic, had not mixed with the Irish, and 
which we find hath altered it surprisingly, and much 
more than I expected till I tried. 

I find in the Irish Dictionary, on a transient ohservation 
of words which agree with the Welsh, and which the 
Armoricans have not - - - - 815 

Of Irish words which agree with the Armoric and Welsh 489 

In all 1304 

These 1,304 words are, without doubt, the remains of 
the ancient Celtic in the Irish, but all the rest of the 
language is something dse, that has no affinity with the 
Celtic, or very little with any of the modern languages 
of Europe. 

Some few words of the Teutonic got into it, I suppose, 
by their intercourse with the Fion and Duhh Lochlon- 
aich — i.e., the white and black Lochlin men, some of 
the German nations from the coast of the Baltic, who 
found it their profit to join the Irish, and sometimes 
the Picts against the Roman Provincial Britains. These 
people the insular Britains in their own language 
called Llychlynwyr — i.e., men of the sea lake, Llychlyn 
being the name of the Baltic Sea in the old Celtic, fi-om 
llwch, the sea, and llyriy a lake. 

But if it should be insisted on, that the whole body 
of the Irish language is the ancient original Celtic 
tongue kept in Ireland in its purity, and that they re- 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

ceived no colony from Spain or elsewhere since they 
were at first planted there from Britain, but that the 
people of Great Britain have since received many 
colonies of Teutons, Greeks, and Phoenicians among 
them, and so formed a new language, much different 
from the Irish or old Celtic, which carries with it a 
great probability, it would be dijBficult to prove the 
contrary ; for we have so few words of the ancient 
Gaulish tongue remaining, retained by Roman authors, 
that we cannot determine whether they agree best with 
the Irish or the British, 

Yet this is plain, that the present Cambro-British 
agrees far better with the Armoric British (which was 
the Loegrian dialect) than it doth with the Irish. For 
by comparing these languages, I find that the Welsh 
and the Armoric languages agree in about 1,300 words, 
which are not to be found in the Irish ; and if ever 
they were there, what should have become of them, 
unless they have been thrust out by the language of 
some new colony ? 

But what makes strong for the British, to prove 
it the ancient and original language of the Celtse, is 

That it agrees with the Irish in words which the Armo- 
ries have not, as I said before - - - 815 
In words which the Irish and Armories have - 489 
With Armoric words which the Irish have not - 1299 



In all 2603 

These 2,603 words may be fairly called Celtic, which 
makes it probable that the British tongue is the prin- 
cipal branch and chief remains of the ancient Celtic 
tongue, and that the Irish, the Ersh, and Armoric have 
issued from the British. 

What is to be inferred from this comparison of these 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

languages, but that the Irish have retained in their 
language about 1,300 words of the ancient Celtic tongue, 
the language of their first planters, and that the rest 
of it is made up of some other strange language, or at 
least, strange to me ? That the Armoric and British 
agree in 1,788 words, and that the rest of the Armoric 
is a mixture of the Roman and Teutonic : some it had 
borrowed from the Romans and Belgae when it was the 
Loegrian dialect in the Isle of Britain, and some since 
from the Romans on the Continent and the Franks* 

That the present Cambro-British or Welsh language 
is for the most part the ancient Celtic tongue, once 
spoke by the Gauls and Britains, w4th a little mixture 
in it of the Latin brought into it by an intercourse with 
the Romans, and by the teachers of the Christian reli- 
gion since, but that those Latin words are for the most 
part distinguishable from the Celtic 

That there is also a small mixture in it of the Eng- 
lish tongue, terms of arts and new inventions, and a 
few verbs which have crept into it among the common 
people of late years, and not into books, but are as dis- 
tinguishable in it, and will ever be, as oil and water in 
the same vessel, which will never incorporate. But 
this mixture [which] is chiefly verbs having no verbal 
nouns or participles belonging to them shows they are 
foreign words, and it is against the rules of the poets to 
receive them into their writings. 

That there is also a few Greek words in the British, 
which might creep in with a Trojan colony which is said 
to have come here very early ; the Trojan language being 
supposed to be either Greek or a dialect thereof, unless 
such words which are like the Greek be really Celtic, 
and according to Pezron's opinion were borrowed by 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

the Greeks from the Celtae when under the name of 
Titans, who gave the Greeks their religion and learn- 
ing ; as were also, according to him, most of the words 
that appear in the Celtic like the Latin, borrowed from 
the same people. 

Let these things be as they may, the British tongue, 
as things stand here, has a better claim to explain 
ancient Celtic names in Gaul and Britain than any 
other language hath, especially taking to its assistance 
the Irish, Ersh, Armoric, and Cornish, the other branches 
of the Celtic; for each of them have retained some 
Celtic words which the British hath lost, or are grown 
obsolete in it, or preserved only in compounds. See 
D. Malcolme's Scheme of Explaining Hebrew Words 
by the Ersh. 



CHAP. V. 



Of the TTTLB of this treatise, and why it is called CELTIC REMAINS, 
AND HOW IT HATH A REGARD TO THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF BRITAIN 
AND ITS ISLANDS. 

It may not be improper to give some readers who are 
not used to the study of ancient history a reason for 
the title of this book. Such readers are to know then 
that in the first confusion of languages (for the event 
shows that such a confusion hath happened, if Holy 
Scripture had not told us) some of the most powerful 
tribes or families had more followers than others, and 
numbers produced power ; among whom were the 
children of Noah's eldest son Japhet, who kept together 
in greater numbers than others who disagreed in inte- 
rest. But most of these tribes, following their own 
inclinations, and looking only for the readiest road to 

d 



XXU INTRODUCTION. 

power, forgetting or neglecting the manner of worship- 
ping the true God delivered to them by their father, 
contrived such manner of worship as best suited their 
policy of government; and to encourage a military 
spirit they fell to the art of deifying their princes. 

Among about seventy-two parties, as it is said, of the 
people at the (Confusion, each had their particular lan- 
guage. Gomer, eldest son of Japhet, is said to be one 
who was chief of a party in which were many followers ; 
and it is probable that he and hia wise men, either out 
of religion or pohcy, fixed on the Sun as the principal 
seat or house of the supreme God, and therefore called 
it in their language Titan, i.e., the House of Fire ; and 
this is the meaning of the word Tytan to this day 
among their descendants, the insular Britons and Armo- 
ricans ; for ty with both these nations is a house, and 
tan, fire ; and what strengthens this argument is that 
the Irish Tiotan was the ancient word for the sun. 
The Greeks and Romans, who afterwards adored the 
sun as a god, called him Titan, but were quite ignorant 
of the meaning of the word, having borrowed this god 
from the Celtae. This might be the reason that these 
descendants of Gomer were afterwards called by the 
name of Titanes. Others think from Tut, the earth. 
Others from Titan, eldest brother of Saturn. Under 
this name they performed some great actions in war, 
which are so involved in Grecian fables that we can 
only guess at them. They had princes called Saturn, 
Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, etc., whose names can be 
accounted for in the British tongue, and in no other 
language so well. 

Mr.Pezron, Abbot of Charmoye in France, has traced 
these people from Babel to Britain, under the several 



INTRODUCTION. XXUl 

names of SacsB, Titans, Comerians, Gomerians, Cim- 
brians, Cimmerians, Galatse, Celts©, and Gauls; and 
several branches that sprung partly out of them, as 
Parthians, Persians, etc. 

If there was no authority of ancient writers for this, 
the very names of the people, their language, names of 
their cities, mountains, and rivers, prove all this. But 
there are authors in abundance that prove it besides. 
See Pezron's Antiquities of Nations^ translated into Eng- 
lish from the French by David Jones, 17[06]. Under 
the name of CeltaB they performed very great things, and 
had an empire of vast extent, as Mr. Pezron hath shown. 

These Celtse, and another people called Teutons (the 
ancestors of the Germans), were pretty much mixed 
afterwards, and were the most powerful nations in 
Europe. These Celtse were the people who first brought 
the Greeks (another ancient nation) under subjection, 
and gave them their gods out of their own princes, and 
al8o their learning and manner of worship. And from 
these Celtse the ancestors of the Romans, the Sabines, 
and Umbrians, that inhabited Italy, had also their reli- 
gion and a good deal of their language, as plainly 
appears to any one that can compare the several Celtic 
dialects, viz., the Irish, Ersh, British, Cornish, and 
Armoric, with the Latin and Greek. Pezron has found 
about 1,200 words of the Celtic in the Roman language, 
and about 800 Celtic words in the Greek, though he 
tmderstood but one branch of the Celtic, which was his 
native language, the Armoric. 

When these Gomerians settled in the western parts 
of Europe, from the Alps to Britain, they called them- 
selves Ceiltiaid or Ceiliaid (Celtse), which in their lan- 
guage signifies herdsmen, because they were great 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

rovers and were rich in cattle, grazing from place to 
place ; and afterwards Galluaid (Gauls), which signifies 
in the Celtic tongue men of strength, power, etc. So 
this day Gallta and Gall, in the Irish, signify a Gaul 
or a Frenchman, and gallu in Welsh is strength or 
power. But the name of Celtse seems to be the most 
general and best known at present among writers, and 
is also very ancient, and comprehends Britains as well 
as Gauls, and all the other descendants of Gomer. 

From these great people, the Celtse, came the inha- 
bitants of Britain and its adjoining islands, Ireland, the 
Hebrides, Orcades, etc. And the chief view of the 
following collection is to trace and mark out these 
Bemains which are to be found existing of the names, 
language, posterity, and country, of these people as the 
real ancestors of the body of the people of Britain, Ire- 
land, and Gaul, and to explain their history, and to 
clear it from the cavils of the ignorant and the designs 
of the enemies of the Celtic name. How well this is 
done will appear by the sequel. 



CHAP. VI. 

That the present age is the only time that this treatise could 

BE collected and PUBLISHED, AND THE REASONS WHY, AND OP THE 
materials requisite to write the ancient history OF ANY 
NATION. 

As the studies of the antiquities of Britain is in the 
present age come to be the general taste among us, and 
as prejudice of education and national distinctions seem 
to be entirely laid aside, and that all the inhabitants of 
Great Britain and its islands, English, Welsh, Scotch, 
and Irish, look upon themselves as one mixed nation 



INTRODUCTION, XXV 

under the protection of the same wholesome laws and 
government, and may live where they please in any 
part of his Majesty's dominions, and that the old inve- 
teracy is quite banished and forgot, the causes of dis- 
putes and war having ceased, this nation may not be 
unwilling to accept from the hands of one of its own 
natives the following collection, which has cost him 
great labour and time. Having had uncommon oppor- 
tunities, which few other men living have had, to see 
and study ancient British MSS. and the matters herein 
contained, so that, to use Mr. Selden's words, there is 
no man in the kingdom but what will find many things 
in this treatise that h'e knew not before, and which 
will please. 

Mr. Ed. Llwyd, author of the ArchcBologia Britan- 
nica^ intended his second volume to be on this model, 
and he had better opportunities to collect materials 
than anybody before him ever had. But his collection, 
if he had made any great progress in it, are upon his 
death fallen into hands that make no use of them. 

Mr. E. Llwyd was under another disadvantage when 
he first appeared in the world. Mr. Camden had gained 
that credit among antiquaries that it was as dangerous 
to contradict him as it was formerly to oppose Aristotle 
in the schools, which occasioned Mr. Llwyd to stifle 
many things which otherwise he would have said, as 
appears by his Welsh Preface to his ArchcBologia. But 
in our age, when no particular author is set up for an 
idol, and when infallibility is quite banished, and Truth, 
though in ever so mean a dress, is listened to, being 
the only thing searched for, every man dare deliver his 
opinion, and it is left to the public to be the judges. 

I very well know that this Essay is far from being 



XXVI INTRODUCTION^ 

perfect and methodical ; but imperfect as it is, it may 
open our countrymen's eyes, and set some of them on 
to finish what I have begun. Though I could very ill 
aflFord time to go thus far, yet my love to my country 
hath outweighed all diflElculties, and I thought it better 
to have this imperfect draught to begin with than none 
at all. I should have thought I had met a great 
treasure if I had met with such a help as this. 

The first attempt of any subject ever yet published 
hath been lame and imperfect. Time only can bring 
things of this kind to perfection, if there is such a 
thing as perfection in the works of men. When an 
author sets about writing the history of a nation, he 
first makes himself master of the language or languages 
of those people whose history he writes. It would look 
odd that a man should pretend to write the history of 
my life and actions that is so great a stranger to my 
language that he cannot write my name or the name 
of my house or country. AU nations have some kind 
of historians of their own that have wrote in their own 
tongue of their original, and of the exploits of their 
ancestors ; and some men in every warUke nation have 
performed glorious actions worthy of being recorded. 
Let a people be ever so rude and unpolished, fortitude 
of mind, valour, prudence, and good sense, have been 
virtues common in every enterprising nation. The 
Celtse own this in their proverb, 

Yjuhob gwlad y megir glew. 

In all nations that had the use of letters, great actions 
have had great writers in verse or prose to record those 
actions. One follows the other naturally, as a shadow 
does the substance. The descendants of these valiant 



INTRODUCTION. XXVU 

nations, out of a pride inherent in mankind, t^ake a 
pleasure, from age to age, to read over and repeat their 
ancestors' feats in war, in council, in letters, etc. ; and 
so these accoimts are handed from father to son while 
the nation hath a being or a name on earth. 

It would be impossible to impose on any ancient 
nation who hath such traditions a set of new names 
instead of their own ancestors, or to coin for those 
places where they performed those actions new names 
unknown to the natives, though a Plutarch, a Livy, a 
Tacitus, or Caesar, or the greatest writer and the 
greatest emperor on earth, was to attempt to impose 
them. The body of a nation is a vast, unwieldy, and 
untameable body, not to be thoroughly bribed or cor- 
rupted or frightened, though some limbs may. So also 
it is in regard to the imposing a language on a nation. 
The Komans were never able to impose the Roman 
language on any one nation in the world when they 
were master of a great part of the earth. In Britain, 
the natives paid so little regard to the Latin tongue, 
though they were under the Roman government for 
above 400 years, that there is but very obscure tracks 
of it to be found in either the Welsh, Irish, Ersh, or 
even in the Axmorican-British, which was the Loegrian 
dialect, and immediately under their hands. 

Everybody the least versed in the history of the 
Britains and in the Celtic tongue knows that the 
Roman writers were entirely ignorant of the Celtic 
tongue, and prided themselves in being so ; for in their 
proud opinions it was a barbarous language, because 
they were masters, as they reckoned, of the languages 
of all the nations about them who felt the weight of 
their blows ; and so were they once reckoned by the 



XXviii INTRODUCTION. 

Greeks, though it appears by their own writers, especi- 
ally Pliny, that the Gauls were not only equal to the 
Romans in arts and sciences, but far superior to them, 
as well as in anns ; Julius Caesar and M. T. Cicero, the 
greatest men Rome ever saw, having had their educa- 
tion under Antonius Gnipho, a Gaul. The taking of 
Rome by the Gauls under Brennus, and of Greece and 
Macedon under Belgius, shews they were then superior 
in arms. The panic the Romans were always under 
when the Gauls made any excursions upon them, when 
even their prieste were not exempt from bearing arms 
upon an invasion of the Gauls, though they were ex- 
empt at all other times, shews the greatness of the 
Celtic empire and the valour of the Gauls. 

The cause of the conquest of the Gauls is plainly 
owing to their ill-founded constitution, for being divided 
into abundance of petty kingdoms and governments, 
they fell out among themselves, and gave room to the 
ambitious Romans to get footing among them ; which 
was also the case of Britain, a branch of them, when 
Julius Csesar first attempted it. 

I have shewed in Chap. II, etc., that for many ages 
past Bi'itain and its islands hath been peopled by a 
mixture of the CeltsB and Teutons. Even in Caesar's 
time some colonies from the Belgic Gauls, who were 
Teutons, had settled here, as the British history and 
the Triads also hint. The Welsh, Cornish, High- 
land Scotch, and Irish, are of the ancient Celtic race. 
Their language shews it. The English are of the Teu- 
tonic race in the main, as their language also shews it, 
laying aside all other evidences. It is plain, then, 
that he that would propose to write of the remote anti- 
quities of the English nation^ for example, should be 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

thoroughly acquainted with the Teutonic language, 
which was anciently spoke in Germany and all Tuytch- 
land. All the languages of the countries north of Gaul 
are branches of it. 

If the Teutons, or any branch of them, have ancient 
MSS., coins, or inscriptions, of a thousand or two thou- 
sand years' standing, those should be studied and 
understood. If they have not such MSS., etc., Roman 
or Greek authors, or the British or other nations, who 
have wrote of them, should be looked into ; but with 
this caution, that no foreign writer whatsoever can be 
depended on to give the true names of men and places 
in another nation. Every language has its particular 
way of expression, and places are called by strangers by 
different names from what the natives of a country call 
them. To this must be added all that can be gathered 
from oral traditions, and the body of the Janguage, and 
the names of men and places in the ancient Teutonic 
dominions ; and particularly their proverbs should be 
looked into, which every nation in the world have 
endeavoured to excel one another in, and where a 
nation s temper and wisdom, and in some measure their 
history, may be as well read as an individual's temper 
may be read in his works. 

With these helps and a great share of patience, in- 
dustry, and honesty, and a knowledge in the history of 
neighbouring nations, a man might sit down and write 
the history of the Teutons and their descendants, the 
English, as to what regards their ancient settlements, 
customs, and wars ; for beyond anything yet wrote of 
them, we know what Verstegan has done with only 
some of these helps. To attempt the ancient history of 
the Teutons without these qualifications and materials 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

is to attempt to make bricks without clay or straw. 
How, then could it be expected of a Milton, of a Selden, 
or a Camden (though men of the greatest capacities and 
learning in other respects), to do anything to the pur- 
pose in the antiquities of the Celtic nations, the Gauls, 
Britains, and Irish, when they knew little, or, indeed, 
nothing in eflfect, of the Celtic tongue ? And yet, 
rather than that the world should think that they 
wanted anything to bring their labours to perfection 
(such is the pride of man), they have thrown a cloud 
over the things which they could not understand, and 
endeavoured to invalidate those ancient historians of 
the Britains which they knew nothing of. Camden 
hath, indeed, owned that the root of our British anti- 
quities must be looked out for in the British tongue, 
meaning the Welsh, — a language, says he, pure and 
unmixed since the first separation from the ancient 
CeltcB. Take notice of this. 

In the next chapters we wiU see what he hath done 
towards that search, and whether he was capable of 
undertaking it. 



CHAP. VII. 

An examination into MB. CAMDEN'S comparisons op some CELTIC 
WORDS WITH THE WELSH, WHICH WILL SHEW HOW FAR HIS KNOW- 
LEDGE ON THAT HEAD MAY BE DEPENDED ON, WHICH MAY BE A 
CAVEAT FOR OTHERS NOT TO LAUNCH TOO FAB INTO THOSE DISQUI- 
SITIONS TILL THEY ARE PROPERLY QUALIFIED. 

Mr. Camden published the first edition of his Britannia 
in the year 1586. This edition is the only one T have 
now before me ; and we are sure it is his own; though 
some of the following editions, translations, notes, and 
additions, may not be properly his, and therefore he 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

should not bear the blame of other people's errors. In 
this book we find him comparing the ancient Gaulish 
words found in Latin writers with the present Welsh, 
to prove that the people of Gaul and Britain spoke 
anciently the same language. But as Mr. Camden (as 
will appear by and by) had but a very little smattering 
in the British, and trusted to the knowledge of others, 
he hath made but a very lame piece of work of it ; as 
he has everywhere, through his whole book, where he 
attempts to give etymologies, or to compare this lan- 
guage with others. He should have been acquainted 
not only with the language, but with the ancient Celtic 
orthography in our old MSS. ; and to have been able 
to distinguish between it and the modern, which would 
have showed the similitude of words, which otherwise 
cannot be done. 

Mr. Camden, out of Ausonius, says that Divona sig- 
nifies the Fountain of the Gods, and that God is Dyw, 
and a fountain vonaUy in the British ; and so from 
hence the Latins made Divonan, and for verse sake, 
Divona. All this is wrong, and sad guess-worL Neither 
Dyw nor vonan are British words, either in the ancient 
or modern orthography. In the ancient orthography 
God was wrote Div, and in the modem, Duvk A well 
or fountain was in the ancient orthography wrote ^non, 
in the modem ffynhon. So Divjinon or Duw ffynhon 
might, for aught I know, in the Gaulish dialect, signify 
God's Well ; but it could not be in the British, — the 
language will not bear it. The expression would be 
ffynhon-dduw. We have at this day a well in Wales 
called Ffynhon Dduw (or God's Well) ; but Divonan 
hath no meaning in the British. 

On was, I am sure, a primitive Celtic word for water. 



XXXll INTRODUCTION, 

as appears by its compounds, — avori, a river ; ffynon, a 
spring ; tonn, a wave ; eigion, the ocean ; and perhaps 
Llivon, a river s name, q. d. Liuon, flood of water. And 
the very name of Anglesey [Mon) may be originally 
ym driy i.e., in the water. And the ancient names of 
rivers, Onwy, Conwy, Trydonwy, must be looked for 
here. What hinders, then, but that Divon in the 
Gaxilish might signify God's Water, without drawing 
the British by the hair of the head to serve a cause ? 



CHAP. VIII. 



Of the hesus of lucan and the heus of lactantius, one of 

THE gods of the GAULS. 

Mr. Camden says this god was painted under the form 
of a dog, and that Huath in the British signifies a dog. 
A Cambro-British reader would infer from hence that 
Mr. Camden knew more of the matter than others did, 
or else knew nothing at all of the matter ; for that in 
common use, or in dictionaries, or in ancient writings, 
Huath was never the word for a dog, and doth not in 
the British language signify anything. Huad (not 
huath), indeed, is a hound, but not a dog in general ; 
and in the Cornish dialect it would have been pro- 
nounced huaz, which is not far from Lactantius s Heus, 
but nothing like Mr. Camden's huath. 



CHAP. IX. 



Of the GAULISH WORD GESSATJl, WHICH POLTBIUS SATS WAS THE NAME 
GIVEN THE MEROENARir SOLDIERS IN THE GAULISH TONGUE. 

Mr. Camden says that Guessin in the British signified 
hired servants; but every hired servant in Wales 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIU 

knows that he waa mistaken, for gwas in the British 
and Armoric signifies a servant ; and giiessin, or, as 
the Welsh write it, gwesyn, is a diminutive of gwas^ as 
servvlus is of servus. But there was no occasion to 
look out for a diminutive when gwas would have done 
as well. 

The word Gessatw should rather be derived from 
cematt, in the modem orthography ceisiaid, men that 
we have been obliged to seek for, or a help sought for, 
auxiliaries, being not our own people, but hired. 



CHAP. X. 

Of THV GAULISH WORD GBSSI, WHICH SERYIUS SATS SIGNIFIED IN THI 

GAULISH "VIEI FOETES", VALLiNT HEN. 

Mr. Camdeit says that Gtiassdewr in the British sig- 
nifies fortis and strenuus, that is, valiant and active. 
This was right for aught Mr. Camden knew ; but he 
should not have meddled with the language if he had 
not known better. This gwas detvr, falsely wrote guass- 
dewr^ is two words ; and by the nature and texture of 
the language it cannot possibly be a compound, which 
would be dewr was ; and it would not serve the pur- 
pose, for it would lose the g. 

Gvxis is a servant, and dewr valiant ; but what 
hath a servant to do in this case ? To no purpose in 
the world but to make a similitude of sounds between 
Gessi and gwas. Thus it is when we walk in the dark 
we knock our heads against the walls. 

Dewr^ of the two words, is that which hath the sig- 
nification of valour or strength here ; and a gwas may 
be without any valour. But can anybody find any 
similitude between dewr and Oessi ? 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

So if Gessi in the Gaulish tongue had signified 
cowards, Mr. Camden could have made the British 
tongue to answer that too, by adding llwrf to it ; and 
by this new method of comparing languages, all the 
nations in the world may be proved to have spoke the 
same language in the time of the Romans. Chvas llwrf 
makes as good a show in a Latin book as gwass dewr. 

It will be objected that Mr. Camden's opinion was 
right according to my own confession, though his proofs 
were wrong. The answer is in everybody's mouth, — 
Falsehood cannot produce Truth. If it was asserted 
that Caesar transported his troops into Britain in cockle- 
shells, it would want a proof that he transported here 
any troops at all. But the word in Virgil, from whence 
it is taken, is GesuSy and not Gess^us, — 

Duo qaisqne Alpina corascant 



Gesa znana. 

And Gesa, says Servius in his notes on Virgil, is Has^ 
tates viriles; for the Gauls, says he, call strong men 
Gesos. So that the truth is, this gesa of VirgU signified 
the Gaulish youth, or young men, active in arms ; for 
gwas in the old Celtic signified a young man, as goas 
doth still in the Armoric ; and in that sense the word 
was used in Britain about 1200 years ago, as we find in 
the works of Lly warch Hen : 

Am gwymp h^n chwerddid gw6n gwas. 
(The yoang laughs at the fall of the old.) 

LI, Hen, Engl. Calanganaf. 

And it is used in that sense to this day in Wales, in 
some places, particularly in Cardiganshire. Dere 'ngwas 
(Come, my lad). 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

CHAP. XI. 

Of the GAULISH WORD PENNINUM IN CJISAB AND LIYT. 

Alpibus PenniniSy the highest top of- the Alps. Livy 
says it doth not come from Hannibal and his Phoenicians 
passing over it, but from the Gaulish word Penninum, 
signifying the highest tops of mountains. Mr. Camden 
says that the Britains call the tops of mountains pen, 
and proves it from their having the highest mountains 
in Wales called Pen-mon Maur, Pendle, and Pennigent, 
and that the name of the Appenine in Italy comes from 
no other original. This last assertion may be true, but 
it doth not follow so from these proofs, which are false. 

We have no moimtain in Wales called Penmon Maur. 
Then what is become of the argument ? But we have 
a mountain called Penmaen Mawr ; but far from being 
one of the highest mountains in Wales. And it was 
not called so because of its height ; for there is another 
little mountain near it, called Penmaen Bach; and their 
names signify Great Penmaen and Little Penmaen. 

There are other places of this name which are not 
high mountains, as Penmaen Bhos, Dol Benmaen, etc. 
Penmaen signifies the top of a stone or rock ; but Pen-* 
man is a place in Anglesey, where there is no high rock ; 
but is so called because it is the extreme end of Mon, 
or Anglesey, for pen signifies also the extreme end of a 
thing as well as the top or head. 

Pendle Mountain, mentioned by Mr. Camden, is not 
to be found in Wales under that name ; nor can I find 
what place he meant by Pennigent. 

But to pass over these wild guesses without founda- 
tion, we will examine about the meaning of the word pen. 

Pen^ properly in the Celtic, is a head, as pen dyn, 
man's head. 



XXXVl INTRODUCTION. 

Pen, applied to an office, is chief, as penswyddog is 
chief officer. 

Pen, applied to manufactured matter, signifies the 
extreme end of a thing, as dau henffon, the two ends of 
a stick. 

Pen, applied to time, signifies end or extreme, as 
pen y Jlwyddynj the year's end ; which Celtic phrases 
produced Nennius's caput anni, for the year s end, which 
shews Nennius was a Welshman. 

Pen, applied to a thing that stands erect, signifies 
end, as pen uchaf, pen isaf^ the uppermost end and the 
lowermost end. 

Pen, applied to land or high ground, signifies summit 
or top, as pen yr allt, the top of the hill ; pen y mynydd, 
the top of the mountain ; pen y graig, the top of a rock. 
And there are places of all these names. 

But Penninum, take off the Latin termination wm, is 
plainly Pennin ; and in the ancient Celtic orthography 
which hath been used by the Britains till of late years, 
the word Penwyn, which signifies white top or white 
head, was wrote Penvin. I will leave the rest to the 
reader's judgment to determine whether Penninum was 
not formed from Penwyn, Penvinum, 

There is no manner of doubt but the Apennine 
Mountains, which reach from the Alps through all Italy 
to its extreme end, were so called from the Gaulish 
word E Penvin, the white top mountain, which in the 
present British orthography would be Y Penwyn. We 
have a very high mountain in Wales whose name was 
fonned from words of the same signification, Be}^y7i, 
from bar, top, and gwyn, white ; and also several 
mountains which have pen in their names, as Penbre, 
Penllech, Peniarth, Pen v Darren, Penmaen, etc. 



IKTRODUCTION. XXXVU 



CHAP. XIL 

Of the GAULISH WORD BAGHAUDJE, WHICH WERE CERTAIN BANDS OF 

MEN, IN Diocletian's time, that strove in qaul against the 

ROMAN POWER. 

Mr. Camden saya that the Romans gave the name of 
Bacaudarum to some multitudes of rustics that raised 
against the Romans in Gaul in Diocletian's time ; and 
that Beichiad in the British is a swineherd. What 
occasion was there to turn these bands of soldiers into 
swineherds ? Would not shoemakers, tailors, or any 
other tradesmen that armies are composed of have done 
as well ? But we should have been told that these 
Bacaudse were also called Bagaudae and Bagodae. (See 
Prosper in Chron., and Salvianus, L. G.) And I must 
here inform the reader that Beichiad doth not, nor 
ever did, in the British or any branch of the Celtic, 
signify a swineherd. The word is meichiad in the 
British, as plainly derived from mock, swine, as the 
English word shepherd is from sheep. And in the 
Irish, muicidhe is a swineherd, from muCy swine ; as if 
we should say in Welsh mochyddy which shews how 
these Celtic dialects support one another. Meichiaidy 
by no declensions or flections of nouns, can ever be 
turned to Beichiaid, and was the word in use in Britain 
twelve hundred years ago, as appears by Lly warch Hen : 

Bid lawen meichiad wrth nchenaid gwynt. — Engl, y Bidiau, 

That is, let the swineherd rejoice at the sighs of the 
wind ; because on a hard gale of wind the acorns fall to 
feed his swine. 

But what similitude is there between meichiad and 
BagaudcB or Bagodw ? If Mr. Camden had been versed 

/ 



XXXVIU INTRODUCTION. 

in the different dialects of the Celtic retained to this 
day in Ireland, the Highlands, Armorica, and Wales, 
he would have seen that Bagach in Irish is war- 
like, that Bagat in the Armoric signifies a troop or 
crew, and that Bagad or Bagawd in the British signifies 
the same with the Latin turmcB, a troop or a company 
of horsemen. To shew its affinity with BacaudcB better, 
the word was wrote by the ancient Celtaa Bacavd. 
Who would ever look out for swineherds to prove this, 
and not be able to find them at last ? 



CHAP. XIII. 

Of the GAULISH WORD BRACCA. 

I SHALL not dwell long on Mr. Camden s comparison of 
hratt (a rag) in the British with bracccB, a kind of wear- 
ing apparel used by the Gauls and Britains, which 
Diod. Siculus [says] was of various colours; nor on 
Mr. Selden, in his Mare Clausum, making breeches of 
it. Who that ever saw a North British plad can help 
observing that braccis, hracca, or hrachaSy is the same 
with the British hrych-ivisg, in the old orthography 
brecvisc, which very name describes a Scotch plad ? 
For brechwisg signifies a party-coloured dress. Surely 
it cannot be from rags that the whole nation of the 
Gallia Brdccata had their name, but from wearing this 
plad. 

CHAP. XIV. 

Op the OAU^ilSH WORD BRANCE. 

Mr. Camden compares the Gaulish word Brance with 
what he calls a British word, guinenth vraiic. I am 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

sorry to see any man guilty of such an intolerable 
blunder. In the first place there are no such words in 
the British as guinenth wane. If he meant gweniih 
Ffrainc, it signifies French wheat, which is but a modem 
word. But this word hrance is mentioned so far back 
as the time of Pliny to be a Gaulish word for some kind 
of grain or bread-corn, barley, rye, or wheat ; therefore 
Ffranc had then no business with it, it being before 
the Ffranks had any footing in Gaul, and is quite out 
of the question. 

What, then, is the Gaulish word hrance f Bara in 
the British and Armoric signifies bread, from whence it 
may be more rationally derived than from a Frank or 
an Alman. 



CHAP. XV. 



Of THB GAULISH WORD GLISCO HERGA, WHICH THE ROMANS CALLED 
CANDIDA MERGA. THIS IS THAT KIND OF EARTH WITH WHICH WE 
MANDRB GROUND, BY THE ENGLISH AS WELL AS WELSH CALLED MARL. 

This white merga, Mr. Camden says, might be in 
British called gluys marl, for that ghcys in British sig- 
nifies splendid. Glwys^ and not gluys, is the word; but it 
never signifies splendid, nor can be applied in any sense 
as an adjective to marl. The meaning of it is holy, 
pure, fair. But if Mr. Camden had known that the 
ancient Britains, for glaswyn varl, i.e., bluish white 
marl, wrote glasgvin margl, he need not have strained 
glwys out of its own sense. Marl gwyn, or marl glas- 
wyn, is the word used in Wales for white marl to this 
day ; which, if turned into a compoimd (for which this 
language is as remarkable as the Greek), will make 
glasivyn varl. 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

CHAP. XVI. 

Of the GAULISH WORD GALEA. 

This word is found in Suetonius, and signified among 
the Gauls, very fat. Mr. Camden compares it with gall- 
uus, which he says is a British word signifying prcB- 
grandis, very great or large. But galluus never hath 
that signification in the British, but always signifies 
powerful, potent, valiant, or strong, as galach also doth 
in the Irish, and gallondus in the Armoric. How sur- 
prisingly these languages agree that have been so long 
separated 1 

Suppose Mr. Camden had it his own way; very great 
and large is not always very fat. A very little mouse 
may be very fat, and a very great and large elephant 
may be very lean. If Mr. Camden hath fallen into such 
traps, what will become of the little, piddling etymo- 
logists ? We have no word in any of the branches of 
the Celtic this day that sounds like Galha, signifying 
fat. So if it ever was, it is lost. 



CHAP. XVII. 

Of the GAULISH WORD CEBYI8IA. 

Cervisia, says Mr. Camden, the Gaulish word for 
ale or beer, agrees with the British keirch, i.e., oats, 
of which the Britains made drink in many places. 
We should have been told also that the word is also 
wrote cerevisia, and that Pliny attributes this liquor to 
the Gauls, and says they made it of barley. How comes 
it, then, to be derived from oats ? Let any man travel 
through Wales, and he will learn at every alehouse 
that ale made of barley-malt, which is the only ale they 



INTRODUCTION. xll 

sell there, is called cwrw^ and sometimes wrote cwrf or 
cwryfy and in the ancient orthography was cvriv. 
Would anybody then look out for keirch (oats) to com- 
pare with cerevisiaf The Britains know of no other 
name for this liquor, which was common to them and 
the Gauls, than cwt^^ currf, or cwryfy which the Gauls, 
* by a small variation of dialect, might call cyrvys ; and 
the word this day, in Wales, for cervisarius is cyrvydd. 

Pobjdd a chjrvydd a cbog. 

The poets, who were well acquainted with this liquor, 
knew how to name it. 

Cwrw a gei ts Crag lenan. — L. 0, Oothi, 

Griafonllwyn cwrf unlliw. — Outt6*r Qlyn. 

Eli calon carw da. — Prov, 
(Good ale is a salv^e to the heart.) 

If anybody is so obstinate as to say that the Britains 
borrowed their cwrw from the cerevisia of the B/omans, 
which the Bomans had formerly borrowed from the 
Gauls, they would do well to consider that the Gauls 
and Britains had this liquor in common; and the 
Britains had more occasion for it than the Gauls, as it 
supplied the place of wine ; therefore it is very extra- 
ordinary that the Britains should forget the name of 
their darling liquor, and borrow it of the Bomans, who 
had onlv borrowed it from the Gauls. 

I might add many more words which Mr. Camden 
hath misapplied, as Zana, bulga, planeraty zitham, Mo^ 
rini, etc. ; but this is sufficient to shew that a person 
not perfectly — nay, even critically — acquainted with a 
language ought not to meddle with its roots and ety- 
mologies ; and that we cannot expect a tolerable exact- 
ness in the Greeks' and Bomans' manner of writing our 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

names of men and places when men of very great 
learning, and who had opportunities of being better 
informed, could commit such slips as we see are here 
committed. Had not we, then, better study our own 
natural antiquities, the several branches of the Celtic 
tongue, and the remains left of the history of that 
nation, than trust to any foreign aid found to be so 
insuflftcient ? 



CHAP. xvin. 

Of the BRITISH AUTHORS QUOTED IN THE FOLLOWING COLLECTION. 

As there are British authors and treatises quoted in 
this book, some of which are very little, if at aD, known 
among English antiquaries, it will not be amiss to give 
some account of them, that every authority may have 
its proper weight, and neither more nor less than the 
weight it should have ; for we should not deceive, but 
instruct. I shall slightly touch on the most ancient of 
them, so as to direct the curious that hath a mind to 
make a further inquiry. 

1st. The most ancient British remains extant, or at 
least that hath come into my hands, is the British his- 
tory called Brut y Brenhinoeddy or the Traditions of the 
British Bards, of which we have several very ancient 
copies in Wales in the British tongue. It begins with 
the Trojan colony, and ends with the reign of Cadwal- 
adr, the last King of the Britains. It hath gone among 
the Britains under the name of Tyssilio, a Bishop, son 
of Brochvael Ysgithrog, Prince of Powys, who seems to 
me to be only the continuer of it from the Roman con- 
quest to his own time, about the year 620 ; and that it 
was afterwards continued to the time of Cadwaladr by 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

another hand, who quotes a particular copy of Bede's 
Ecclesiastical History^ which is not extant. 

This history of the Britons, about the year 1150, was 
mangled and translated into Latin by Galfrid, Arch- 
deacon of Monmouth, afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph ; 
and in that shape, in Latin, taking the name of the 
translator, it hath been mauled and abused by all the 
English almost that have wrote of the affairs of Britain 
since Camden's time, and by French and Dutch and 
everybody, though none of them ever saw the original 
author in the British tongue. This the Britains look 
upon to be very foul play, and such usage as was never 
offered to any other author in the world; for the ancient 
British copy differs greatly from Galfrid's translation 
both in names and facts. See more of this author in 
chap. . . . and in title Brut. 

2nd. The next is Myrddin Emrys, commonly Latin- 
ized Merlinus Ambrosius, who flourished about the year 
450. We have some of his works extant in the British 
tongue. See more of him in chap. ... and in the let- 
ter J/. 

3rd. The next is Lly warch, surnamed Hen, or Lly- 
warch the Old, a prince or nobleman of the borders of 
North Britain. He wrote of the wars of his own time, 
in which he was concerned, and in the war-verse called 
by the Britains Englyn milwr. He was one of King 
Arthur's generals, and of his council (as appears by the 
Triades), and lived to a very great age. He ended his 
days in Wales, after he had lost his country and family. 
We have extant, and I have now in my hands, several 
of his works. It seems he began to write about the 
year 520, and lived to the time of Cadwallon, which 
must be about 150 years, and his name implies it. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

4th. Gildas, the angry monk, a North Briton, is the 
next in time. He wrote in Latin about the year 560. 
What we have of him has been mangled by the 
monks. See chap. ... and under letter (?. 

5th. Myrddin Wyllt, Aneurin Wawdrydd, and 

6th. Taliessin. All flourished in the reign of Mael- 
gwn Gwynedd over the Britains about the year 570. 

Myrddin Wyllt was a Caledonian or Pictish Briton, 
of whose works we have several very curious pieces 
extant relating to the wars of that age. 

I have met with but few pieces of Aneurin Wawd- 
rydd. His Gododin, an heroic poem, is the most curious. 

But of Taliessin's works we have a great deal ; but 
I think more mangled than any of the rest, because 
oftener copied. His Beddau Milwyr Y7iys Prydaiuy or 
Tombs of the Warriors of Britain, is a noble piece of 
antiquity, and strikes a great light on the history of 
those times, when compared with the TriadeSy the Bruty 
and the succeeding writers. 

8th. The next thing of note which I have met with 
is the TriadeSy called in the British Trioedd Ynys 
Prydain. This little, curious treatise, or most of it, I 
take to have been wrote about the year 650, and some 
part of it collected out of the most ancient monuments 
of the kingdom ; but not from the same fountain with 
Brut y Brenhinoeddy as there are facts and matters in 
the TriadeSy before the Roman conquest, not to be 
found in the Brut ; and also several things after the 
Roman and Saxon conquests which the author of Brut 
y Brenhinoedd never would have omitted if he had met 
with them. 

As the battles of Cadwallon are mentioned in the 
TriadeSy and Cadwaladr also once mentioned, I suppose 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

it to have been finished about the year 680 or soon 
after, though it hath not been the good luck of Nen- 
nius, who wrote almost two hundred years afterwards, 
to have met with it 

9th. Soon after this was wrote Hanes y 24 Brenhyn^ 
the History of the twenty- four kings that were most 
famous for building cities, etc., the ancient Saxon names 
being added to the British names of the cities. Guttyn 
Owen, the poet, about the year 1480, hath left a copy 
of this in his own handwriting ; and, it seems, copied 
the very errors in his original, for he knew better than 
to commit those errors ; a copy of which I have, besides 
some other copies of it. As this differs from the account 
in Brut y Brenhyaoedd, it must have been taken from 
some other authority, for there has been no attempt 
made in any of the old copies of it that I have seen, to 
make it agree with the history of Tyssilio. Mr. Vaughan 
of Nannau has an old copy from Guttyn Owens MS., 
A.D. 1767. 

10th. Nennius, said to be Abbot of Bangor is y Coed, 
and (as he calls himself) disciple to Elbod, Bishop 
of North Wales, is the next in time. He wrote a his- 
tory of the Britains, in Latin, about the year 840 ; but 
all the copies we have of it in the public libraries, under 
the name of Nennius, Gildas Nennius, Gildas Minor, 
etc., are exceeding incorrect, owing to the ignorance of 
transcribers ; and most, if not all, the copies we have 
of it at Oxford, Cambridge, Cotton Library, etc., have 
been done by a North Briton, as appears by his writing 
mac for mab (son) in the genealogy of Gwrtheyrn ; 
unless we suppose that Samuel Beulanus, who wrote 
the genealogies, was a North Briton ; or that Gildas ap 
Caw, the North Briton, was the author ; for this mac 

9 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

is no more than a deviation of dialect from mah, and 
may be a Loegrian distinction. 

This history was published, with several others, by 
Dr. Gale at Oxford, a.d. 1691, but is very incorrect, 
and the notes and various readings tend more to con- 
found than instruct, Mr. Gale being entirely unac- 
quainted with the British language and writings. 

There is a curious copy of this author, which I have 
seen, in the handwriting of the great antiquary, Mr. 
Rob. Vaughan, in Hengwrt Library, compared with the 
MSS. in Oxford, Cambridge, Cotton Library, Mr. Sel- 
den's, Mr. Camden's, Sir Simon D'Ewes, Dr. Markham, 
Usher, etc., besides several other copies in other parts 
of Wales, as at Llannerch, Cors y Gedol, etc. 

Mr. Gale has left part of this author unpublished, 
because something of the same kind was in Eanulph 
Higden, an author that wrote about five hundred years 
after him. What shall we call this usage of our ancieat 
British author ? W ould Mr. Gale have been allowed 
to use Bede after this manner, without being lashed to 
pieces for cutting off the limbs of a venerable, ancient 
writer, as he is called ? Why then is the British Nen- 
nius to be mutilated and cut into piecemeal ? It is 
pity he is not taken care of by some able hand. 

Some think that this book of Nennius was begun by 
Gildas, author of the epistle De Excidio BritannicB^ 
about the year 560, and only continued by Nennius ; 
for it is quoted by the name of Gildas in Tyssilio, and 
by many of our English historians, and by Sir John 
Pryse and Humphrey Llwyd ; besides that in two 
MSS. in the Cotton Library it is to be seen wrote after 
the 61st chapter, " Here endeth the Acts of the Britains 
wrote by Gildas Sapiens." But Nennius, in his pre- 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

face, says it was his own collection from traditions, 
writings, and ancient British monuments, and also from 
foreign authors. 

It seems to me, then, that Gildas ap Caw, the author 
of the epistle, was not the author of this ; but the real 
author 8 first name was Gildas, and after he had taken 
his degree of abbot, took the name of Nennius, which 
was a common thing in those early times ; for we know 
Rhu7i ap Urien was named Paulinus by Pope Gregory 
upon his being made a missionary to the Saxons ; and 
that the true name of St. Patrick was Maenvryn, but 

was named Patricius by Pope upon his being 

made his legate to Ireland. So it is no improbable 
thing that Nennius was this man's ecclesiastical name 
only, and that the book is entitled (as it is in some 
ancient copies) Gildas Nennius, to distinguish it from 
Gildas ap Caw, the North Briton ; and in some copies 
Gildas Minor, as that at Oxford ; in others, Gildas 
Sapiens (by mistake I suppose) ; and in others, plain 
Nennius. And this gave a handle to persons that knew 
nothing of it, such as Polydore Virgil and his followers 
Vertot, Nicolson, etc., to call it Pseudo-Gildas, or false 
Gildas, as if it was impossible there should be two 
men of the name of Gildas. See more in chap 

11th. Our MSS. of genealogies, which are spread all 
over the kingdom, and agree in the main without any 
material difference, are some of the most ancient remains 
of Celtic antiquities now in being, and bespeak them- 
selves to be genuine ; for it is impossible to impose a 
whole race of ancestors on any single man, let alone the 
whole nation ; and these genealogies must naturally be 
continued from age to age, from father to son ; and in 
a nation who have always kept their ground since their 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. 

first plantation, it is ridiculous to imagine that they 
would change their ancestors for any new-fangled^ 
names. These antiquities of the Britains are different 
enough from any supposed genealogies that may be 
called Saxon, for those nations are owned to be illite- 
rate (and no man hath pretended to prove them other- 
wise) when they invaded this island. The Britons, 
then, have no small reason to glory in their ancient 
genealogies, as they are such a considerable evidence of 
their antiquity in their native country. Among these 
is Bonedd Gwyr y Gogledd. 

12th. The history of the Cowri, or Cambro-British 
princes, who built the forts on the mountains of Wales, 
seems to be very ancient ; but I cannot so much as 
guess at the time it was wrote. This MS. is in Hen- 
gwrt. 

13th. Bonhedd y Saint ^ or the Noble Descent of the 
Saints of Britain, the founders of the churches and reli- 
gious houses which still bear their names all over 
Wales. This is a most valuable piece of antiquity, a 
very ancient copy of which is now extant (1760) at 
Llannerch. 

1 4th. The works of the British Poets from about the 
Danish Conquest to the time of Queen Elizabeth are so 
numerous that it is needless to say anything of them 
here, but refer you to the body of the work for each 
by name. But I shall only remark that poetry and 
good language was in greater perfection here a little 
before and a little after the Norman Conquest than it 
hath been since, and that the historical parts of those 
works are a great light to our historians, both English 
and Welsh, Irish and Scotch. 



INTftODUCTION. xlix 



CHAP. XIX. 

It will be objected by some, that it looks odd that 
these unheard-of things have not been advanced sooner, 
for that we have had very able antiquaries in England 
and Wales for many ages past. Where hath the book 
of Triades been all this while ? Where hath the British 
©opy of Tyssilio lain, the Catalogues of ancient Cities, 
the Dictionaries of the several branches of the Celtic 
tongues, the inscriptions in the ancient Celtic charac- 
ter, the works of the ancient British poets, the old 
MSS. of genealogies, the remains of Druidism, the 
account of the tombs of the warriors of Britain, the 
book of British proverbs, the history of the twenty- four 
kings that built cities, the history of the Cowri that 
built forts on mountains, Bonhedd y Saint ? 

In answer to this we say that though the Britains 
had these things in their possession, it doth not follow 
that the English antiquaries and historians should 
know anything of them, nor that the few Welsh anti- 
quaries that have wrote should know them all ; and in 
all ages there have been more antiquaries than there 
hath been publishers. 

Everybody the least versed in the history of Britain 
knows what implacable hatred there was formerly^ for 
above a thousand years, between these two nations, 
from the year 449 to the year 1485, and which hath 
but lately subsided. The English nation were so noted 
for their ferocity to strangers that it became a proverb 
in Wales, — 

Galon Sais wrth Gjmro ; 

t.e., the heart of an Englishman to a Welshman. But 
the case is now altered : witness, among other things, 



1 INTKODUCTION. 

the great and generous subscriptions of the English 
towards the publication of the Welsh Bible lately, under 
the care of the Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge, which shews they have a greater regard for the 
Welsh than the Welsh have for themselves. 

Is it any more strange that there were ancient MSS. 
in Wales, unknown to the English, than that there 
were plants growing on Snowdon which no Englishman 
ever heard of till within our days the indefatigable 
Mr. Edward Llwyd described them, as well as other 
rarities of that country ? The same excellent person 
was the first that gave the English antiquaries any 
light into these things, by giving an account, in his 
ArchcBologia Britannica, of the ancient MSS. he had 
the luck to meet with, or heard of, in his travels 
through England, Wales, and Ireland. His account, 
imperfect as it is, is more than any English writer ever 
dreamt of, or so much as expected to be found among 
us; and his book will stand for ever as a noble attempt 
of retrieving the Celtic tongue and its antiquities from 
oblivion. 

The British book of Triades, though to this day very 
little (if at aU) known among English antiquaries, hath 
been always quoted by our British poets from age to 
age, though I am certain Galfrid, the Latin trans- 
lator of TyssUio, never saw it, so little did he know of 
our antiquities, or else he would have embellished that 
history with its contents, instead of those ridiculous 
things which in his translation he hath added to it out 
of Myrddin Emrys's works and oral tradition. 

Mr. Robt. Vaughan, our excellent antiquary, about 
A.D. 1630 attempted a translation of the Triades into 
English, and Mr. W. Morris of Cefn y Braich says he 



INTRODDCTION. U 

interprets it surprisingly ; but this was too hard a task 
even for Mr. Vaughan. This English translation he 
gave to Archbishop Usher, but we have heard no fur- 
ther of it ; and I suppose the copy is lost, unless it is 
among his papers in Hengwrt. 

Camden quotes this book of Triades in his Britannica 
as of ancient authority, to prove the Britains joining 
the Cimbrians and Gauls in some expeditions against 
Italy and Greece ; and also in Shropshire, about Caer 
Caradoc. But had he dealt fairly with us, and used 
the other authorities found in that book, he might 
have saved most of the objections which he has so art- 
fully put in the mouths of his great men. He did not 
dare to attack a national history in his own person, 
but pretended to defend it with all his eloquence ; but 
it was against the intention of his plan to own any- 
thing existing among the Britains which would clear 
up their history (though he committed a slip in men- 
tioning the Triades at all), as his scheme was to be the 
father of the history of Britain. 

Mr. Nicolson, in his Historical Library, has behaved 
still worse than Mr. Camden, for he knew so little of the 
book, and speaks so slightly of it, that he supposes it 
to be what Camden quotes and calls in his Remains the 
Book of Triplicities. He might as well have called the 
Book of Ecclesiasticus the Triades; for the British TH-- 
ades is merely historical, and the other is only a rheto- 
rical collection of wise sayings and proverbs. 

Though this British book of Ttiades was, according 
to the judgment of Mr. Rob. Vaughan, the antiquary, 
about A.D. 1630, about a thousand years old, neither 
Bede, Nennius, nor Galfrid, knew anything of it. No 
more did they of the works of the British poets. Bede 



lii INTRODUCTION. 

could not ; and Nennius, where he attempts to mention 
some of them, scarce knew their names, unless those 
blundera were committed by his transcribers. 

If Galfrid, when he translated Tyssilio, had known 
the works of Myrddin Wyllt, Taliessin, and Llywarch 
Hen, he would have found in them abundance of histo- 
•rical passages to embeilish the history then in his hand, 
where it is most blind and bald. What hath he added 
to Tyssilio? Flamines and Archflamines of his own 
invention ; some fine-formed speeches of his own ; and 
the dark and abstruse prophecy of Myrddin Emrys, 
called the Great Prophecy ; and some trifles which had 
better been out. 

By the very style of Tyssilio s British History it 
appears that the first part of it is very ancient, and 
that it was put in the form it is now about the year 
600 or before, probably by Tyssilio ; and from Tyssilio 
to Cadwaladr by, I think, another hand. 

Though it doth not appear that Galfrid knew any- 
thing of the Triades, yet the British poets, his cotempo- 
raries, Meilir Brydydd, Daniel, Cynddelw,etc., were well 
versed in the writings of the ancient poets and histo- 
rians, and in the Triades, as appears by their works. 

Can any antiquary now in the kingdom say he knows 
every old Saxon MS. now existing ? No ; no more 
than he knows every old house in- the kingdom, or all 
the old coins that are in private hands. Why then is 
it urged that if such and such MSS. were in being in 
the time of Gildas, of Nennius, of Galfrid, etc., they 
must have seen them ? This is childish reasoning, as 
if no ancient MS. in the kingdom could possibly escape 
the eyes of a monk, an abbot, or a bishop, when it doth 
not appear to us that they ever made any inquiries 



INTRODUCTION. llli 

after such MSS. out of their own monasteries, and 
when it plainly appears that the clergy had an utter 
aversion to the works of the British bards, who were 
the historians of the ancient Britains ; and the bards, 
perhaps, were not behind hand with them. 



CHAP. XX. 



I FORESEE it will be objected that a very great stress 
is laid here on proofs out of the British poets, and that 
among the greatest modern historians in Europe such 
proofs are reckoned but slight, and not so much re- 
garded as the authorities of prose writers of history, or 
regular historians (as they call them), learned in anti- 
quities, etc. 

Fable (they say) is an ingredient in poetry ; and 
Vertot, the French historian, in a sneer on an historical 
poem of the Britains of Armorica, which they call their 
Breviary, says that fables never succeed better than in 
verse. But men of greater weight in the learned world 
than Vertot, and in affairs of the greatest consequence, 
viz., the dominion of the British seas, have not thought 
it beneath them to make use of poetical authorities, 
not only to prove the use of words, but also the use of 
things. The admirable Selden, in his Mare Clausmn, 
condescends to make use of the authority of an English 
poet, G. Chaucer, no older than Richard IIFs time, to 
prove the dominion of the sea in the English in those 
days ; and in the same manner Virgil, Ovid, Plautus, 
and other ancient poets, are quoted by the assertors of 
Mare Liberum. See Mar. Claits., p. 5. 

These objectors should also consider that nations 

h 



liv INTKODUCTION. 

differ in their customs, and what is true in France is 
not always so in other countries ; and that the most 
ancient histories were originally in verse, but more par- 
ticularly among the Gauls and Britains who were under 
the Druidical government, the recorders of the actions 
of their great men being a branch of their religious 
institution ; or, in other words, their bards were their 
historians, who handed down to posterity (witness 
Lucan) the ancient traditions of their ancestors ; and 
this was the case of other northern nations, the Swedes, 
Islanders, etc., who had their scalds. See Olaus Worm- 
ius. This method of historical writing, and also the 
very kind of verse, hath kept its ground in Britain, in 
spite of the Roman power, till after the Romans left 
them. 

The kind of verse in which the bards wrote their 
exploits in war was called Englyn Milwr^ a triplet 
stanza of seven syllables each verse. The meaning of 
the name is the warrior's verse, or military verse. I 
make no doubt but the North American war-song is of 
the same original, where, in their meetings, or before 
a battle, they all join in this military song, which gives 
an account of the brave actions of their ancestors main- 
taining their liberties, and is the greatest incentive to 
courage that can possibly be. It is observable that the 
most ancient poetry in the world was in triplet verse 
of seven or eight syllables. 

In ancient times, among the Britains, it was common 
for the princes themselves to write their own actions in 
verse, — and who more able to do it? Llywarch Hen, 
a nobleman of North Britain, hath left us an account 
of the wars he was concerned in, in this very kind of 
verse, Englyn Mihvr; and in such a pathetic, honest, 



INTKODUCTION. Iv 

plain manner that there can be no room to suspect him 
of falsehood or unfair dealings. Here are no embellish- 
ments, no fictions, no show of art, and but a plain rela- 
tion of matters of fact, not without their beauties. 
This was about a hundred years aftef^e had thrown 
off the Roman yoke. Our princes and generals conti- 
nued this custom of writing their own actions in* verse as 
late as Henry ll'a time, for the famous warrior, Howel 
ap Owain Gw3medd (brother of Madoc, who first dis- 
covered America), hath wrote his own battles in a most 
elegant though a modest manner, of which we have 
several copies in Wales. Hath not J. Caesar wrote his 
own actions ? And what deterred other emperors from 
doing the same was that they had not matter enough, 
or that they were not as great masters of fighting and 
writing as he was, and that he had got the start of 
them. 

It should be also observed the Britains, Gauls, and 
Irish, never could be brought into the same way of 
thinking with the Greeks and Romans in regard to 
heroic poetry. Poetry was so sacred with these Celtic 
people, as being a branch of their religion, that they 
never suffered invented fables (the chief ingredient in 
heroic poetry) to have a footing in it, which is the 
reason that neither the Gauls, Britains, Irish, Ersh, 
Picts, Cornish, or Armoricans, ever had to this day a 
poem in the nature of the Iliad or ^iieid, though most 
other nations took a foolish pride in imitating them. 
So that what in one nation is called an heroic poem, 
and the grandest performance in human art, is in 
another nation called a fabulous, empty song or poem 
stuffed with flourishes and the scum or over-boiling of 
the poet's brains, to please a vain, boasting people ; as 



Ivi INTRODUCTION. 

if the nation had no real actions of valour of their owu 
to be recorded in poetry, but must have recourse to 
fictitious gods, to fictitious heroes, to fictitious battles, 
and such anachronisms that a grave Celtic writer would 
be ashamed of. Is it not agreed upon that -^neas and 
Dido, who Virgil hath brought together, were really 
two hundred years distant ? 

Historians used to these kinds of writings may well 
call poetry fabulous and fictitious. But that is not the 
case of the British bards. Poetry with them is, and 
hath been, the sacred repository of the actions of great 
men, and hath been always so from the most ancient 
times, as the Song of Moses was, among the Jews, of 
the defeat of the Egyptians. Taliessin's historical poem 
of the tombs of the warriors of Britain is a noble piece 
of history, which will last while the nation has a being; 
but is exceeded by Gododiuy an heroic poem of Aneurin. 

Though other nations, more devoted to the Greek 
and Roman learning, may call this way of thinking a 
mark of Celtic barbarity, and speaking unlike scholars, 
the Britains own it is so in the Roman proud manner 
of speaking, but insist that the assertion is not founded 
on truth or nature, and therefore not to be regarded. 



CHAP. XXI. 



It is to be observed that among the learned writers of 
the British nation who have wrote in Latin, such as 
Gildas, Nennius, Asserius, Galfrid, etc., not one of them 
hath mentioned a word to the honour of these Druidi- 
cal bards, and of their manner of recording historical 
facts ; and scarce a word of the Druidical learning, no 



INTRODUCTION. Ivil 

more than if they had never heard of the Druids. 
What could be the reason of all this silence ? Foreign 
"writers, and also the British writers in their own native 
language, often mention them with great honour. 

Nis gwyr namjn Duw a dewinion byd a diwyd dderwjddon. 

I^jsgogan derwyddon dewrwlad i esgar 

I wisgwyd weiniviad. — Gynddelw^ i Ow. Cyfeiliog, 

Drndioa a Yeirddion 
A fawl neb Dragon 
Namyn draig ai dirpar. — Jd. 

Dywawd derwyddon dadeni haelion 
% O hil Eryron o Eryri. — Prydydd Moch, 

Let it be taken notice of that these writers in the Latin 
tongue were ecclesiastics, and that their heat and zeal 
against Druidism and paganism drove them beyond 
themselves, for Christianity in those early times could 
be£ir no competition. The reason is this. In the infancy 
of Christianity here, the zeal of the Christians were so 
very hot that nothing favouring of paganism was to be 
mentioned publicly without incurring the displeasure of 
the clergy; and when the Church of Rome got the upper 
hand here, then everybody knows that ignorance was 
the mother of their devotion. Let the learned ancient 
Druids be ever so learned, it was reckoned a sin and a 
scandal for a clergyman to borrow anything from them, 
for all Druidical learning was called vain philosophy. 
And is not this the cant to this very day among some 
kind of Christians ? 

The British poets, in the beginning of Christianity 
here, were a class of people distinct enough from the 
clergy, and were members of the civil power, being 
made use of by the ruling princes in a political way, as 
prophets and family historians, who were not very well 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

liked by the Church, being strongly addicted to their 
ancient customs and Druidical traditions ; and, indeed, 
the poets thought themselves men of greater conse- 
quence, and better heard, than the clergy ; so that in 
the very height of the Popish power in Britain we find 
the poets ridiculing the monks and their superstitions 
and cheats : 

Mor fran yr Ysbryd Glan. — D. wj^ OwUym. 

Gwas arall a ddwg Seirioel, etc. 
Dos dithe frawd i law dd — 1. 

D. ap OwUym^ and Go, Dwynwen. 

And in the declension of the Roman empire, and before 
the Saxons became Christians, the poets violently railed 
against the prevailing corruptions in the Church, and 
the idleness of the clergy : 

Owae ofifeiriaid byd, etc. — Taliessin. 

Bid amlwg marcHawc, bid redegawo gorwydd, 

Bid mab lien yn chwannawc, 

Bid aniwair dau eiriawc. — Llywarch Hen. 

It is natural that a knight be public (popular), 
A horse swift, a clergyman avaricious, 
An unchaste man double-tongued. 

Now let us examine who these learned British writers 
were, that wrote in Latin of the affairs of Britain, and 
which among other nations are ignorantly called the 
only ancient British historians, because they never 
heard of any other. All these writers before mentioned 
were of the clergy, not one layman among them. What 
is become of the laymen's writing then ? Why, they 
ai-e in MSS., in everybody's hands in Wales, and in 
the works of their poets, who, as Di. Siculus owns, were 
the recorders of the valiant acts of their countrymen. 
See A. Marcellinus, Lucan, and Giraldus Cambrensis, 
Wynne's Preface. 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

Gildas was an angry monk who had run over to 
Armorica from a party who had got the upper hand in 
Britain, in which Cwstenyn, the reigning Prince, had 
killed two of his nephews, the sons of Medrawd ; and 
Arthur had killed his brother Ho wel. Sir J. Pryse, and 
Usher, Primordia. 

Tyssilio, son of Brochwel Ysgithrog, Prince of Powys, 
was Bishop of Powysland ; had his college and see at 
Meivod, when his brother Cynan reigned in Powys. 

Nennius is said to be Abbot of Bangor is y Coed, and 
better acquainted with monks than with poets ; for 
where he mentions in his History a few of them, he 
hardly knows their names, or his transcribers have 
abused him much. 

Asserius Menevensis, Bishop of Sherborne, and living 
with King Alfred and his tutor, etc., nephew to another 
Asser, Bishop of St. David's, hath wrote so little about 
the Britams that we can pass no judgment about his 
knowledge of them, though it is probable he assisted 
Alfred in translating and digesting the laws of the 
Britains, which he is said to have translated. 

Galfridus Monemuthensis was at first a Benedictine 
monk, afterwards Archdeacon of Monmouth, afterwards 
Bishop of St, Asaph, and, as some say, Cardinal, which 
was a title common then in Britain. By his translation 
of Tyssilio's Brut y Brenhinoedd out of the Armorican 
British into the Latin, it appears that he was in a 
manner quite ignorant of the affairs of the Britains. 
He knew nothing of the British writers in the native 
language of the Britains, or else he would never have 
committed such blunders in his works as to turn Llew 
ap Cynfarch into Lotho, Meuric into Marius, Gwalch- 
mai into Walganus, Medrawd into Mordredus, Julian 



Ix INTRODUCTION. 

into Sulgenin, Rhun Baladr Brasin to Rudhudibras (as 
the Latin MSS. have it) as well as printed copies. If 
he had been acquainted with the ancient British writers 
he would have known that Llew and Urien and Aron 
were sons of Cynfarch Hen o'r Gogledd ; and Llywarch 
Hen, who was cotemporary with these three brothers, 
would have set him right, whose works we have extant. 
Besides the gaps which Galfrid hath left in the His- 
tory, which he might have filled up out of the British 
writers, if he had known anything of them, it is a weak 
thing to say that the Britains had no poetical or histo- 
rical writings among them, because that an Archdeacon 
of Monmouth or a Bishop of St. Asaph knew nothing 
of them. 



CHAP. XXIL 

Now we have taken a short* view of these writers com- 
monly known by the name of British historians, and we 
find them all ecclesiastics, people who had then an 
utter aversion to our poets and writers in our native 
language, and therefore it was their principle not to 
have any intercourse with them and their writings. 

It will be allowed that the knowledge of books, and 
consequently histories, is more universal now, since the 
invention of printing, than it was when Galfrid trans- 
lated the British History into Latin at the request of 
Walter Calenus, an Archdeacon of Oxford. Would it 
be any wonder if even now, in our illuminated age, 
when everybody almost is a philosopher and an histo- 
rian, an Archdeacon of Oxford should give an Arch- 
deacon of Bangor or St. Asaph a Welsh history out of 
the Bodleian Library, for such there are, to be trans- 



IKTRODUCTION. Ixi 

lated into Latin, and that it should happen that the 
Welsh archdeacon should make a bungling piece of 
work of it ? having never seen so much as an ancient 
manuscript in his mother's tongue, or looked into its 
antiquities, and being only what we call Latin and 
Greek, a mere scholar. 

Doth his ignorance prove there are no ancient manu- 
scripts in Wales ? But this is the logic made use of 
by the opposers of the British History. If there had 
been, say they, such MSS. in being, Gildas, Tyssilio, 
Nennius, Bede, etc., would have made mention of them. 
And my logic is the direct contrary ; and to me it is 
plain that if every layman's house in Wales, in those 
days, abounded with such manuscripts, and every 
parish with poets, these imperious clergymen, bishops, 
abbots, and monks, would not have vouchsafed to take 
notice of them. The Latin tongue was their idol, which 
had remained here as a relic of the Roman imperial 
government, and was afterwards a great means to help 
to introduce the Boman papistical government here. 
Is it not as possible to suppose an Abbot of Bangor in 
those days ignorant of the Welsh tongue, as it is now 
a Welsh Bishop ? 

Everybody iJiat hath read Mr. Edw. Llwyd's Arch. 
Brit knows that he hath been indefatigable in search- 
ing for ancient British MSS., and yet I know of great 
numbers in Wales that he never saw or heard of, and 
several that I have in my own possession ; nay, even 
the copy of the Triades which he made use of was but 
an incorrect one, and had not been compared with the 
various genuine copies which the great antiquary, 
Mr. R. Vaughan, had in his possession ; and this hath 
led Mr. Llwyd astray in his etymological guesses, who, 



Ixii INTRODUCTION. 

by the strength of a pregnant wit and a great know- 
ledge of languages, hath overrun the bounds of the 
Celtic tongue as it had been settled by the British, 
bards, and wrested abundance of words to please his 
own luxurious fancy. Yet I am far from despising 
Mr. Llwyd's works : they are great and surprising. 
But it is pity that he was not bett/cr acquainted with, 
the writings of our bards, which could not be without 
being himself acquainted with the rules of the British, 
poetry, which he was not, as shall be shown in its pro- 
per place. He had also the misfortune of being cotem- 
poraiy with other great men of the same way of think- 
ing with himself, which was a great help to lead him 
astray, viz., Mr. Pezron, Abbot of Chennay in Little 
Britain in France, author of the Antiquities of Nations ; 
Mr. Baxter, Master of the Mercer s School in London, 
author of the Glossography ; and Mr. Rowlands of 
Anglesey, author of the Mona Antiqua: three persons 
of extraordinary talents, and of very extensive know- 
ledge in languages, and of fine heads for etymologizing. 
But Mr. Baxter and Mr. Rowlands, giving a loose to 
their fancies, and not observing the same caution with 
Monsr. Pezron, lost themselves in a fog. Mr. Pezron s 
guesses were at first privately weighed with the author- 
ities of ancient authors, and then artfully produced as 
mere guesses and probabilities ; and all of a sudden he 
throws upon you a heap of ancient authorities to back 
his reasonings. But the others, not aware of this art, 
have ingeniously enough followed his method of guess- 
ing, but want ancient authorities to back them. 

It is not a great knowledge in modem languages 
(which may swell a man up with pride and self- 
suflBciency) that will make a man master of the Celtic 



J 



INTRODUCTION. Ixiii 

tongue and its branches and antiquities, but it must be 
a great knowledge in the Celtic writers. A man that 
applies himself to study the Hebrew or Chaldean will 
find very little help, or none at all, from his knowledge 
in the French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, or the 
school languages, the Latin and Greek. The Hebrew 
hath nothing to do with them, no more than the Celtic 
hath. He that would be master of the Celtic tongue, 
and capable of finding the etymology of it, and of its 
curious structure, should be acquainted with Aneuryn 
"Wawdrydd and Bardd Glas o'r Gadair, Cynddelw 
Brydydd Mawr, Taliessin, etc., rather than with Homer, 
Virgil, Tasso, or Milton, etc. 

Mr. Baxter says that in the Celtic, pend and cond 
signified a head ; but there is no man, living or dead, 
besides himself that says so. Mr. Rowlands says that 
the Ferry of Porthaethwy, the passage over Menai to 
Anglesey, was called so, q. d. Porth-aeth-hwy, ^.e., as 
he explains it, the port which they passed; but the 
words will neither bear that signification in the British, 
nor doth any ancient author back it, or is- there any 
case parallel to it. Aeth and hivy do not agree in con- 
struction, and will not do at all. If he had considered 
that the name of the commot adjoining to this Ferry is 
Dindaethvnfy or Tindaethivy, which is plainly Daethwy's 
Fort, he would have looked out for the ruins of that 
fort in that commot, and would probably have found it 
near this ferry or passage, which took its name, beyond 
all doubt, from the same person, Daethioy, and the fort 
he had here; consequently the name of the Ferry shoidd 
be wrote Forth Ddaethwy, i.e., Daethwy's Passage or 
Port. See Mabinogi Bran ap. . . . 

Cynhaethwy ap Herbert ap Godwin larll Cemyw a 
Dyfneint. — Llyfr Achau, 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION, 



CHAP, xxiri. 

The better to understand the reason of the difference 
between the real Celtic names, and the same names in 
Roman authors, you are to consider that the Eoman 
writers made it a general rule to soften the harsh names 
of the towns and countries, etc., of the nations con- 
quered by them, as appears by Pliny Junior s letter to 
Caninius (L. 8, Ep. 4.) : " Some little trouble, too, you 
will find is to soften the names of these barbarous 
people, and particularly of their towns, so as they shall 
not shock our ears when they come into verse. But 
there is nothing so harsh and dissonant but what may 
be made harmonious, or at least tolerable, with a little 
care and alteration. Besides, if it were lawful for 
Homer to contract, to extend, and to turn words (even 
of Grecian extraction), for the better cadence of his 
verse, why should not the same privilege be allowed 
you, especially since it is not affected but necessary ?" 
What truth can we expect, then, in Boman writers in 
relation to names ? And what have we to trust to but 
our own ancient writers, who made it the greatest 
crime to alter their language or names? There was 
something of this temper among the Gauls (French) 
even as low down as the time of Montaigne ; and it 
may not be amiss to set down that ingenious man's 
opinion of this affair, as few men understood mankind 
better than he. (Mont., L. 1, c. 46.) A gentleman, a 
neighbour of mine (says he), a great admirer of anti- 
quity, and who was always preferring the excellency of 



INTRODUCTION. Ixv 

preceding times in comparison with this present age of 
ours, did not, among the rest, forget to magnify the 
lofty and magnificent sounds of the gentlemen's names 
of those days. Don Grumedan, Quadregan, Angelisan, 
etc., which but to hear named he perceived to be other 
kind of men than Pierre, Guillot, and Michel. 

I am mightily pleased with Jaques Amiot for leaving 
throughout a whole French oration the Latin names 
entire, without varying and dissecting them to give 
them dr French termination. It seemed a little harsh 
and rough at first; but already custom, by the authority 
of Plutarch, whom he took for an example, hath over- 
come that novelty. 

I have often wished that such as write chronicle his- 
tories in Latin would leave our names as they find 
them, and as they are and ought to be ; for in making 
Vaudemont Valemontance, and metamorphosing names 
to make them suit better with the Greek or Latin, we 
know not where we are, and with the persons of the 
men lose the benefit of the story. 

To conclude. It is a scurvy custom, and of very ill 
consequence, that we have in our kingdom of France to 
call every one by the name of his manner or segneury, 
and the thing in the world that doth the most pre- 
judice, and confound families and descents. So far 
Montaigne. 

Leland, the great oracle of antiquity among the Eng- 
lish, by his not being able to find any writings of lay- 
men in his search, concludes that there was very little 
learning in Britain after the Saxon conquest of Loegria, 
except among the monks. He searched among the 
monasteries, and knew nothing of our writers in the 
British tongue ; but we that are acquainted with the 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

British writers (who affected to write in their own lan- 
guage, and took a pride in it), insist that the British 
tongue never was wrote in greater perfection than a 
little before and a Uttle after the Norman conquest, 
which shews that the learning then in vogue among 
the Britains was the studying and polishing of their 
own language ; and in that language their antiquities 
and history must be searched for, and not in what Mr. 
Leland and others call the learned languages. 

It will be again objected, and it is very well known 
to be true, that the lives of the saints of Britain and 
Ireland are more stuffed with incredible miracles than 
any other nation on earth, and that even BoUandus, 
Baronius (see Fleetwood's Pref.)y and the greatest 
sticklers for the miracles of the Church of Rome, are 
even ashamed of them ; and, indeed, nothing can come 
up with the many men s heads which St. Beuno hath 
set on, which had been cut clean off; St. Ffred's eye 
dropping out, and put in again ; and abundance of the 
like absurdities. So that it is concluded that either the 
nation must be very silly that could swallow this kind 
of cookery, or the writers very ignorant that prepared 
it for them ; and therefore it may be probable the his- 
torians and poets of the same nations may be guilty of 
the same foibles as the writers of the lives of their 
saints are. 

The first part of this charge is too true ; but if you 
consider that neither poets nor ^ any lay historians had 
any hand in writing these lives of the saints, and that 
they were the entire production of monks, who wrote 
them with a view of bringing a grist to their own mill 
in the monastery, the bards will be acquitted, who for 
the most part not only despised these pretended mira- 



IXTROD UCTION. Ix Vli 

cles, but exposed them in verse. And if our British 
monks have had a more fertile invention in writing 
these miracles than other dull nations, it only shews 
they were greater masters of their trade, and it is pity 
their talents were not better employed. I own these 
monks and abbots, by means of keeping plentiful tables 
and cellars, have found some poor, wandering poets 
that for the sake of their bellies have put some of these 
contrived legends, or lives of the saints, in good verse, 
which became a means of making them public; but 
these are but a few, and modern. 

There was, in D. ap Gwilym's time, about a.d. 1390, a 
vast concourse from all parts of Wales to the Monastery 
of St. Dwynweri in Anglesey, now called Llanddwyn, 
in ruins. Here were their constant waxlights kept at 
the tomb of this virgin saint, where all persons in love 
applied for remedy, and which brought vast profit to 
the monks ; and Dwynwen was as famous among the 
Britains, in afiairs of love, as Venus ever was among 
the Greeks and Romans. But David ap Gwilyms 
ludicrous manner of applying to this saint for relief, 
and his publishing it in a poem which is in everybody's 
hands, shews how slightly the poets made of these reli- 
gious cheats : 

" Dear St. Dwynwen (says he), by your virginity I 
beg of you, and by the soul of your great father Bry- 
chart, send this girl to meet me in the grove. You are 
in Heaven. God will not be angry with you for it, nor 
turn you out, for he will not undo what he hath 
done'^ etc. 

Another poet, describing the craft of the monks in 
carrying little images about, and exchanging them for 
provision, etc., says : 



Ixvili INTRODUCTION. 

Un a arwain yn oriog 
Ourig Iwjd dan gwr ei glog ; 
Owes arall a ddwg Seirioel 
A naw o gaws yn ei goel ; 
Drwy nndeb erchM'r Drin^dawd 
Gnnf o wlan accw nen fiawd. 

One carries the greyheaded Cyricus under his cloak ; 
another carries St. Seiriol with nine cheeses in his arms, 
and so exchange them for wool and flour. The image 
of St. Seiriol was to help the farmer to make more 
cheese, etc. 



CHAP. XXIV. 



That thb peoop op the pronunciation op words in the present 
welsh, or ancient british tongue, is such that no language 
in the world can shew the like, and that it is stronger 
than any other proofs of writings, inscriptions, or coins. 

It will be naturally asked by persons unacquainted 
with the language and antiquities of the ancient Britains 
and Celtse, How comes it that we can be now sure 
that such and such words were pronounced anciently 
after such a manner as we now positively assert them 
to be, and that even a letter can hardly be altered in 
the Welsh language ? This is a thing never heard of 
in any other language in the world, and seems a para- 
dox which requires explanation. If this is so, it is no 
wonder the British tongue hath lasted so long, or that 
it wiU last for ever, and is, as Camden owns, pure and 
unmixed, and extremely ancient (Camden, Names of 
Britain) ; for that such authority is greater and stronger 
than any ancient inscriptions, in which there may be a 
mistake of the stonecutter, or from the whims and 
fancies of alteration. The Greek and Boman languages 



INTRODUCTION. Ixix 

can shew no such security for their pronunciations ; 
and if it was not for some ancient inscriptions and 
coins, we should hardly know anything of their ancient 
manner of writing, which yet proves nothing in regard 
to their pronunciation. In the ancient monumental 
pillar of Duillius, the Roman admiral that defeated the 
Carthaginians, we have « Lecio pugnandod, exfociont'', 
etc., for "Legio pugnando, effugiunt", etc.; "/n cdtod 
maria pugnandod'\ for "/n alto mart pugnando". 

How can it be proved that the ancient Romans, who 
writ " Piuna Carthaio", etc., pronounced " Pugna" and 
"Carthago"? It will be answered that they had no g 
at that time ; but as soon as they took the letter g into 
their alphabet, they wrote " Pugna'' and " Carthago", 
and did not continue the c. This only proves that 
about the second Punic war, the time they took the 
letter g in, they softened and refined their language 
from c into g. 

All ancient nations originally affected the hard let- 
ters, p, 0, ch, or X, ty ffy rhy as well as the Romans ; but 
the Britains in their language, now called Welsh (the 
principal remains of the Celtic tongue), can prove, from 
the very nature and structure of their language, and 
their ancient rules of poetry, that unless the whole lan- 
guage is demolished and framed anew, it is impossible 
for any word by the ancient poets to be pronounced 
otherwise than it is at this day, and that not even a 
letter or a sound could be changed in those words. 
What a glorious thiug this would have been if it had 
been found in the Greek and Latin tongues I If Homer 
and Virgil's works could have been so well fortified 
from attacks. But it is so far to the contrary that there 
is hardly a verse in Virgil but hath a different reading 

k 



Ixx INTRODUCTION. 

in different copies, or hardly a word in the Latin tongue 
whose use can be proved to be as ancient as the begin- 
ning of the Roman nation. Tt is owned that the Laws 
of the Twelve Tables were not understood in the time 
of Cicero. (See Festus's Verhor. Signific.y with Scali- 
ger's notes. Amst., 1699,) 

It will be again objected, how can it be proved that 
these rules in the British poetry have been always laws 
to that language ? In answer we say that these rules 
and poetry seem to be near as old as the language itself, 
being beyond all history or tradition,— the greatest 
mark of antiquity, as it is said, of the Egyptian Pyra- 
mids. The historians of all nations of Europe mention 
the Druidical institutions among the Celtse, and that 
the bards were a branch of them ; but none pretend to 
say when they begun, but suppose the institution 
patriarchal. In the time of the Druidical government 
in Britain and Gaul it cannot be supposed that those 
strict people would suffer any innovation in the rules ,of 
their bards, when once settled, being a branch of their 
religion, and we read of none. When that order was 
abrogated, after the coming in of Christianity, their art 
of poetry was handed down to their children as being 
of use to the Christian princes as well as in the times 
of Druidism ; and the art and its professors have 
always, from time to time, been looked upon as sacred, 
and the name poet or bard was synonymous to a pro- 
phet, to which gift all the ancient poets pretended ; 
and by that means the bards were not less useful to 
Christian kings, to help to govern the people, than 
they were in the time of the ancient Druidical govern- 
ment, as appears by their prophecies extant, which pro- 
bably are all political. 



INTRODUCTION*. Ixxi 

It must be confessed that these strict rules in the 
British poetry have so cramped the poets that no great 
performances, in the nature of long heroic poems, was 
ever attempted by them in their fettered way of writ- 
ing ; but it had one good effect. Besides saving the 
language, these excessive, strict rules prevented men of 
slow or weak parts from meddling with this difficult as 
well as sacred vocation ; for he must be a person of vast 
knowledge in the language, and of excellent parts, or 
else of indefatigable industry (besides being born with 
a poetical genius), that could make any tolerable figure 
in the British poetry. If such unqualified persons 
attempted it, their works were not like to be regarded 
even by shepherds or the meanest of the people ; for 
there is something in the texture or genius of the lan- 
guage which will admit of nothing to be called poetry, 
even among the vulgar, except it agrees with the old 
rules of this, which, as it were, naturally please the 
people, having, as it were, grown up with the language. 

Now to come to the proof of what we have been 
stating here. Let us suppose that the word Conwy ^ the 
name of a river and town in Carnarvonshire, was to be 
disputed whether the Britains wrote it Cynwy, as Mr. 
Ed. Llwyd {Notes on Camden, Carnarvonshire) would 
have it ; or Condui, as Mr. Baxter, with his intolerable 
whims, has it ; or Conwey or Conway, as the modem 
English write it ;^ or Conovium, as Antoninus has it ; 
or Coisobius, as Ptolemy, which Camden makes to be 
Conohius ; or Conwy, as the natives write it and pro- 
nounce it, who call the town and the entrance of the 
harbour Aherconwy, the fall of Conwy into the sea. 

^ Or Gonubw, as Mr. Baxter (anonym. MS.) has it ; or Novius^ as 
Mr. Camden, from 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION. 

It would take too much time, and would be unneces- 
sary, to explain these bards' rules at length in this 
place, for it would be writing a book ; therefore in the 
quotations I shall make here out of the poets, it will be 
enough to point out, in italic, how those rules require 
such and such consonants and such and such vowels to 
be in the different parts of the verse. First, let the let- 
ters in the word Conwy be numbered. 

13346 

Conwy 

One of our poets, in his metamorphosis of a fiiir lady 
into an owl, takes occasion to name this river : 

Gwdion mab Don ar Qonwy 

Hudlath ni ba o'i fath ftvy. — D. ajp OwUym, a.d. 1400. 

Here the first line proves the second and third letters ; 
and the rhyme in the second line, compared with the 
first, proves the fourth and fifth letters. Now there 
remains only the letter c tobe proved, which in flexions 
turns to g, aa in the above, as every one the least 
versed in the British tongue knows. As I have no very 
ancient MSS. now by me, where I write this, I must 
be oontoted, in tlmLMppla. with tho«e passages out 
of poets who wrote no further off than about three 
hundred or four hundred years ago, which I can recol- 
lect in my memory : 

Y cawt* ar Ian Conwy'r wledd. — T. Aled. 

In this verse not only the letter c is proved, but also 
the letter n, as also in the following : 

Nan C/onwj man cawn j medd. 

What other nation can do this ? 

In all hypotheses where no records, or traditions, or 
marks, or traces of the memory, of the facts are pre- 



INTRODUCTION. IxX ill 

tended, disproving by denying is as easily done as 
proving by ajsserting only. But any kind of national 
records or traditions are beyond all guesses. 

Common sense is the growth of every country. Where 
there are ancient MSS. and the works of poets and 
historians to shew in a nation, it is ridiculous for any 
man, though of the highest character in the learned 
world, to advance his own guesses about the language 
or the history against the national authorities received 
time out of mind. If he doth, he will be only laughed 
at by the natives, and he will repent it. Therefore, if 
there be such authorities, they should have their due 
weight. 

As I have above proved, in the above example, that 
our poets, who had it by tradition from father to son, 
for time immemorial, and probably since they were 
planted here, called the river Conwy; and that accord- 
ing to the rules of the bards it could not be since called 
otherwise, nor a letter changed in it, without altering 
the whole language, and that every name and word in 
the British tongue is upon the same footing of security, 
as is easily seen by observing the proofe or quotations 
out of the poets in the learned Dr. Davies' Dictionary. 
It remains, then, on such as pretend to wrest the 
British names of places, and play them through all the 
vowels (to serve a scheme of etymologising), to shew 
that the poets or anybody else have ever wrote those 
words as they would have it, or to bring some authority 
equivalent to this of the poets, if there be any such in 
the world, and not with a magisterial air pronounce 
things to be as their fancy suggests to them. 

Mr. Baxter, indeed, might be ignorant that there 
were such rules of the bards existing, for it is plain he 



Ixx i V INTRODUCTION. 

knew nothing of our antiquities except what he picked 
out of Llwyds Archceologia, with whom he corre- 
sponded, and who he in a great measure corrupted 
with his odd whims. But Mr. Llwyd knew there were 
such rules, though he knew not how to apply them, as 
plainly appears to any one that hath read his British 
elegy on the death of Queen Mary, printed at Oxford, 
and also the Englyn about Rhossyr, in his Notes on 
Camden's Anglesey, which doth him as little honour as 
the attempt the great Cicero made to be a poet. 

When a word is wrote differently by the poets, as 
suppose Brodorddin for example, it shews they knew 
not the etymology of it, or that some particular authors 
disputed it ; for that word is wrote Brodorddun and 
Brodorddyn as well as Brodorddin; and so of some 
others, which may be modem names and places of so 
little note as to be scarcely mentioned by our bards. 

In derivation of names I have set down Mr. Ed 
Llwyd s etymologies in his ArchcBologia for such as he 
hath touched upon, and where I differ from him have 
given my reasons. As for the derivations of authors 
who were strangers to our language, I need say no 
more than that they groped in the dark, and are not 
worth the trouble of confuting. My own etymologies 
I offer to the world not always as certainties, but pro- 
babilities, on such proofs as I produce, which any one 
skilled in the language is welcome to disprove, if he 
can, with better authorities than I produce ; which I 
shall be glad to see, and that this study of retrieving 
antiquities out of the dust is revived. 

How ridiculous, in the eyes of an Englishman or 
Cambro-Britain, doth Goropius look, that derives the 
word Angli (English) from the English nation's being 



_j 



INTRODUCTION. IxXV 

good anglers ; and that the British name Howel is 
derived from sound or whole ? One would think that 
it would be impossible for a man of letters to be so 
ignorant as not to know that whole is a mere English 
or Teutonic word, — a language he was master of ; and 
that Howel (or, as it should be wrote, Hywel) is a 
British name in use among the Britains before the 
arrival of the Saxons in Britain ; and yet this Goropius 
was a man learned in languages, and physician to the 
Queens of France and Hungary ; therefore I have the 
charity to think that this great man waa not in earnest, 
and only shewed his wit in these flashes ; as, perhaps, 
may be the case of Camden when he offers to explain 
some British words, being a kind of itch of playing with 
words, and to shew great reading. 



CHAP. XXV. 



A CAVEAT to English readers who are unacquainted 
with the pronunciation of the Cambro-British alphabet. 
Let them remember that in British, c is before all the 
vowels sounded as a i, and never as the English c before 
i and e in the words civet, cerate, source, etc., and it is 
pity Dr. Da vies did not retain it ; and that II is sounded 
after a manner peculiar to the Welsh, being an I aspir- 
ated something like thl ; so that the word llan sounds 
something like thlan^ or between that and clxin. Let 
it be also remembered that in the British there are no 
such sounds as the letter g makes in the English George, 
nor ch in the English church, or that j makes in the 
English jerk, jilt ; and that these are mere Teutonic 
sounds, and never used by the Celtae. But it is pro- 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION. 

bable the Roman language had this soUnd ofj, which 
they expressed at first by j, and aiterwanls by gi, as 
that ancient name of the Celtic British King Beli was 
Latinised by them into Beljus, and lastly into Belgius ; 
but foolishly, by succeeding Latin writers and our 
modems, without rule or reason, turned into Belinus. 

The British ch also hath a sound which is not at pre- 
sent used in the English, though the old Saxon and 
other branches of the Teutonic had it, as had also the 
Greek and Hebrew. Gh in the word lough, for a lake, 
sounds something like it, as doth wh in the words why, 
where, when, etc., if strongly pronounced. 

The British i is always pronounced as ee, in hhed and 
in gill A is always broad and gaping, as in the English 
par, car; dd, always as th in the, this, etc. ; y, never as 
the English in Jit, but as a v in veal ; g, never as in 
English before e and i, but always hard, as in God, gad, 
gun ; t, never as an 5, as in action, but always a hard 
i, as in tar, tin, heart. 

It will be objected that the division said to be made 
by Rhodri Mawr between his three sons, or some divi- 
sion equivalent to it, had been from ancient times ; for 
when the Romans found us, the people of Cambria 
were divided into three distinct people, the Silures, the 
Dimetse, and the Ordovices ; that it hath been after- 
wards in four parts, Deheubarth, Dyfed, Gwynedd, 
a Phowys. So that Rhodri only joined Dyfed and 
Deheubarth in one dominion called Dinefwr, and let 
Gwynedd and Powys rest as they were. 

The fault of the plan of Rhodri Mawr was this. He 
made Dinefwr and Powys tributary to Gwynedd, when 
at the same time he knew that those two powers join- 
ing to refuse payment and subjection, would be rather 



INTRODUCTION. IxX vi l 

too hard for Gwynedd. This was a bone of contention. 
This was not the case when these petty principalities 
were tributary to the crown of London (which they 
always have been as far as the British history reaches 
till the Saxon conquest), for the Loegrian power was 
able at any time to quell any rebellion or disputes among 
them, before the Roman conquest, and after the Romans 
left us, while the Loegrian Britains governed, and until 
they, idiot-like, called in the Saxons, and gave away 
their country and dominion. For in the time of the 
ancient Britains, before the Roman conquest, this island 
was a commonwealth of free princes, as Germany is 
now, but yet all holding of the Loegrian crown. But 
when the Saxons, who were strangers, came to wear 
that principal crown, and to be masters of that Loegr- 
ian power, the tributary native princes of the Britains 
refused to obey the strangers ; and in good policy 
should have joined all under one head instead of divid- 
ing their powers, and falling by the ears among them- 
selves. 

Here Providence has wonderfully interposed, and by 
the ruin of the old British constitution saved the re- 
mains of the Britains, and made them a most happy 
people, if peace and quietness and freedom be a happi- 
ness ; for now, in our days, the English not only fight 
and pray for them, but also go to market for them. It 
was the ancient policy of the English, and a very just, 
sensible maxim of maintaining power, not to levy sol- 
diers among them, that their military spirit might be 
broke ; not to let them have Welsh bishops, that their 
language in time might be neglected by the clergy ; 
and as to trade and merchandise, they have been indo- 
lent enough, and fed themselves with their high pedi^ 

I 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION. 

grees and gentility, that men of fortune have thought 
it beneath them to trade. 

Some of the effects that followed Rodri Mawrs divi- 
sion of the Principality of Wales, the constitution of 
that government being so unnatural that it must neces- 
sarily be the ruin of that nation that was under it, 
especially a nation addicted to war and broils ; who, if 
they had not a foreign enemy, must quarrel among 
themselves, so that their feuds were at last carried to 
such a head that perhaps the like is not to be found in 
any history, not even among the most barbarous nations 
in the world. Even tigers and lions have more gene- 
rosity' than these Britains had at last. Their bravery 
in arms, and the strength and activity natural to them, 
partly on account of the situation of their coimtry and 
their diet^ drove them to that pitch of enthusiastic 
military spirit that neither law nor religion had any tie 
upon them. And it is a great wonder how any part of 
their posterity remains on the face of the earth. 

It is true the murdering of relations began very soon, 
on the first setting out of mankind in the world, and 
continued while society remained in small detachments 
dispersed over the world, without that administration 
and execution of laws which a powerful monarch only, 
or some government of that nature, is able to put in 
force. 

After about 4000 years' experience (in all which time 
one would have thought a proper manner of governing 
mankind would naturally have been hit upon by some 
enterprising nation or other), the Christian religion 
appeared, which proposed the most worthy and amiable 
rules as men could wish to be governed by, provided 
they had anything good in their nature. But this 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxix 

creature is generally so perverse that nothing goes 
down with him but rapine, plunder, and villany. Under 
the colour of religion one man hath pretended a power 
from heaven to burn, torture, destroy, and murther, all 
others that differ in opinion from him about things 
that are impossible for either of them to be certain of ; 
that is, about the nature of God, and of a God incom- 
prehensible, and the manner of worshipping him. 

Some nations, superior in pride and power to the 
rest, have attempted to bring this little earth under 
one monarch, which, if it could have been effected, 
would not have remained long so. The limbs would 
have been too many for the head, and would have soon 
£sdlen out among themselves, as hath been the case 
with all great empires. Nature or Providence throws 
things, afber a great confusion, into their proper places ; 
so out of disorder oometh order, out of corruption 
Cometh generation. It is plain that God never intended 
that the whole earth should be governed by one king, 
for he alone is the King of kings and Lord of lords, and 
vain is the man that sets up for these titles which can 
belong to nobody but the Supreme Being. 

Among all nations experience shews that monarchy 
(or a government equivalent thereto, where the people 
place a law agreed upon to be their inviolable and 
standing rule) will always be the best method of govern- 
ing mankind, provided the governing law is strictly put 
in execution. If the power is in many hands they will 
quarrel about it. 

But now to come home to my subject, the ancient 
Britains or Welsh, where, after Rodric's division, almost 
every little lord had a, jura regalia, and the lives and 
fortunes of his tenants in his own hands, who was to 
call him to an account for what he did ? 



IXXX INTRODUCTION. 

If there were some good men in Wales, and could 
not bear to see a lord kill his brother, imprison his 
father, geld his next relations that they might not in- 
herit, and pretended to check him for it, or punish him, 
were not the kings of the Saxons just at hand to 
receive any reprobate under their protection, and very 
glad of the opportunity ? And was not the good- 
natured, religious, forgiving Pope ready to absolve him 
for a sum of money ? "We must cease to wonder, then, 
at the character our countrymen bear while under that 
vicious government from the year 876, when Rodri 
died, to the year 1282, when the last Llewelyn was 
slain, which is 406 years. It was the fault of the con- 
stitution of their government, and not of the people, 
who were naturally brave and generous ; but by being 
left to their own ways, by the relaxation of the laws of 
a bad government ill-founded, they became such mon- 
sters that the most uncultivated nation in the world, 
even the Hottentots, would not be guilty of the crimes 
they have committed; till they eflfectually destroyed 
their crazy constitution and their power, which dis- 
solved itself into that of the general crown of the island, 
and happy for the nation it did. 

Not to mention those of their countrymen they killed 
in battle in their civil wars, or of the cruelties used by 
the Saxons or Normans upon them when they took 
part with one side against the other, I shall give here 
a list only of the butcheries of a Britan against Britan 
in those days, as I have hastily collected them out of 
Caradoc's Chronicle : 

In the year 917 Clydawc ap Cadell was slain by his 
brother Meurig. (Caradoc in Edwal Voel.) 

A.D. 933, Owen ap Gruffudd slain by the men of Car- 
digan. 



INTRODUCTION. IxXXl 

972, Howel ap leuaf put out his uncle Meyric ap 
Edwal's eyes, and kept him in prison till his death. 
(Car. in leu. ap laco.) 

982, the gentlemen of Gwent rebelled against their 
Prince, and cruelly slew Einion ap Owen, who came to 
appease them. (Car. in Ho. ap leu.) 

A.D. 1021, Llewelyn ap Seisyllt, Prince, was slain by 
Howel and Mredydd, the sons of Edwyn, (Car. in Lin. 
apS.) 

A.D. 1044, the gentlemen of Ystrad Towy did trea- 
cherously kill 140 of Prince Gr. ap Llywelyn's men. 
(Car. in Gr. ap Lin.) 

A.D. 1054, Griff, ap Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, was 
cruelly and traitorously slam by his own men, and his 
head brought to Harold. (Car. in Gr. Lin.) 

A.D. 1073, Blethyn ap Cynfyn, King of Wales, was 
traitorously and cowardly murdered by Rhys ap Owen 
ap Edwyn and the gentlemen of Ystrad Ty wy. (Car. in 
Bl. ap Con.) About the same time Cynwrig ap Rhiw- 
allon, a nobleman of Maelor, was slain by the North 
Wales men. 

A.D. 1079, Gwrgeneu ap Seisyllt, a nobleman, was 
slain by the sons of Rhys Sais. (Car. in Trah.) 

A.D. 1103, Gwgan ap Meyrick invited Howel ap 
Grono to his house to make merry, who strangled him 
as he got out of bed, and delivered his body to the 
Normans, who cut off his head. (Car. in Gr. ap Cyn.) 
About this time Mejorick and Gruff, ap Trahaearn ap 
Caradoc were-slain by Owen ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn. 
(Car. in Gr. ap Cyn.) 

A.D. 1112, Owen would not put Madog to death, but 
put out his eyes, and let him go, and took his lands. 
(Car.) 



Ixxxii INTRODUCTION. 

A.D. 1115, Gruff, ap Cynan attempted to deliver up 
Gruff, ap Rhys, Prince of South Wales, to King Henry I, 
though he had taken refuge with him. 

A.I). 1122, Gruff, ap Rhys (the above) killed Gruff, ap 
Trahaeam. 

A.D. 1125, Cadwallon ap Gr. ap Cynan slew his three 
uncles, and Morgan ap Cadwgan slew his brother Mre- 
dydd with his own hands. (Car. in Gr. ap Cyn.) • 

Mredydd ap Llywarch slew Meyrick his cousin, and 
put out the eyes of his two cousiu-germans, sons of 
Griffri. 

A.D. 1128, leuaf ap Owen put out the eyes of two of 
his brethren, and banished them the country; and 
Llewelyn ap Owen slew lorwerth ap Llowarch. And 
Mredydd apBleddyn took the same Llewelyn his nephew, 
and put out his eyes, and gelded him, that he might 
have his lands, and slew leuaf ap Owen his brother. 

Also Meyric slew Llowarch and Madog his son, his 
own cousins, who himself waa so served shortly after. 
(Carad. Gr. ^p Cyn., p. 187.) 

A.D. 1132, Cadwallon ap Gr. ap Cynan slain by Eneon 
ap Owen ap Edw3m his uncle, whose three brethren he 
had slain. 

A.D. 1140, Cynwrig ap Owen was slain by the men 
of Madog ap Mredydd ap Blethyn ap Cynfyn ; and the 
sons of Blethyn ap Gwyn slew Mredydd ap HoweL 

A.D. 1142, Howel ap Mredydd ap Blethjna was mur- 
dered by his own men. And Howel and Cadwgan, the 
sons of Madoc ap Idnerth, killed one another. Anar- 
awd ap Gr. ap Rys was killed in a quarrel with his 
father-in-law, Cadwallon ap Gr. ap Cynan. 

A.D. 1148, Howel ap Owen Gwynedd took his uncle 
Cadwaladr prisoner, and took possession of his country. 



INTRODUCTION. IXXXIU 

A. D. 1151, Owain Gwynedd took Cunethe, his brother 
Cadwallon's son, put out his eyes, and gelded him, lest 
he should have children to inherit part of the land. 

A.D. 1158, Morgan ap Owen was traitorously slain by 
the men of Ifor ap Meiu-ig. 

A.D.I 160, Cadwallon ap Madoc ap Idnerth was taken 
by his brother Eneon Clyd, and delivered to Owein 
Gwynedd, who sent him to the king s officers, to be 
imprisoned at Winchester. 

A.D. 1168, Cynan ap Owen Gwynedd slew Gwrgeneu, 
Abbot of Llwythlawr, and his nephew Llawthen. 

A.D. 1169, Meyric ap Adam of Buallt was murthered 
in his bed by Meredydd Goch his cousin. 

A.D. 1175, How. ap lor. ap Owen, of Caerlleon, took 
his uncle, Owen Pencam, prisoner, and putting out his 
eyes, gelded him lest he should beget children which 
should inherit Caerlleon and Gwent. (Carad. in D. ap 
Owen.) 

A.D. 1186,Cadwaladr, son of Lord Bees, slain privately 
in West Wales. The same year Madoc ap Mredydd 
slain in the night, in the Castle of Caregho va, by Gwen- 
wynwyn and CadwaUon, sons of Owen Cyfeiliog. And 
Llewelyn ap Cadwallon ap Gr. ap Cynan was taken by 
his own brethren, and had his eyes put out. 

A.D. 1193, Anarawd, son of Prince Rees, took his two 
brothers, Howel and Madoc, prisoners, under colour of 
friendship, and put out their eyes. 

A.D. 1193, Prince Rees's own sons, Maelgwn and 
Anarawd, laid wait for their own father, and took him 
prisoner, fearing he would revenge their cruelty on 
their brothers ; but by means of his son Howel, who 
was blind, he escaped out of Maelgwn his son's prison. 
(Carad. in D. ap Owen.) 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

A,D. 1194, Prince Rys takes his sons Rees and Mre- 
dydd, who had taken from him the castles of Cantre 
Bychan and Dinefwr, and kept them in safe prison. 

A.D. 1197, Maelgwn ap Rys, after he had imprisoned 
his elder brother, got his castles of Aberteifi and Ystrad 
Meirig. 

A.D. 1201,Mredydd ap Rhys was slain at Camwyllion 
by treason, and his elder brother Gruffydd seized upon 
his castle at Llanymddyfri and all his lands. 

A.D. 1204, Howel, the son of Prince Rees, being blind, 
was slain at Cemmaes by his brother Maelgon's men. 
Soon after Maelgon ap Rees hired an Irishman to kill 
Cadivor ap Griflfri, whose four sons Maelgon took, and 
put them to death. 

A.D. 1226, Rees Vychan, son of Rys Gruc, Prince of 
South Wales, took his father prisoner, and would not 
let him at liberty till he had given him the Castle of 
LlanymddyfrL 

A.D. 1282, Madoc Min, said in the Earl of Maccles- 
field's MS. to be BisJiop of Bangor, betrayed Llewelyn 
ap Gruffudd, the last Welsh Prince, into the hands of 
Edward I's men near Buallt, who sent his head to the 
King, being himself at Conwy. And soon after David 
his brother was delivered into the King's hand by his 
own countrymen, who was put to death at Shrews- 
bury. 

And thus the Britains, through pride, perverseness, 
and a bad constitution, destroyed themselves, and lost 
their dominion and power in the Isle of Britain, accord- 
ing to their deserts ; and so will any other nation 
destroy itself that follows the same road. 



INTRODUCTION. IxXXV 



Of Cognomens or Surnames^ or Appellatives, or Nick- 
names among the Britains from the Colour of their Hair: 
as, Du, Gwyn, Llwyd, Glas, Coch, Melyn : Dafydd Ddu, 
Cynog Las, Madog Goch, lolo Goch, lorwerth Fyng- 
Iwyd, Gwyn Fardd Brycheiniog, leuan Goch Benllwyd ; 
Torddu, Philip Dorddu ; Cynfelyn. 

From their Stature, Habitudes, Perfections or Imper- 
fections of the Body. — Bychan, Mawr, Moel, Cam, Main, 
Cryt Crych, Cryg, Hir, Byr, Bras, Cnl, Llwm : Madog 
Fychan, Eodri Mawr, Edwal Voel, Dafydd Gam, Gruff- 
udd Gryg, Madog Benfras, Harri Hir. 

Names of Places from Men, the inhabitants in ancient 
times being a property as well as the country : 

Wys. — So the land of Lloegrin was called (including 
the people) Lloegrwys; the lands of Py or Paw, Powys; 
from Gwent, Gwenwys. (Gwys, pi. of Gwas). 

Og. — The land and people* of Rhufon, Rhyfoniog ; 
the land and people of Cyfail, Cyfeiliog ; the land and 
people of Brychan Yrth, Brycheiniog; Morgan, Mor- 
gannog or wg ; Meriad, Meriadog. 

On. — The land of Madog, called Madogion ; the lands 
and people of Cynwyd was called Cynwydion ; the 
people of lorwerth, lorwerthion ; Ceredig makes Cere- 
digion; from Mawym, Mawymiawn; from Gwyn, Gwyn- 
ogion ; Swydd Wynogion ; from Mervyn, Merfynion, or 
Powys. 

laid. — The people of Cynfyn, called Cynfyniaid ; the 
people of Caesar, Csesariait ; the people of Coran, called 
Coranniait ; of Brychfael, Brychfaeliaid (Cynddelw.) 

Ydd. — From Melian or Mael ap Cadvael, Melienydd 
or Maelienydd ; from Eiddion, Eiddionydd ; from Meir- 
ion, Meirionydd. 

m 



THE SUBJECT OF THIS BOOK, AND THE AUTHOR'S 

DRIFT. 



Olrhain yr wyf, caffwjf bob coffa hen, 
A hanes gan wjrda, 
Enwan llefjdd/ defbydd da, 
Trigolion Gyntir^ GkJia. 

Ailrhyw gorchwyl yw olrhaiii hjnod 
Hen heDwan ym Mhrydain ;^ 
A dosparthu, rhannu rhai'n, 
Henoes, yn ea Ue'a hnnain. 

Yno cyff*lyba enwaa y Ueoedd, 
Gerllaw Mynydd Mynnaa,^ 
A'r ben awdwyr, clydwyr clan, 
Yn iawn, ft'n henwau ninnan. 

Yno dangOB achos iawn a gwreiddiau, 
A grndd enwan estrawn : 
Ag iaith y Ceiltiaid^ a gawn, 
A'i ffraeth-lais yn dra ffrwytblawn. 

Y Fmtanittith,* bon yw'n iaitb ni, coeliwcli, 
Colofn, mawr ei bynni ; 
Gwraidd Groegiaith,^ gradd ddigrygi, 
A bad Lladiniaitb^ y w bi. 

Cawn enwan en Dnwian, a'n dysg bynod, 

Yn ein h4n iaitb byddysg ; 

A mawr na wyddynt i*w mysg 

O ba wraidd y bn'r addysg ! 

Lewis Mukeis. 

^ Lleoedd. > Britain. • The Geltae. ' Greek tongue. 

» Ancient Gaul. * The Alps. • British tongue. " Latin tongue. 



CELTIC KEMAINS. 



A. 

Abad, an abbot (f. g. abodes, an abbess). This is derived from 
the Syrian word ahbas, signifying a president of monks. The 
abbots were originally laymen, and the British monks in former 
times were no clergymen. 

Giraldus Cambrensis tells us the monks in the monastery on 
Bardsey Island were first governed by a lay abbot, and called 
Colideos, Probably they were so csJled from their black hoods, 
t. e., cyliau duon. But it seems they were ecclesiastics when 
Dyfric, the archbishop, went there from the Synod of Brevi, a.d. 
619. (This was the year before the battle of Badon HilL Usher) 
See EtUU and Myrddin Wyllt 

Sometimes the princes, in the beginning of Christianity here, 
took it in their heads to build monasteries, and to act as abbots 
over them, whereby they got the title of Saints. "Abbas erat et 
princeps super Guntianam (GwenUwg) regionem," says the Book 
ofLlaTidaff, in the Life of St. Cadoc. He was the son of Gwyn- 
lUw Filwr, the prince of that country. 

Ababis, a British druid cotemporary with Pythagoras, who is 
said to have taught Pythagoras the doctrine of transmigration of 
souls, etc. He lived about 510 years before Christ, and about 
the 244th year of Bome. Some fanciful men think his ncune 
was Ap Eys. 

Abeb, recti Abekw, the fall of one water or river into another 
or into the sea ; and as it was natural to build houses or towns 
on such convenient places, abundance of towns in Britain, North 
and South, are to this day called by the names, of the rivers 

1 



2 CELTIC REMAINS. 

there dischaiging themselves. So the word aher or aberw is com- 
pounded of a and herw^ to boil, or the ebullition it makes in its 
fall. Hence Aberflraw, formerly the seat of the princes of Wales 
in Anglesey, hath its name from the fall of the river Ffraw into 
the sea ; and this may suflSice for all the rest. Vide Ffraw. 

Places in Scotland that have Aber in their name are the fol- 
lowing, viz. : Aberdeen, Aherhrothock, Abemethy, Aberdour, Aber- 
cam, Lochaber, and Aberwic (i. e., Bervnc). 

Aberalaw, in Anglesey, the fall of the river Alaw into the sea. 

Aberarth, Cardiganshire. 

Aberavan : vid. Avan, 

Aberbargod, in Bedwellty, Monmouthshire. 

[Barged Taf, ger Ilaw Mynwent y Crynwyr. — Walter Patnes.] 
Aberbekgwm, Glamorganshire. 

Bwrw Aber fal nyth Eryr 

Bergwm wenn bu'r gwae am w^r. — L, Morgcmwg. 

Aberbban. 

Hafart o Aberbran. — Vafydd Eppynt 
[Br&n i Dawy uwch Ynys Cedwyn. — W, P.] 

Aberbeothock or Arbrothock, a town on the river Tay, in 
the county of Angus in Scotland^ forty miles north-east of Edin- 
burgh. 

Aberbwthyn, Carmarthenshire. 

Aberbythych, Caermarthenshire. 

Abercar, in Taf Fawr, Breconshire. 

Abercaraf, in Llyfr Coch Hergest, for Abercoraun, and that 
for Abercaraun. Mynydd yn Abercarav. — Gwasgargerdd Vyrddin^ 

Aberoaron, the fall of the river Caron into the sea. See-4&er- 
cumig and Caron. 

ABERCioa or Abebkeog, see Ciog river. Aber Cuauc, and Kyog. 
— Llywarch Hen. 

Aberconwy Abbey, on the river Ilechog, called also Mynach- 
log Lechog and Aberllechog. It was built after the year 1145 
(see Ty Gwyn ar Ddf) and before 1157. (See Caradoc, p. ...) 

Here Gruflfydd ap Cynan ap 0. Gwynedd was buried in a monk's 
cowl, AD. 1200. The monks were in such credit among the Welsh 
in those days, that they believed Heaven was in their gift ; nay. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 3 

80 superstitious were they, that they thought if they had but a 
monk's cowl on, it would give them admittance through 

Abergorak or Abercomyn Castle, in Caermarthenshire (Cara^ 
doc, p. 321) ; recti, Abercowyn. This Castle was kept by the 
Norman, Bobt. Courtmaine, a.d. 116. . . (Powel's Caradoc, p. 178.) 

Abergurnig or Aebergurnig, a monastery mentioned by Bede 
(I i, c. 12) at a* place called in the Pictish language Peanvahd 
(or, as the annotator, PenvaeJ) ; but in the English tongue, Pe?t- 
Tultun ; in the British, Abercaron. It is now called Abercaron 
Castle, where the Picts' Wall is said to begin at a place called 
WaUtoun, {Notes on Bede) Probably the name Penneltun, in 
the language of the natives, was Fen y Wal (i, e., the end of the 
wall). But the place of this town is disputed by Warburton in 
his Survey of the WalL 

Abercwyddon, in Monmouthshire. [Aberffwyddon ym mhlwyf 
Maesaleg. — lolo MorganwgJ] 

Aber Ctken or Ctnan, in Caermarthenshire. Qu. whether 
Cenrun ? 

Abercynlleth, a gentleman's seat. — J, 2>. [Cynllaith i Dan- 
ad.— JT. 2>.] 

Aberdar, a parish in Glamorgan. 

Aberdaron, a church dedicated to StHowyn. {BrovmeWUlis.) 
(Qu., whether it belonged to Enlli ?) This was a sanctuaiy in 
Gruffydd ap Cynan's time, A.D. 1113 ; and Gruffydd ap Eys ap 
Tewdwr took sanctuary there, and from thence he fled to Ystrad 
Tywy. Vide Daron river. 

Aberdau : see Dau. 

Aberdeen or Aberdon, a city in the county of Marr in Scot- 
land, on the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don, about eighty-four 
miles north-east of Edinburgh. It is divided into two parts, and 
styled Old and New Aberdeen. The rivers go into the sea about 
a mile distant, and the new town is built on the Dee. The fish- 
ing town of Fetty lies on the sea-side. 

Aberdulas [in Glamorgan. — L Mi\ 

Adfydd Pfranc ar ffo fibrdd ni ofyn 

Yd Aberdulas gwanhas gwehyn 

Cochwedd yn eu cylchwodd yn cu cylchwyn. 

Hoianau Myrddin, 



4 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Abebdyh, a village in Merionethshire, on . the motith of the 
river Dyfi- There was a castle built by Rhys ap Gruffydd, King 
of South Wales, A.D. 1155, at Aberdyfi, over against North Wales, 
that is, in Cardiganshire ; but now there are not the least marks 
of it to be seen- See Caradoc in 0. Givynedd, 

Aberenion, a castle built by Maelgwn ap Rhys, A.D. 1205. 

Abebffos (nomen loci). 

DiddoB AberflTos ni bu. — Ekys Pennardd, 

Abeeffeaw : vide Ffraw. Cantref Aberflfraw, one of the three 
cantrefe of Anglesey, containing two commots, Uion and Mall- 
draeth. 

Abebffbtdlan, a gentleman's seat in Merionethshire, on the 
river Ffiydlan. 

Abebgabth Celyn is Aber village and church in Caernarvon- 
shire, called also Abergwyngregin, at the entrance of the great 
pass of Bwlch y Ddeufaen. Vid. Oarth Celyn, 

Abergavenni or Abergavenny (now Abergenny), a town in 
Monmouthshire, fourteen miles west of Monmouth. Here Wm. 
de Bruse treacherously murdered the men of Gwent, ad. 1176. 

Abergelau, a church, village, and parish, in the deanery of 
Rhos, Denbighshire. Vid. Gelau, 

Abergorlech, in Carmarthenshire. 

Abergwaith. 

A chad Abergwaith a chad laithon. — Hoicmau Myrddin. 

Abergwili, near Caermarthen. A battle was fought here 
between Llywelyn ap Seisyllt and the South Wales men, who 
set up one Run, a Scot, for a pretender, AD. 1020. The North 
Wales men got the victory. 

Aberhonddu, a town and castle on the fall of Honddu into 
the Wysg ; in English, Brecknock ; the chief town of Brecknock- 
shire. It was inhabited in the time of the Romans, as Camden 
observes, because their coins are found here. Ber. Newmarch, 
in Wm. Rufus* time, built here a stately castle which the Breosses 
and Bohuns afterwards repaired; and here was a Collegiate Church 
of fourteen prebendaries, which Henry VIII translated here from 
Abergwili, in the Priory of the Dominicans. Vid. Honddu. 

Aberllai, if rightly read by Mr. Edward Uwyd, the place 
where Urien Reged was killed by the Saxons. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 5 

Yn Aberllai lladd JJxien.'^Llywarch Hen, If not Aberllew, 
which see [s. v. Llew\. 

Aberllech, a place in South Wales, where the Britains fell 
upon the Normans, Anno Domini 1094, and destroyed most of 
them. {Garadoc, p. 154) 

Aberllechog : see Llechog. Here was the Abbey of Aberconwy. 

Aberllienn Awc, rightly Aberlleiniog, in Anglesey. Caradoc 
(in Gr. ap Cynan) is mistaken. Built by the Earls of Chester and 
Salop (p. 155) A.D. 1095. 

Abermaw, a village and a good harbour at the mouth of the 

river Maw in Meirion. Here a customhouse for coast business 

hath been lately set up, and here is a public ferryboat to cross 

the river. Now called Bermo. 

Talwn fferm porth Abermaw 

Ar don drai er ei dwyn draw. — D. ap OwUym, 

Abermenai, where the river Menai faUs into the sea near 
Caernarvon ; but it is properly no river, but an arm of the sea. 
Here Cadwaladr ap Grufiydd ap Cynan in the year 1142 landed 
with a great force of Irish and Scots, whom he had hired 
agaiMt his brother, Owain Gwynedd; but the auxiliaries were 
defeated, and peace was concluded between the two brothers. 
{Garadoc, p. 197.) Caradoc says they had no battle ; but if this 
was that described by Gwalchmai ap Meilir, it was a desperate 
one. But that seems to me to be a sea-fight with Henry II and all 
the power of England and Normandy and the hired fleets of Irish 
and Danes. His first expedition to Wales was in the year 1154 ; 
and his second in 1157, at Chester. 

Abernaint, a gentleman's seat. — J.D, [Near Ilanfyllin, Mont- 
gomeryshire. — W, D."] 

Abernant Bychan, a gentleman's seat, Cardiganshire. 

Abernefyetd, or Mefydd, or Newydd, or Nevydd, where Elidir 
Mwynfawr was killed by Ehun. {MS.) 

Abernon : Eglwys Abemon near St. David's. (Llwyd^s N^otes 
on Gamden.) It seems there is a river here called iVoTi, so named 
from Non, the mother of St. David. [See Eenton. — W.D,] 

Aberporth, Cardiganshire, and Blaenporth. 

ABERRfiEiDoL {Garadoc in 0. Gwynedd, p. 220). This is either 
Aberystwyth or the Dinas by Aberystwyth. [The junction of 



6 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Eheidiol and Ystwyth was formerly in a difiTerent place from the 
present junction. See my Tour. — W. D.] 

Abertanat, near Ilansilin : vid. Tanad. 

Abebtabadr. 

Am Abertaradr yn tremyna 

Am Byrth Ysgewin yn goresgynxin. 

Owynfardd Brycheiniog, i Arg. Ry8« 

Abertarogi : see Tarogi. 

Abertawy, Swansey in Glamorgan ; a seaport and town of 
good trade. [The river Tawy here falls into the Bristol Channel 
— JV. D.] 

Aberteifi, a town and castle built on the river Teivi, near the 
sea. This place^ in the time of the wars with the Normans, 
Saxons, Flemings, etc., was the key and lock of all Wales. Rhys, 
the Prince of South Wales, in the year 1177, being in peace with 
Henry II, proclaimed through all Britain a great feast to be kept 
at this castle, where, among deeds of arms and other shows, the 
poets and musicians of Wales were to try their skill for the 
honour of their several countries, with great rewards for the over- 
comers. Here North Wales got the better in poetry, and South 
Wales in music. (Caradoc in J), op Ovniin,) 

Aberthaw or Aberdaon, a seaport in Morganwg. — Dr. Powel, 
p. 122. [Aberddawon, where the river Dawon falls into the Bristol 
Channel ; in English, Aberthaw. — I. Jf.] 

Abertridwr, Glamorganshire. 

Abertrinant, Cardiganshire. 

Abertwrch, in Ilangiwg, Glamorgan. [Twrch i Dawy. See 
Survey of South Waks.— W. D.'\ 

Aberwig, qu. Berwick ? Vid. y Ferwig. 

["Mwnt a'r Ferwig, maent ar fai."— TF. D.] 

Aberwiler {B. Willis), part of the parish of Bodflfari, Flint- 
shire. [Commonly Aberchmler ; " Gwylary," say some. — W. U.] 

Aberyw or Aberhiw, now Beriw, a parish and church in Mont- 
gomeryshire, dedicated to St. Beuno (k aber and yw). 

Y barr mwya*n Aberyw, 

A'r bel yn aur o'r blaen yw. — 0. ap LI, Moeh 

Abloic, was King of Ireland, who landed in Anglesey, burnt 



CELTIC REMAINS. 7 

Holyhead, and spoiled Ueyn, about A.D. 958, in the reign of lago 
and leuaf, sons of Idwal VoeL (Powers Caradoc, p. 61.) 

AccwiL, a msoi's name. Perhaps from AquUa ; and hence 
some think the prophecy of Eryr Caersepton (i «., the Eagle of 
Caersepton) took its name^ a man called AquUa having prophe- 
sied those things about his countrymen, the Britains. See 
Powel's CaradoCy p. 5 ; and see also Leland's Script Brit., c. 5. 

AcH and Achau : pedigree, or a table of the descents of persons 
from their ancestors. Sir Peter Leicester, in his Antiquities^ says 
in great triumph, that there are only sixty-six descents between 
Shem and Christ in St. Luke ; but that, according to the British 
history, the descent from Brute to Cassibelan is seventy, and 
twenty-two more from Noah to Brute, in all ninety-two. This, 
he says, is a plain mark of imposture in the British history of 
Galfrid. But to any impartial man it is a strong proof of its 
authenticity; for the Scriptursd descents axe of sons from fathers, 
but the British account is of kings, brothers, and strangers, and 
some of but short reigns. 

AcH, pro Merch. (Dr. Davies, Orammar, p. 161.) 
. AcHLACH, Glyn Achlach, or (as in one MS.) Glyn Achalch, 
a place in Ireland where, in a meeting of the British and Trish 
musicians about the year 1096, the rules of composition of music 
for Wales and Ireland were settled by order of Murchan, the 
Irish prince, and of Gruffydd ap Cynan, the Welsh prince. This 
was Murchartus. (Offygia, p. 438.) 

Adakau : vid. Caer Adanau. 

Adab (Ynys), the Adros of Pliny, etc. Ynys Adar, the old 
name of Skerries. (Hum. Llwyd, Brit, JDescript.y 

Adda and Addap (n. pr.), Adamus. 

Adda Fsas, the poet and pretended prophet of Isconwy about 
the year 1240. 

Adbbon or Gadebon (n. pr. v.). " Gorchan Adebon" by An- 
euryn. 

Adles, verch Dafydd ap Llywarch Goch o DegaingL 

Adwy'r Beddau, a pass through Offa's Ditch, where the graves 
of the Saxons are to be seen to this day, that were killed there 
in Henry the Second's expedition to Berwyn. See Crogen and 
Corwm. 



8 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Aedan ap Blegored, a prince or king of Wales in the year 
1003. 

Aedenaw, or Aedenawc, mab Gleisiar o*r Gogledd, un o'r tri 
•glew. {Tr. 27.) 

Aedd ap Clys or Aedd mab Clys : see Afarwy, 

Aedd Mawk, father of Prydain, who is said to have conquered 
this island. Ehys Goch Eryri says this Aedd was son of Anto- 
nus, son of Ehiwallawn, son of Ehegaw, daughter of Ilyr. See 
Prydain and Dyfnvxd Mod Mud. 

Aedd AN (n. pr. v.), Aidanvs or ^danus; in the Saxon Chro- 
nicle Aegthan ; in the English of Bede, Edan. 

Aeddan Fradawg, father of Gafran, {Triad 34.) This Aeddan 
was a prince of the Northern Britains^ or British Picts, who had 
the civil war with Rhydderch Hael. (TV. 46.) Bede calls him 
a king of the Scots (lib. i, c. 34). This is the Bridevs of Nennius. 
His great battle with Ethelfrid, King of the Angles of North- 
umbria, was fought at Daegstane in Cumberland, in the year 
603, as Bede says, but the Saxon Chronicle sajs 606. This I take 
to be that battle the Triades caU "Y DifancoU," i. e,, the total 
loss. {Triades, 34.) That part of the army commanded by Gaf- 
ran, his son, being 2,100, in retreating to save their lord, were 
drove into the sea. " Un o dri diwair deulu" {i. e,, one of the 
three faithful clans), I suppose, retreated into the Isle of Man. 
Fordun, Boethius, and Buchanan, are all confusion about his 
successor. 

Aedden ap Cyngen, about eight descents after Biychwel Ys- 
githrog. 

Aeddon, n. pr. v. 

Aeddon o Eon, his elegy wrote by Taliesin. 

Aeddon (Tref), near Aberflfraw; vulgo Tre Eiddon : Yid. Arch- 
a^eddon (Llyn). 

Aeddren, a place in liangwm, where it is said Bedo Aeddren 
came from. (MS.) 

Aedwy, river in Badnorshire. Aberaedwy, a parish in Badnor- 
shire. Vid. Edvry. 

Aeles, verch Kcart ap Cadw ab Gr. ab Cynan ; probably Alice. 

Aeluaiarn (Saint). Llanaelhaiam in Caernarvonshire. 

Aelianus: yii. Elian. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 9 

Aeron (nom. fluv.), a river in Ceretica. 

Ymddifnstlei lew ar Ian Aeron berth 
Pan borthes eiyron. 

Cynddelw, i Howel ap Owain Gwynedd. 

HcDce Aberaeron, a village and sea-creek in Cardiganshire ; Uch 
Aeron, the country to the north of the river Aeron ; and Is Aeron, 
the country to the south and south-west of it. 
Aeron (n. pr.) : see Euron. 

Aeron galon galed. — Myrddin. 

Aeron (Llanerch), a gentleman's seat. — J. D. PerUre Aeron, 
a gentleman's seat. 

-^tna, a fiery mountain in Sicily, which may have got its 
name from the Celtic tan : so the ancients wrote etan, L e., y tan, 
the fire. 

Aethog ap Iddig ap Cadell Deymllys (in other places Deym- 

Afagddu (n. pr. v.). 

Afngddn mab Caridwen. — Hanes Talienn. 

Afallach (n. pr. v.). (Triad 52.) 

Afallon, Ynys Afallon, the Isle of Avalonia ; called also by 
Latin writers Glasconia. This was a spot of ground encompassed 
with rivers and marshes, and where anciently stood a monas- 
tery. It lies in the county of Somerset, and is now called Glas- 
tonbury. The name is derived from a/al (an apple), as Giraldus 
Cambrensis says it abounded formerly with apples and orchards ; 
or from Avallon, once lord of that place, which I take to be 
Afallach. In this ancient monastery King Arthur, the great 
British hero, was buried, and his sepulchre was discovered in 
the time of Henry II ; and a grand monument was erected for 
him in the new abbey by Henry de Sayle. (Vide Morgain.) 
But the name seems to be derived from avallcn, the plural of 
which, among the Loegrian British, might be Afallon, which is 
the termination of the plural of many nouns, as dyn, dynUm ; 
(fwas,g^weision; though the Cumbrians and the Northern Britains 
or Picts would have called it Avallennau, as appears by Mer- 
dtlin's works, who was a Pict of the forest of Kdyddon, Giraldus 

9 



10 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Cambrensis' Avallon, lord of the territory called Avellonia, his 
British name seems to be Afallach, 

Felly 'n Ynys Afallach 
Efe a aeth yn fjw iach. 

Leiois Glyn Cothi, i Arthur. 

The island was also called Ynys Wydrin, or the Glass Island, 
from the colour of the river being like glass. Hence GloAconia, 

Afan, a river in Glamorganshire : hence AherafaHy corruptly 
wrote by Camden Aberafon. Cwmmwd rhwng Nedd ac Afan. 
(Price's Descript) 

Afan (Saint). lianafan. 

Afan Neddig, bardd Cadwallon ap Cadvan. (H. Lhoyd.) 

Afan Ferddic, a poet mentioned by Cynddelw to Hywel ap 
Owain Gwynedd. Mian Verdic, bardd Cad. ap Cadvan. {Tr. 17.) 

Afaon (n. p. v.), mab Taliesin, one of the three tarw unben 
(TV. 13), killed by Llawgad Trwm Bargawd. {Tr, 38.) 

Afarwy, ap Lludd ap Beli Mawr, un'or tri w;^r gwarth. {Tr. 
90.) " He invited lulcessar and the men of Rome to this island, 
and caused 3000 [pounds] of silver to be paid annually as tribute 
from this island to the men of Rome." {Triades, 91.) 

Afarwy (n. p. v.). 

Lleith Ywein llith brain braiddfrys 
1 faran Avarwy aedd mab Cl^s. 

Cynddelw^ Marwnad Yw. ap Madawc. 

Afarwy and Afarddwy. Mr. Ed. Ilwyd thinks Mardubra- 
tius or Mandubratius was Afarwy Fras. 

Afarwy Hir, father of Indeg. {Tr. 60.) 

Afawn (n. pr. v.). Hence Bodafawn or Bodafon : vid. Aeddon. 

Afaerwy (fl.), in Marwnad Cynddylan. {Lly^oarch Hen) 

Affric or Affrwic, the quarter of the globe called Africa. 
"Ac ar hynny o espeit y deuthant hyd er Affric.*' (Tyssilio.) 
From whence the Danes or Norwegians came to Ireland and 
Britain in the reign of Ceredic. " Gotmwnt brenin yr Affric." 
{Tyssilio,) Vid. PoweFs Caradoc, p. 6, where he is, out of Cas- 
tor, called Gurmundus, an arch-pirate and captain of the Nor- 
wegians, A.D. 590. Galfrid calls him Gormundus, king of Africa ; 
but th^ British copy of Tyssilio has it " brenin yr Affric" (q. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 1 1 

AfiTrwic ?). This termination, ic or vnc, is common in the north : 
Leipsick, Brunswic, Dantzic, for Leipwick, Dantwick. 

Afia or Arafia {D. ap Choilym, D, ap JSdmvmt, etc.), Arabia. 

Ag aur Arafia 'n gmg a nfwn.—L. O. Cothi. 

AGNEDA,Castell Mynydd Agnes, Edinburgh ; called also Alata 

Castra and Castrum Fuellarum, Gastell y Morwynion, i. e., the 

Castle of Maidens. 

AroAL, Italy. 

Myn croes naid o fro Aidal. 

AiDAN (St.) : hence Llanidan in Anglesey. {H. Bowlands.) 
Others say St. Nidan. Aidan was the apostle of the Northum- 
brians about the year 600, and succeeded by Ffinnan. 

AiFFT, Egypt. 

AiFFTES, a gipsy or Egyptian woman. 

AiFFTWR, an Egyptian. 

Alaeth ap Elgrid L&s ap Eilon. 

Alaethau ap Cadvan. (MS,) Under him Dyfyn Diarcher 
claimed the Principality. 

Alais, verch Ithel Vychan. 

Alan (n. pr. v.), a name very common in Armorica, several of 
their kings being of that name. In Triadcs, 35, there is one of 
this name mentioned to have been defeated by his men before 
the battle of Camlan between Arthur and Medix>d (a.d. 542), and 
was there killed. He was probably an Armorican auxiliary of 
King Arthur's. 

** Teulu Alan Fyrgan a ymchoelasant y wrth eu harglwydd yn 
Uedrat ar y flfordd ae ollwng yntau ae weision i Camlan ac yno 
y lias." {Tr. 35.) 

The very surname, Fyrgan, whatever it means, hath been re- 
tained by the Armoricans to the time of our William the Con- 
queror ; for I find Alan Fergeant, Count of Bretagne, paid homage 
to Henry I of England for Britanny. {Vertot, vol. ii, p. 185.) 

Alan, a king of Armorica about the year 688, when Cadwaladr 
deserted Britain ; father of Ifor (i ael and glan, q. d. ael-ldn, fair 
eyebrow). Camden would have it to be a corruption of Pla- 
nus. But why ? Is it impossible there nought be Alan as well 
as Jilian ? 



12 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Alasswy. Tir Alasswy, mentioned in the English battle of 
Llewelyn ap lorwertL " Teymdud Leissawn ac Alasswy dir i 
deym Dyganwy." 

Alaw (fl.), a river in Anglesey, on the banks of which there is 
the Tomb of Bronwen verch Llyr o Harlech. " Bedd petrual a 
wnaed i Fronwen ferch lijrr ar Ian Alaw, ag yno y claddwyd 
hi" {Mahinogif ap. Davies.) There is a cromlech in these parts 
which is said to be Brouwen's Tomb. (J. D. Uavies's Letter to 
E. Llwyd.) Hence Olan Alaw, n. L (Llwyd*s Notes on Camden.) 

Alban (n. pr. v.). Alban, son of Brutus ; St. Alban, etc. 

Alban, father of Diflfwg. (Tr. 72.) 

Alban, Lat. Albania, Scotland. So in the Irish tongue, Alba 
and Alban is Scotland ; and Albanach, Scottish ; and the country 
called Braidalbain, in Scotland, stiU retains the name Albania. 

Albanactus ap Brutus; recti Albanact, neu Albanact ap 
Prydain : vid. Lloegr. 

Albion, one of the ancient names of the Isle of Britain among 
the Greeks ; so called, as some think, from Albion, the son of 
Neptune. (Perrot) There is a tradition to this day in Wales, 
that one Albion Oaivr had once a command or some authority 
here. This is commonly interpreted Albion the Giant, but means 
no more than Albion the Prince. This name, Albion, for the 
island, it seems, never got footing among the natives, for accord?- 
ing to the Triades the original name of the island was Clas (vide 
Cla$ Merdin), y Vel Ynys, and Ynys Prydain. Mela says that 
Albion was killed in Gaul by Hercules. If this was the son of 
Jupiter, he was six hundred years before Brutus ; but Varro 
reckons forty-four Hercules's. Vid. Cawr. 

Alclud, Alclut, Ue'r oedd llys Ehydderch Hael. Alclwyd, 
Alcluyt, but properly Aeklwyd, a city on the brow of the river 
Clwyd (Clyde) in Scotland, which is either Glasgow or Dun- 
barton. Here was the royal seat of the Strathclwyd Britains. 
Bede (L i, c. 1) says the Britons call it Alcuith, in another MS, 
Ahluith or Alcluick; 1. i, c. 12, Ahluith, which in British is, he 
says, Eock Cluith. As this city aiid several others in the Triades 
are not in Nennius (Catalogue of Cities), it is plain he had not 
seen the Triades, 

Alduyt, laid Ithel ap Adda. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 13 

Aldyt ap Ywain ap Edwin frenin. 

Alectus, the eighty-third king of Britain : q. Aleth ? 

Aleth frenin am winoedd. — D. ap leuom Du, 

He killed Carawn, king of Britain. (Tyssilio,) Selden calls him 
Cuius Alectus, The English translation of Bede calls himAIlertus 
(L i, c. 6) ; but the Latin, AUectus. 

Aled (n. fl.). DyflFiyn Aled, Denbighshire. Cwm Aled. Uwch 
Aled and Is Aled, two commots of Rhyfoniog hundred. Vid. 
Tudur Aled. Aled river falls into Elwy, Denbighshire. 

Alet (n. fl.). Dr. Davies translates it Alettvs. Vid. Aled, 

Aleth (n. p. r.) : qu. Alectus ? which see. 

Aleth, a prince of Dyfed {J, D.), neu Alun. 

Aleth, a country in Armorica : vid. Machutus, 

Alfryd ap Gronow o Wareddog. 

Alffryd, in English Alfred. 

Aus, taken by the British poets for the general mother of 
Englishmen ; as we say, sons of Eve. 

O waod teala plant Alia. 

P. Llwyd cup LI. ap Gniffydd. 

Plant Alls, y Saeson ; PlaTit Alis y biswail, by way of con- 
tempt. 

Almaen, enw gwlad. 

Almedha (St.), daughter of Brychan Brycheiniog. (Giraldus 
Cambrensis, Itin. Camb., p. 826.) Probably Eledei. 

Almor (n. L). (Dr. Davies in Allmor.) Vid. Alltmor. 

Alne, a river (Bede, 1. iv, 3, 28), probably Alun. It is near 
the Isle of Fame. 

Alo (n. p. v.), a great man in Powys, rhwng Gwy a Hafren,q. ? 

O Iwyth Gw^n gwehelyth gynt 

Ag Alo ni fygylynt. — L ah Tudur PenUyn. 

Gwaed Alo yn goed eilwaith. — Owain ap Llyw. Muel. 

Alser, mab Maelgwn. (Trioedd y Meirch, No. 6.) 
Alser ap Tudwal ap Rodri Mawr. 
Alswn, verch Howel ap Ehobert. 

Alswn wych lysieuyn wawr. 
Alun (fl.), a river that falls into the Dee below Almore. Ys- 



14 CELTIC REMAINS. 

trad Alun. Caer Alun, Haverfordwest {Th, Williams) Coed 
Alun, Caernarvonshire. Penalun yn Nyfed. 

Alwen (fl.), in Denbighshire, falls into the Dee. (Uywarch 
Hen in Marwnad C3mddylan.) Llewelyn Ddu was lord of Uwch 
Alwen, and kept his court at a place called CynwyA {J, D.) 

Allmon (pL Ellmyn), an Alman or German ; but AlUmon is 
literally a highland man or High German. All authors agree 
that the Alemanni were a particular nation of Germans, distinct 
from them. The Britains distinguished the Nort-myn from the 
AlU-myn. The Germans are called by the Spaniards and Italians, 
etQ.,Almain8; but call themselves Twitshmen, and know nothing 
of the name Oerman. ( Verstegan,) 

Allt, a very ancient Celtic word signifying the ascent or side 
of a mountain ; and from hence the Eomans borrowed their alius 
by adding vs. It is prefixed to the names of many places in 
Britain which have that signification, as Allt Faelwc, yng Ngher- 
edigion ; probably Allt Fadoc (Triades, Meirch, 1) ; yr Allt Kudd ; 
yr Allt Wen or Allwen ; Allt y Crib ; yr AUt Goch ; AUmor, 
Alltmor. Almeria, a city and port of Spain, called from hence. 
Also in compounds in the ends of words, as Pen'r Allt, y Ben- 
allt, yr Alltben, the Alpes (yr AHpen), y Wenallt, y Felallt, y 
Faelallt, y GoedaUt, y Hirallt, Allt Gadwallawn. Allt Cwm- 
bobus, a gentleman's seat in lai. 

Allt Meliden (nom. loci). Prebend of Allt Meliden at St. 
AsapL 

Alltgrug, in Uangwig, Glamorgan. 

Alltmor, the seventh battle of Llewelyn ap lorwerth, near 
Pennal. {Gylch, Llewelyn) " Pennal-dir angir angerdd." 

Alltran, a rock near Holyhead. 

Alltud Eedegog : vid. Gallu, Our books of genealogies make 
this man to be father of St. Elian, who was the founder of a 
monastery in Anglesey. Qu., whether he was not the same with 
Iltvdus, who was head and founder of a famous college in Mor- 
ganwg at Lantwit ? Vid. Elian and Eilian, 

Ambiorix, a commander of the Gauls; first a captain of the 
Eburones. {Ccesar) 

Ambri, Amesbury. Mynydd Ambri, Dinas Ambri, Amesbury. 

Ambrones, some nation. Nennius interprets this name by 



CELTIC REMAINS. 15 

Ald-Saxonum, or Old Saxons, which Paulinus, Archbishop of 
York, baptized. (Nennius,c.lxiii.) But Ainsworth says they were 
a people of Switzerland, whose country being drowned, turned 
thieves ; from which iU men were called Ambrones. 

Amddyfrwys : Ilanamddyfrwys or lianamddy&i, vulgo Lan- 
dovery. 

Amgoed, one of the three commots of Cantref Daugleddeu. 
(Price's Dcseript.) 

Amhafal (fl.). Llyn'arch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan. 

Amhiniog, a lordship in Ceretica; or Anhiniog, Anhunoc. 

(Price's Descript) 

I*nhiniog oludog wledd 

Mi af ; yno mae f annedd. — Beio ap leuan Du. 

Ami, verch ArgL Herbert. 

Amlawdd Wledig [married Gwen, daughter of Cunedda 
Wledig.— ir.i>.] 

Amlwch, a village and church in Anglesey. Qu., whether a 
llyn or llnHih there ? Llyn Mynydd Trysglw}'n. 

Amman : vid. Cvrm Amman, in Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire. 

Ammwlch : Cefn Ammwlch, a place in Ileyn ; from an and 
hwleh, q. d. cyfa, 

Ammwyn, defender (Celt.), a title of Jupiter. By the Eomans 
Latinised Ammon or Hammon« Teml lou Ammwyn, i, e., the 
Temple of Jupiter Ammon. 

Ammwyn Gakthan : qu., whether the name of a place where 

Gniffydd ap Cynan ap Owain Gwynedd fought a battle and 

burnt it ? 

Molais rwyf Cemais camre yngaylan 

Yn ammwyn garthan gyrch i dandde. 

Prydydd y Mochy i Gr. ap Cynan ap Ow. Qwyncdd. 

Amwyn Ednob and Anmiwyn Elfael, in Cynddelw in Marwnad 
Cadw. ap Madawc. 

Amode, verch Howel ap Ivan. 

Amrel, an admiral This word seems to be but of modern 
use in Wales. The British word for an admiral, in King Arthur's 
time, when the British navy was in its height (about a.d. 520), 
was llyngesatve, from llynges, a navy, or llyngesdvyr, a navy man. 
(Vid. Triades, 20.) But the original Celtic word for chief admiral 



16 CELTIC REMAINS. 

seems to be penaig, q. d. pen eigion, i. e,, head of the ocean, 
though used for any principal officer after we had lost our navy. 

Amwn Ddu, brenin Groeg [Graweg] : vid. Tewdric, 

Amwythig, or Amwyddig, from gwydd, surrounded with woods 
or shrubs : hence Shrewsbury or Shrubsbury, anciently Pengweni 
Bowys. 

Anan, verch Aneurin* (TV. 74.) 

Anan (n. f.). Anan, merch Meic Mygotwas, un o'r tair gohoyw 
riain. (^r. 74.) 

Anarad, id. quod Anarawd, 

Anarad, Merfyn, Gad ell, 
A droed i wr edrjd well ? — Or, ap Llewelyn Vychan, 

Anabawd, the name of the sixth prince of Wales in a.d. 877, 
son of Eodri Mawr. Not corrupted from ffonoratus, as Camden 
suggests, but derived from a'n or ein, and arawd, q. d. our ora- 
tor ; as we say ''a'n dwylo" for "ag ein dwylo". 

Anarawd ap Gr. ap Rhys, prince of South Wales, a.d. 1142. 

Anarawd, arglwydd Emwythig in King Arthur's time. 

Anawan. Scr. 

Andras, king of Britain ; Androgius. 

Andrau or Andrew (but in my copy Andryiv), the fiftieth 
king of Britain ; from an and derwydd or drv^wydd, a druid. 

Androenus. 

Aneu. Sct. 

Anevrin or Aneuryn (n. pr. v.), a poet of this name, who 
flourished about A.D. 510. In Nennius, iViw^vm ; Sir Tho. Br., 
Enerin, Aneuryn or Aneiryn Gwawdrydd, Medeyrn Beirdd; 
he was killed by Eidyn mab Einygan. Mr. Edward Ilwyd calls 
him Mychdeym Beirdd. (Triades, 38, 39, 74.) 

Angaw (n. 1.), Anjou in GauL 

Angell, a river. Aber Angell, Meirion. 

Angharad or Angharat (n. f.). Angharat Ton Felen, merch 
Rhydderch Hael, un o'r tair gohoyw riain- {Tr. 74.) 

Angharad leu ad lewych 

Ynghaer Duw mae 'Ngharad wych. 

Angharad ach Evrog Gadam. 
Angharad ach Colion. Scr, 



CELTIC REMAINS. l7 

ANGHEifEL. Sc. 

Anglesey, the English name of the Isle of AfSn, a county of 
North Wales, called by the natives Sir Fon, Tir Mdn, and Gwlad 

F6n, i. e., Monshire. It was called Anglesey by King on 

his conquering it, which signifies the Englishman's Island (this 
was the battle of lianfaes, q. ?), i, e., Angles-ey, ey being the 
Saxon word for an island, as Bards-ey, Cald-ey, Rams-ey, Gams- 
ey, Jers-ey, etc. 

This was the Mona of Tacitus, and the Isle of Man is the Mona 
mentioned by Caesar in his Commentaries, Vid. Mona. 

Merfyn Vrych, from the Isle of Man, dispossessed the English ; 
and his son, Roderick the Great, King of aU Wales, removed the 
palace from Caer yn Arvon to Aberflfraw. {Mona Antigua, p. 173.) 

Anguischel, King of Scotland. (Jo. Major, Hist, Scot, 1. ii, 3, 6.) 
He was Arawn ap Cynfarch, who was killed with Gwalchmai in 
the first battle with Medrawt, a.d. 542. 
. Angyw, Anjou in France. 

Anhun. Sc. 

ANHUNOCjOne of the three commots of Cantref Canawl. (Price's 
Descript) 

Anlawd Wledig. He married Gwen, daughter of Cunedda 
Wledig. (Ach Cattwg.) ' 

Anlhach. Scr. 

Anllech Corunawc, King of Ireland, father of Brychan Brych- 
einiog (vid. Brychan). Corunavjc seems to be the same with 
Coronawc or Coronog (i. c, crowned), being the chief crowned 
head or principal king ; from the Celtic corun or coryn, the crown' 
of the head. The Latin corona and Greek Kopovri are of the 
same original ; so the Chald. kerontha and the Hebrew keren. 

Annell (n. L). Z. G. Cothi {k an and hell). 

Annes, AngL Agnes. 

Annwfn or Annwn, the deep; hell ; the country of the fairies . 
antipodes. Duwies Annwn, Goddess of the Deep or bottomless 
place. 

Anoethon. Scr. 

Anbheg ach Evrog Gadam. 

Anselmus, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1100, temp. Guil. Rufi, 

regis Anglise. 

3 



1 8 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Aktigon verch Wmflre, duwc o Gloster. 
Anun Ddu ap Emyr Uydaw. 
Anundhwt. &r. 
Anwig, Enwig (n. L). 
Anwis^ some city. 

A'th fronn wrth fnriau Anwis. — OwcUn ap Uew. Mod. 

Anwn. 8c. 

Anwyl, AngL dear. Ithel Anwyl ap Bleddyn. 

Aran, a mountain in Meirion. Yr Aran Fawr (not Aren). 

Lliw eiry cynnar Pen Aran, 

Uoer bryd Iwys vryd o Lys Vr&n. — H. ah Einion, i Pefanwy. 

Abandr, enw gwr. Rhiwallon ap Arandr o Lwyth Penllyn. 

Arawd or Arod (n. pr. v.). 

Arawn, King of Alban, now Scotland, in King Arthur's time. 

Arawn or Aron (n, pr. v.). Aron ap Cynfarcli, un o'r tri chy- 
nghoriaid. {Tr. 86.) 

Arberth, one of the eight cantrefs of Pembrokeshire ; in Eng- 
lish, Narberth. There are fairs kept here. Castell Arberth, 
AD. 1215. 

Archaeddon. Uyn Archaeddon, a lake on the top of Bod- 
afon Mountain in Anglesey, which makes me suspect that Bod- 
afon should be wrote Bodaeddon. 

Dyfitl yngwem Bodafon. — D. ap Edmwnt, 

Archenad. Cynan Archenad. 

Arderydd or Arderyd (n. L), Tr. 3. Owaiih Arderydd, the 
battle of Arderydd, on account of two shepherds who quarrelled 
about a lark's nest : one killed the other. {T. Aled) 

£r gwaiih Arderydd mi nim dorbi 

Cyn syrthiai awyr i lawr Uyr Enlli. — Hoianau Myrd&in, 

See Owaiih Arderydd, Bhodwydd Arderydd, CaerArderyddyAeddan 
Fradatvg, and Owenddoleu, 

Ardudwy, DyflFryn Ardudwy, that part of Merionethshire join- 
ing to the Irish Sea, where a great tract of ground was swallowed 
by the sea about a.d. 500. Ardudwy was formerly one of the 
two commots of Dunodig in Caernarvonshire. Camden thinks 
he sees some footsteps of the word Ordovicea in Ardudwy, but I 
con see none. {Camden in Mantg,) 



celtic remains. 1 9 

Abcuwjsdloo. 

Abddebch ap Iddon ap Cadrod Hardd. 

Abdhebch Drug. Scr, 

Abdde'b Mynych, dan droed Mynydd Tryri; the place of 
the nativity of Dr. Thomas Williams, the physician, the ingenious 
author of the Latin-BritiBh part of Dr. Davies' Dictionary, and 
of several other curious tracts extant in MSS., Achau, Historian, 
etc. Qu., whether Gerddi'r Mynych ? 

Abddon. Ynys Arddon y w Ynys y Moelrhoniaid. {Hist, Or, 
ap Cynan) Vid. Ynys Hyrddod, 

Abddun or Ardun (n. pr. f.) ; hence D6i Arddun. Ardun 
gwraig Catcor apColwyn orGorolwyn(lV. 5 5), a noted chaste wife. 

Arddu (Yr), a steep rock at Llanberis. {E, Llwyd,) 

Arddu (Yr), yn Efionydd. Qu., yr ardd ddu ? 

Arddyfi, i. e., above the river Dyfi ; Lat. Ordovices^ q. d. Gw^ 
ar Ddyfi, the North Wales men. 

AiU)DYNWYNT, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) 

Aren Benlltk, a high mountain in PenUjm in Meirion ; per- 
haps because of the shape of aren, a kidney. 

Aren Fowddwt, a mountain in Meirion. 

ARENNia {K lAwyd), a mountain in Meirion, or Yr £nnig» 
wrote by the ancients Aran. Vid. Aran, 

Arf-finiog. Howel Arf-finiog. 

Arfon, the name of a cantref containing two commots, Uwch 
and Is Gwirfau, in Caernarvonshire ; but was anciently, it seems, 
the name of all the coast of the mainland which lay over against 
M&n, and for that reason called Arfon, compounded of ar and 
M&n, or on M6n ; hence Caer Arfon in the triades, now Caer yn 
Arfon, a garrison town and a noble castle. From the name of 
the town tlie county took its present name. 

Arfordir, terra maritima. Dinasoedd arfordir, civitates mari- 
timse. 

Argat, a poet, father of Cynhaval. 

Argoed. This seems to be the name of the camps made by 
the Britains by felling of wood and heaping them up, as is done 
in all woody countries to this day. 

Ni sefis na th^r na bwr bu crain 

Nag argoed na choed na chadlys drain. ' 

EinUm ap Gwgan^ to Llewelyn. 



20 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Argoed and Arfynydd, places mentioned by Taliesin in the 
Battle of Argoed liwyfain. 

Argoed, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) Vid. Gargoed and Argoed- 
Wys. 

Argoed Llwyfain : vid. Liwyfain. 

Argoedwys, the people of Argoed in Powys-land. 

Gledr cad calon Argoedwys. 

lAywarch Hen, in Marwnad Gynddylan. 

Gw^i* Argoed erioed am porthes. 

Lhjwarch Hen, i'w Blant. 
Argonwy, i. e., above Conwy. 

Donn Argonwy. — D. ap OwQym. 

SoArllechwedd, Arddyfi,Arderydd, Ar y M6r ucha, and Ardudwy, 
Arfon, etc. 

Argyleshire : vid. Ar y Crvryddyl. 

Arian. Angliarad Law Arian, verch Dafydd ap Einion. 

Arianfagl (n. pr. v.) {Trioedd y Meirch, 1.) 

Arianrhod ferch Don, un o'r tair gwenriain. (TV. 34.) 

Arianwen ferch Brychan. 

Arlegh. Camden says that in the smaU country of Ardudwy 
stands the Castle of Arlech, which signifies on a rock ; though 
some call it Harlech qtuisi Harddlech, a rock pleasantly situated. 
{Camden in Meirion,) He also says it was heretofore called Caer 
Collwyn, and that the inhabitants report it was built by Edward 
the First. Mr. Ilwyd, in his notes, says it is never called Ar- 
lech, but Harlech ; and was once called T^ Bronwen, and after- 
wards Caer Collwyn, from Collwyn ap Tangno, a.d. 877, [who] 
was lord of Ardudwy, Evionydd, and part of Ileyn ; but thinks 
it (or a place near it) was called Caer before his time, Eoman 
coins having been found there, and an ancient golden torque. 

Arlleghwedd (n, 1.), Arllechwedd Uchaf ac Isaf, two conmiots 
of Caernarvonshire. Menwaed o Arllechwedd, im o'i tri glew. 
(Tr. 23.) Cantref Arllechwedd in Caernarvonshire. (Stat. 
Hhvddlan,) 

Armon. Uanarmon. Vid. Garmon, 

Armoriga, recti Aremorica, which is literally, in the Celtic 
tongue, Ar y mor iicha ; or, as the ancient Britains wrote, Ar t 
mor ica^ i, e,, on the upper sea. Tliis was the name of all the 



CELTIC BBMAIKS. 21 

sea-coast of Gaul from Calais to Brest in J. Ceesar's time. '^ Urn- 
versis Gallise civitatibus quse oceanum attingunt qusequAB eomm 
consuetudine Armoricse appellantur." {Goes, Com) Of the same 
sense is the British name Llydaw, which see. But the name 
Armorica is now attributed only to Little Britain. Aremorici, 
gw;^ y morfa. {E, Llwyd) Irish, Armhieirich, 

Arodion, lands and people oiArawd. {Gwdygorddau P(ywys,) 

Akovan, a poet mentioned by Cynddelw to Hywel ap Owain 
Gwynedd. In Mr. E. liwyd's copy of the Triadea, Arofan bardd 
Selyf ap Cynan is mentioned. 

Akban, an isle in the mouth of the Clyde (Clwyd), in Scot- 
land, of the same shape as Aren Benllyn, which see. 

Abseth ap GwTgi ap Hedd Molwynoc. 

Aktro, a river in Meirion, mentioned in Taliesin's works. 

Abth (fl.); hence Aberarth, a village and church in Ceretica. 

Arthal, the 31st king of Britain. 

Arthanat, a place where lieweljrn ap lorwerth encamped his 
second battle. Vid. Cylch Lkwdyn, [Ar Danat, flu., qu.? — W.D.I 

Arthanat (n. pr. v.). Arthanat ab Gwerthmwl Wledig. (TV. 
y Meirch, 1.) 

Arthawg ap Caredig ap Cunedda. 

Arthen ap Brychan Brycheiniog. 

Artufael, the 62nd king of Britain. 

Arthfael (n. pr. v.). a.d. 940, Cadell ab Arthfael, a noble 
Britain, was taken prisoner by the Danes and Saxons. (Caradac, 
p. 51.) 

Arthmael or Arthnael ap Ehys ap ItheL 

Arthne. lianarthne. 

Arthog, ursinvs : hence Pwll Arthog, nomen loci« 

Arthpoel, the father of Meuric who fought a battle with Llew- 
elyn ap Sitsyllt, a.d. 1019, for the Principality. {Caradoc, p. 85.) 

Arthur (n. pr. v.), commonly Latinized Arcturus and Artu- 
rius ; by Nennius, Artur ; the 100th king of Britain, and last of 
Boman blood that held the crown ; son of Uthur Bendragon, 
who was brother of Aurelius Ambrosius, the sons of Constantino 
the Armorican. This great and famous prince, among other 
noble actions, subdued and brought six islands or countries tri- 
butary to Great Britain; that is, Iwerddon (Ireland), Islont 



22 CELTIC REMAINS. 

(Iceland), Goilont (Gothland), Ore (Orkney), liychlyn (Norway), 
Denmark. 

Akthwys or Arthbwys. 

AEvnuLGUS {Gal/rid), Gweirydd. 

Arw (Yr), sign, rouigh, a river in Radnorshire. Another in 
Anglesey Mis into Alaw. The river Garonne, in France, is of the 
same origin, from garw. 

Abweirtdd, probably the British name oiArviragus, Vid. 
Oweirydd. 

Arwyneddog : vid, Owevrydd, 

Abwystl Gloff ap Owain Danwyn, 

Arwystli Uwch and Is Coed, two commots of Cantref Ar- 
wystli [cancelled by W. D.] ; so named from Arwystli ap Cnn- 
edda Wledig. (Price's Descrvpt) 

Aewystli, a cantref or hundred, part of Powys, borders on 
Plymlumon Mountain ; one of the three cantrefs of Meirionydd, 
the other two beiiig Meirion and Penllyn. 

Ar y Gwtddyl, that part of Scotland now called Argyle, and 
Latinized Argathslia ; in Irish, Ardnan GaidheeU {Ogyg., p. 323) ; 
so called for the same reason as Arvon was called, because 
over against Mdn. Vid, Polychron^ L i, c. 58, p. 209. Argail, 
Latinized Margo Scotorum. 

Asa (St.) : vid. Hasa, 

Asaph (St.), the patron saint of the lower church of Llanelwy, 
or St Asaph, in Flintshire. The other saint is Cyndeym ; Lat. 
Keniigem\u8\, In the British, Asaph is Hassa : hence Llanhasa, 
another church near Mostyn. 

Asc: vid. Wysg, 

AscAiN ap Gruffydd ap Gynan ; perhaps in memory of Asca- 
nius. 

AscLEPiODOTUS, the 84th king of Britain, captain of the Pre- 
torian bands {Bede, L i) ; supposed to be Bendigeidvran ap Llyr, 
i. e., Bendigaid Fr&n ap liyr. 

AsGWRN. Gronw Fyr Asgwm ap Tegerin ; in other places, 
Gronw Fyr Asgwm ap Tegwared ap Griffri ap Carwed. 

Asia, that quarter of the world so called. 

AssER (n, pr. v.), Archbishop of St. David's. He brought up 
Asserius Meneveusis, the historian, who was his nephew^ whom 



CELTIC REMAINS. 23 

King Alfred made Bishop of Shirebum and tntor to himself 
(Selden, Mar. Olaus., p. 254) and to his children (Dr. Powel, p. 
44). Asser lived about A.D. 885. 

Atiscros. This, in Domesday Book, is called a himdred belong- 
ing to Cheshire, bnt lying over the Dee, and was a part of the 
country now called Flintshire, and what the Britains called 
Tegeingl (i. e., Englefield). Rhuddlan Castle was the chief or 
head of it, as the words there are : " Hugo Comes tenet de rege 
Soelent> etc., modo habet in dominio medietatem castelli quod 
Roelent vocatur, & caput est hujus terrae/' etc. Yid. Ehos a 
Bhyvomog, 

AvAERWY : vid. Afarwy. 

Augusta^ the Soman name once for London. 

AuBELiTJS Ambrosius. Bede (1. i, c. 16) says he was the only 
one, perhaps, of the Boman nation who had survived the storm 
of the Saxons' and Picts' joint army, who had overrun the island 
upon being refused their own demands, all the royal progeny 
having been slain in the same. He should have said perhaps 
to that, too. But what had the royal progeny of the Bomans to 
do in Britain when, by his own confession, Oratian, Constantino, 
Constans, and Yortigem, had been kings of Britain successively, 
who were no Bomans ? Why sO anxious about the Bomans ? 
Doth not this shew he knew nothing of the matter, except what 
he got firom that blind account given by Gildas ? who could not 
afford the Brit&ins one good word ; who made them rebels if they 
fought, and cowards if they did not. 

Tyssilio, the British historian, owns that Constantino, brother 
to the King of Armorica, married a lady of Roman extraction, 
brought up by Cyhelyn the Bishop ; and that Emrys was one of 
Gwstennin's sons, who had escaped from Yortigem's hands to 
Armorica. Qu.,what might be the discord between Cyhelyn and 
Emrys, mentioned by Nennius, which occasioned the battle of 
Cot Ouallop f 

AvAN, a lordship in Morganwg. Castell Aberavan, taken by 
Mr. ap Gr., a.d. 1152 (from the river Avan, and not Avon). 

AvAN BuELLT (St.). Z. 0, Cothi Hence Llanavan. Yid. A/an. 

AvANDRED or AvANDREG (n. f.), daughter to Gweir ap Pyll, 
wife of lago ap Idwal, Prince of North Wales, a.d. 1037. (Powel's 
Caradoc, p. 89.) 



24 CELTIC REMAINS. 

AVeKa or Afena, an island (mentioned in the Triades) on tbe 
.Grecian coast. See Clas. In these islands, it is said, a colony 
of Britains settled in the time of Cadyal mab Eiyr, after their 
spoiling Macedon and Greece and the Temple at Delphos, when 
one Urp Luyddawc, a prince of Uychlyn (see Llychlyn), got a 
supply of 61,000 Britains to go upon an expedition to the Medi- 
terranean, the second Brennus' and Belgius' expedition. (TV. 40 : 
vid. (7a&.) It is very extraordinary that this attempt of the 
Northmen, or Germans, is not mentioned by either Greek or 
Eoman authors, as it must have happened before the Boman in- 
vasion of Britain : but see Urp Liiyddawc, 

Avon, a river mentioned by Camden in Merionethshire, to run 
near Dolgelleu ; but there is no such river. The river he means 
is called Maw, and runs to Abermaw ; and a river called Gelleu 
runs by Dolgelleu into the Maw. 

Avon (fl.), recA Avan : hence Aberavan, ostium Avonis (Lat- 
inized, Aberavonium), Glamorganshire, a town and harbour. 
Several rivers of this name {Camden) ; but wrong, for this river 
is Avan. Vid, Avaru 

AwEN. This is the Celtic name of a supposed genius or god- 
dess, which, according to the doctrine of the British Druids, on 
the death of any bard, immediately possessed some other living 
I)erson, who instantly commenced bard. This differs something 
from their transmigration of souls, which were supposed to enter 
into new-bom infants or into brutes. Tliis ancient notion is 
retained in some parts of Wales to this day ; and the Musa of 
the Greeks and Romans was, no doubt, at first founded on this 
ground, though afterwards they made nine of them, and perhaps 
foigot the transmigration.' Taliesin, the British poet, who 
flourished about A.D. 570, in one of his rhapsodies called his 
Wanderings, says that he remembers his Muse to have possessed 
a vast number of people. She was with Noah in the ark, and in 
abimdance of lestmed men from age to age, which he enumerates, 

and he says, 

Mi fum gynt Wion Bach, 

Taliessin wjfi bellach ; 

i. «., " I have been once Gwion Bach (the poet), and now I am 
Taliesin." So Pythagoras remembered he had been Hermoti- 
mus, etc., before lie was Pythagoras. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 25 

This Awen is by our modems wrongly translated Fv/torPoeti- 
eus, and supposed to be an enthusiastic fit that takes a man 
when he is fit to write verses ; which is below the dignity of our 
ancient Celtic goddesses^ who act regularly and coolly while the 
poets live, and afterwards remove to new furnished lodgings. It 
hath not been determined how many of these goddesses there 
are among the Britains (that is, how many poets can possibly 
exist at the same time) ; nor whether bad poets are possessed 
by one of these goddesses at all, or only by some evil spirit that 
takes pleasure to imitate them, and disturb mankind. It is as 
firmly believed in Wales that no man can be a poet without he 
is possessed with the Awen, any more than a man can see with- 
out eyes ; and it is said no man is able to disobey the impulse 
of it. These are some of the ancient notions handed down to us 
by the Druids. 

AwR (n. pr. v.). Adda ap Awr of Trevor. {J. D.) In Jesus 
College MS. Aor. Awr ap leuaf ap Cyhelyn. 

AwsTYN, Augustinus. ( W. Lleyn.) Penrhyn Awstyn, Corn- 
wall, n. L (TV. 30.) 

Ayddan Fradawg, a northern prince. Vid. Aeddan, 



B. 

Bacauda, vel Bachauda, vel Bagauda, certain bands of men 
in Gaul, in Diocletian's time, that strove against the Eoman 
power. From the Celtic word hagawd or hagad, a multitude, and 
not from heichiad, a coined word for meichiad, a swineherd, as 
some great antiquaries have ridiculously brought it. 

Bach, little or small, in the composition of names of men and 
places. Eglwys Vach, a church and parish in Denbighshire; 
another in Cardiganshire ; PentreBach; yWaunFach; yTraeth 
Bach ; Gwilym Bach, GtU. Parvus, called also William of New- 
borough, an historian ; Gwion Bach, a poet ; Enudd Bach. 

Bach ap Kakwyd or Karwed was a warrior of great note in 
that country called now Denbighshire, in North Wales ; and the 
church called Eglwys Each, near Tal y Cefn, is said to have been 
erected by him, and called after his name ; part of whose house 
they say the present steeple (which is a separate building, close 

4 



26 CELTIC REMAINS. 

by the churchyard) was. Mr. Edward Uwyd, in his Itinerary 
of Wales, hath this account of him : 

"Y Bach ap Karwyd yma a laddodd ryw bryf gwyllt oedd yn 
ormes mawr yma gynt ar Ian afon Karrog yn agos i'r eglwys 
jrma. Karrog, meddynt hwy, oedd enw'r pryf yma, a math ar 
faedd gwyllt, meddant hwy, oedd ef. Ac wythnos wedi marw'r 
prjrf yma y trawe Bach ap Karwyd ben yr ormes yma &'i droed ; 
ond gan iddo ei daro [ar] im o'i skythr, y clwyfodd ei droed, ac 
y bu varw o'r gwr o'r briw/' — E, Llwyd. 

Bachegrwyd (n. L). Qu. Bacheogrwyd ? 

Bachellaeth(ilL). Uanvihangel Bachellaeth Chapel in Lleyn. 

Bachelltref. 

Braich i windai Brychandir, 
Bachelltref garw hendref hir. 

Owain op Llewelyn Moeil. 

Bacheu, a lordship. Cadwgan Seuthydd, lord of Bacheiu (J,I>.) 

Bachwy : vid. Pennant Bachwy. 

Bachynbyd, a gentleman's seat. Salisbury's. {J. D.) 

Baddesdown Hill {Bede, 1. i, c. 16), a battle fought between 
the Britains and Saxons the 44th year after their arrival in 
Britain, as Bede says. He does not mention who was the British 
general, for he could not tell, but that they made no small 
slaughter of the invaders. Vertot calls it the Battle of Bangor. 
He knew there was Ba in it, and that it was in the year 493 ; 
but our British writers say it was A.D. 519 or 520. 

Badi (Y). Llewelyn y Badi o Bennant Edeirnion 

Badd (Y), the Bath, a city. 

Baddwn or Baddon, Caerfaddon (Triad,) ; another copy, Caer- 
vadon ; the Bath. {Th, Williams,) Vid. Owaith Faddon and 
Bladvd, 

Bagad, literally a multitude : hence the Bagaudm, Bagadce^ 
and Bacaudm, of Gaul ; certain bands of men in Diocletian's 
time that strove against the Boman power, and had their name 
from hence. 

Bagillt, a gentleman's seat, Flintshire. 

Baglan (St.). Uanfaglan, Caernarvonshire. 

Bala, a town in Penllyn in Meirion, where there was once a 
castle fortified by Llewelyn ap lorwerth, a.d. 1203. Dr. Thos. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 27 

Williams, Dr. Davies, and Mr. Edward Uwyd, agree that the 
meaning of Bala is a place where any river or brook issues out 
of a lake. (E. Uwyd, Notes upon Camden in Meirion.) 

Bryn y Bala in Cardiganshire, near Aberystwyth. {Thos. WU- 
liams.) Likewise near the outlet of the river Seiont out of Llyn 
Peris there is a place called Bryn y Bala. {JS. Llwyd) 

" Others say," says Ed. Uwyd, " that Bala, in the old British 
as well as Irish, signifies a village." 

Banawc, Banco, or Banog, n. pr. v. (Tr. 70.) Ellyll Banawc ? 

Baner, a banner or standard (Lat. vexillum), from bann, high or 
top ; and the German paner [panier] may be of the same origin. 

I roi i faner ar fynydd. 

Marchog banerog, a knight banneret. The Britains, on the decline 
of the Eoman eagle, wore a golden dragon in their standards, 
which the Danes and Scythians also in ancient times did. Wit- 
ness Spelman. Uthur Pendragon had his cognomen given him 
from his being the first British king that carried a dragon in his 
standard. (Tyssilio.) Vid. Pendragon, 

Bangeibr, n. L (k ban and ceibr, Dr, Davies). 

Bangeibr Dydoch, the Inonastery at Llandudoch in Dyfei 

Fangor hyd Fangeibr Dydoch. 

Cynddelw, i Twain Cyfeiliog. 

Bangole (Caradoc, p. 34), a place in Anglesey (but it is Bagl- 
au ia B. MS. appendix to Tyssilio ; no such name now in An- 
glesey), where Eoderick the Great had a battle with the Danes 
who landed there in great numbers a.d. 873 ; another battle the 
same year at Menegid, which see. 

Bangor Fawr, a town and bishop's see in Caernarvonshire. 
This Bangor is mentioned by Myrddin Wyllt in a dispute between 
him and the poet Taliesin at this town. Bangor is derived from 
bann and c&r^ the high or celebrated choir {Dr. Davies) \ "chora 
pulchra" or " locus chori" {Camden). 

Bangor is y Coed, on the river Dee, where there was a famous 
college of monks, of whom a great slaughter was made by Ethel- 
fiid, the king of the Angles of Northumbria, at the instigation 
of Augustine, the apostle of the Saxons. This Bangor was not 
inferior to either of our Universities of Oxford or Cambridge, the 
town and colleges taking up about a mile in diameter. There 



28 CELTIC REMAINS. 

was here a dyfal gyfangan, i, e., 100 monks singing every hour 
of the twenty-four ; in all, 2,400. {Tr. 80.) ViA AfaUach. 

Here likewise was Gwaith Perllan Bangor, mentioned in the 
Triades&& and 67, a battle fought between the Saxons and Britains, 
A.D. 617, where Adeldred and Ethelbert were overthrown by 
Bletius or Blederic, prince of Cornwall and Devonshire, and other 
Britains, Cadvan, Morgan, and Brochwel. He and his issue 
governed North Wales from Cadvan's time to the time of Eodri 
Molwynog, 750 ; but in Caradoc, p. 23, he is called Ethelfred, 
king of Northumberland. Tyssilio hath it Edelffled and Ethel- 
fled, and says the other generals of the Britains were Cadvan ap 
laco, king of Gwynedd ; Meredydd, king of Dyfet ; and their 
chief general, Bledrws, king of Cornwall. Bledrig was killed in 
this battle, and Cadvan crowned king of all Britain. 

Bangor, a parish and church in Cardiganshire. Cefn Bangor 
and Maes Bangor in Melindwr. 

Bangob, in Bretany. 

Bangor, a monastery in Ireland. 

Banhadlwedd, verch Banhadle, gordderchwraig Brychan 
Brycheiniog. Vid. Peresgri. 

Banhenic, in Powysland, near the river Havren, where Beuno 
Sant was bom. (Beuno's Life by Dr. Fleetwood.) 

Bann, used in the composition of the name of places, signifies 
top or summit, chief, lofty, high. Hence Y Fann, a mountain ; 
Y Fenni ; Bangor ; Bwlch y Vann ; Pen y Fann ; Bangeibr ; 
Banuwchdenni ; Mynydd Bannog ; Banbury ; Benna Boirche, a 
mountain in Ulster in Ireland. 

Bannawc. Mynydd Bannawc,a mountain so called. [E.Llwyd.) 

Bannesdownb, near Bath (from hann). 

Bannog. Elen Fannog. 

Bannuchdenni, n. L {J, D. Rhys), a moimtain in Monmouth- 
shire. [No. It is in Breconshire. /. Jf.] 

Bar. Bryn y Bar at Holyhead ; Bryn y Bar near Tal y Cefn. 

Barbarwr, i. e., bar-bar- wr, a man of or on mountains. Greek, 
fiap^apoi; ; Latin, barbams; a barbarian or mountaineer. So the 
Greeks called the Phrygians. 

Barbefflwfi, yn Uydaw. {Tyssilio.) A harbour in Britanny, 
where Arthur's rendezvous was in his expedition against the 



CELTIC REMAINS. 29 

Bomans ; which I take to be the old name of St. Malo's, Barbe 
Fluir ; unless Llydaw included also Normandy, as probably it 
did, and then Barflenr it should be. 

Ba£CUN, a name on a monument in the parish of HenUan 
Amgoed, Caermarthenshire, which Mr. Edw. liwyd thinks to 
have given name to Cefh Varchen. (Llwyd's Notes on Camden.) 
Vid. Marchan. 

Babdd ; pi. Beirdd, bards, Lat. bardi. These Bdrdd were a 
branch of the ancient druidical institution in Britain and Graul ; 
their business being poetry and music, and singing the praises of 
great men (so Festus), not unlike the singers and musicians 
among the Jewish Levites. Hence a poet is to this day in 
Wales called hardd ; and Penhardd Cymru signifies the chief 
poet of the Cambriana The last meeting or convention of the 
Welsh poets (called Eisteddfod) was held by commission bom 
Queen Elizabeth at in the year 

Places called from this word : Ilanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd, in 
Anglesey, where I was bom in the year 1701,0. S. ; Tre'r Beirdd, 
Anglesey ; Beirdd river ; Aberbeirdd. 

Mr. Baxter's derivation of it from har is not worth notice. The 
word har signifies indignation and wrath, which poets have no- 
thing to do with, except it be against such wretched etymologists. 

Babdd Cwsg (Y), a poet of an imcertain age, whose prophecies 
are extant. Some say he was one of the Myrddins. 

Bardd Du (Y), a poet : qu. what age ? 

Bakdd Glas (T) o'r Gadair, a poet in King Arthur's time. 
{J. D. Bhys) 

Bardd Llwyd (Y), Urien Eeged's poet in King Arthur's time. 
{J. D. Rhys) 

Basf. Howel y Farf. 

Barfawg. Tryflln Farfog. 

Babf Vehinawg : vid. Arf-finiog, Howel Varf Vehinawg. 

Barmouth, the English name of Abermaw or Abermo, in 
Merionethshire, which see. 

Barry Island, on the coast of Glamorganshire ; from St. Bar- 

uch, a Britain. {Camden) 

Barwn, a baron. 

O farwniaid i Vrenin. 

Barwn honwaed brenbinol. 



30 CELTIC REMAINS. 

A title of a degree of nobility among the ancient Britains as well 
as other nations ; probably from bar, a top or eminence. Ed- 
nyfedVychan,BarwnBrynFfenigl, in Llewelyn ap lorwerth's time. 

Basaleg or Btsaleg, a church and parish, suid a gentleman's 
seat, Monmouthshire. Qu., whether Maesaleg, the seat of Ifor 
Hael Faesaleg, whom David ap Gwilym, the poet, often men- 
tions in his works. Yid. Basselek, Bysaleg, and Maesaleg. 

Basingwerk, an English name of an abbey near Holywell, 
built in the year 1312. (Edward Llwyd's Notes on Camdeii.) 

Bassa, some great town destroyed by the Saxons, in Shrop- 
shire or Staffordshire ; in Llywarch Hen's time in Powysland. 
"Bassa urbs aut oppidum." (JB. Llwyd) "Eglwysau Bassa'' 
{Llywarch Henxa Marwnad Cynddylan). One of Arthur's twelve 
battles. {Nennius) 

Basselek, a castle and manor of Basselek and Sutton, in Mon- 
mouthshire. {Powel, p. 139.) This is the Jfoeso/e^ of D. ap Gwil- 
ym. Ifor Hael o Faesaleg. Vid. Bysaleg, 

Bassiak, the 81st king of Britain. 

Beaumakis: y\^,Bonover. 

Beblig ap Sulwych ap Pebid Penllyn. Vii PMig, 

Bed (n. pr. v.), brenhin Cemyw. (TV. 75.) 

BEDO,a nickname forMaredydd; asBedoBrwynIlys,thepoet,etc. 

Bedo Aeddrbm, Aeddren, or Aurddren, a poet, ad. 1500, o 
Aeddren yn liangwm. {MS) 

Bedo Brwynllys, a poet, ad. 1460. 

Bbdo Hafbs or Hafesp, a poet. 

Bedo ap Hywel Bach, a poet. 

Bedo Philip Bach, a poet, a.d. 1480. 

Bedwas, a church and parish in Monmouthshire. 

Bedwellty, in Cwm Sjrrewi, Glamorgan [Monmouthshire]. 

Bedwyr and Betwyr (n. p. v.), PentruUiad Arthur, Prince of 
Normandy and Flanders. {TyssUio.) 

Com Ynyr Fedwyr o faint. — Bion Geri, 

Fy ughalon dirion a dyrr 

Fud-was fal Cai am Fedwyr. 

Llew. Mod y Pantri. 

Beddcelert, Bedd Calert, or Berthgelert, the name of a 
church in Eryri Mountains ; said to have taken its name from 



CELTIC REMAINS. 31 

CeUrty 9, dog of some great man buried there, and they show his 
grave. The common pronunciation is Berthgelart, which seems 
to be the genuine name. Mr. Edward Ilwyd writes it Bethkelert. 
(Notes on Camden.) [See the story of Cil-hart, Prince Ilywelyn's 
greyhound. /. M.] 

Bedd Elen, Elen's Grave, on Mynydd Mihangel, in Armorica, 
where Arthur fought the Cawr, a Spanish usurper ; probably an 
island called Moimt St. Michael, near St. Male's, or, rather, near 
Bovillon and Granville, which some Spanish pirate occupied. 

Beddau Gwyk Ardudwy, remarkable stone monuments on a 
mountain called Micneint, near Ehyd yr Halen, within a quarter 
of a mile of Sam Elen in Meirion. They are about thirty in 
number, each grave about two yards long ; and each grave has a 
square stone pillar in each of its four comers, and about three 
feet high. Mr. Ilwyd (in Notes on Camden) says the tradi- 
tion is that they are sepulchral monuments of persons of note 
slain in a battle between the men of Ardudwy and some of Den- 
bighshire ; but when, or by what persons slain, he says is wholly 
uncertain. Vid. " Beddau Milwyr Ynys Prydain", by Taliesin. 

Beili (n. 1.). The ruins of Eglwys y Beili in Aberflfraw. Pen 
y Beili Bedw, in llandyfriog, Cardiganshire. Bryn y Beili, a 
tumulus near Wyddgruc. 

Bel ap Tudur ap Adda. Bu iddo dri meib : Geffre Chwitt- 
ffordd, Dafydd ap Bel, a Hoel ap BeL 

[Belan. Belan Ddu, Belan Deg, Belan Argae, in North Wales. 
"A singular circumstance is said to have taken place at Belan, 
in the county of Kildare." — Tim^ newspaper, Nov. 3rd, 1798. 

Bele. Gmflydd Vele ap Madog ap Idnerth ; oddi wrth Bre'r 
Bele? 

Beli ap Dyfnwal Moel Mud, the 22nd king of Britain. His 
brother Bran (Brennus) married a princess of the Galli Senones, 
and was that great Gaulish commander that conquered Home. 
This is very naturally Latinized Belgius, as Sir Jo. Price observes, 
and might at first be wrote Beljus ; and it was wrong in our his- 
torians to turn Beli into Belinus, which occasioned the blunders 
of our modems, who, out of this coined Belin, would make Melyn, 

Beli, mab Benlli Gawr. (Arch, Brit., p. 262.) 



32 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Beli Mawr ap Minogan, the 70th king of Britain, fj^ther of 
Lludd and Caswallon. This Caswallon, after he had killed his 
brother Lludd in battle, was chosen chief king of the Britains, to 
oppose Julius CsBsar's invasion. Latin writers ignorantly call 
this Beli Belinus. 

Bellovesus, the Latin name of a Celtic or Gaulish prince, 
which in the Gaulish was Mel was. Vid. Melwas, 

Belyn (n. pr. v.), corruptly wrote Bdin. (Powel's Caradoc.) 
Belyn o Leyn fought a battle with Edwin, king of the Saxons, 
at Bryn Ceneu'r Rhos, where the fight was so obstinate that 
Belyn's men fettered themselves two and two, being resolved to 
die or keep the field. About a.d. 620. ( JV.49.) Vid, Tudor wpBdyn. 

Belyn ap Elphin, a nobleman, a.d. 720. {CaradoCy p. 14.) 

Bekbaladr, i. e., pen paladr ach. Gymru ben haladr, i. «., Wales, 
head or chief stock of British nobility. 

Bendew: yi'A^Q Pendew. 

Bendigaid. Cyndeym Fendigaid ap Gwrtheym. 

Bendigaid Fran ap Llyr, i «., Bran the Blessed, or St. Bran, 
son of Llyr, called by the Romans Asdepiodotus. This prince's 
head was buried in the Gwynfryn yn Llundain, which is literally 
" the White Hill in London"; probably Tower Hill, because in the 
British tongue the Tower of London is called Y Tibr Choyn, or 
the White Tower. {Tr. 45.) 

The fancy of this valiant prince was such that if his head was 
buried in that place, no foreign invaders would dare to come 
into this island while it remained there ; but King Arthur hear- 
ing of it, dug it up to show he did not want such helps to main- 
tain the island. {Tr, 45.) 

Tin aflonydd yn flaenawr 

leuan Bendigeidfraa Gawr. — H. BeinaUt, 

Mr. Edward Llwyd mistook this for one word, which he Latin- 
izes Bendigeidvranvs ; and so translates Mabinogi, "caput Ben- 
digeidvrani sepelierint." {Arch. Brit., p. 262.) In some MSS. he 
is called Bendigeidfran Gawr. Vid. Bran. 

Bengole, where Roderick the Great gave the Danes a battle. 
A place in Llanynghenel, Anglesey. Vid. Bangole. 

Benlli Gawr, a prince of great power among the Cambro- 
Britains about the fifth century (a.d, 450), from whose name the 



CELTIC REMAINS. 33 

contriver of the legend of St. Cynhafal made Enlli Oavrr to give 
name to the Isle of Enlli, or Bardsey. Nennius calk him a very 
wicked king or tyrant of I&l, and gives ua a monkish story how 
St. Gannon called for fire from heaven to destroy him and his 
city because he would not receive his doctrine. (Nenn%us,c, xxx.) 
Vid. Caddl Deyndlyg. 

Beli ap Benlli in Arch. BrU.y p. 262. 

Benwyn (n. pr. v.). Ben^yn, and not Benw^n. 

Gwyrda oedd W6n a Benwyn. — i. 0. Gothi. 

Ceidwad llawen o Fen^^tryn 

Cor Mair yw'r gwr cywir mwyn. 

L, Potmsj i O. P., vicar Aberyw. 
Vid. OtD^n and Penwyn, 

Bebchi (n, pr. v.), father of CoUawn. {Trioedd y Meirch, 8.) 

Beren, Beuno's mother. (Beuno's Life,) 

Berfeddwlad (Y), Denbighshire and part of Flintshire, con- 
taining five cantrefs, Ehyfoniog, Ystrad, Ehos, Dyfiryn Clwyd, 
and TegengL (Price's Description.) 

Berged YN, in the parish of Guildsfield^Iontgomery shire. (J. D) 

Bergwm, a river in Glamorgan, near Neath. [Pergwm. — L M!\ 
Vid. Alerhergvmi. 

Bwrw Aber fal nyth eryr, 

Bergwm wenn bu'r gwae am w^r, — L. Morgwn/wg, 

Beris, Caer Boris : vid. Peris, 
Beriw, or Beryw, or Berriew : vid. Aberyw. 
Berllan (Y). Gwaith y Berllan, the battle at Perllan Fan- 
gor is y Coed, where the Britains defeated the Saxona 

Ni fo gwaeth no gwaith y Berllan. 

CynddehOy to Howel cup O. €rwynedd. 

Berres or Berrys (St.), said to be St Brise. Uanverres, a 
church and parish in the deanery of lU in Denbighshire. 

Berson : vid Person. 

Berth : vid. Perth. 

Berthyn, in Ilanddeidan, Glamorgan. [Aherthin, in Llan- 
fleiddan. — /. if.] 

Berwig, English Berwick, a town : q. d. Aberwic. So from 
Abermaw, Barmouth, etc. Vid. Y Fermg. 

5 



34 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Bebwyn, a mountain in Meirion (i bar, top, and gwyn^ 
white). Vid. Rhyddwyn, Thus far came Henry II, the King of 
England, against Owain Gwynedd, and narrowly escaped with 
life. Vid. Corwen. 

Bettws. Several places in Wales of this name. These were 
the Bede houses demolished by Henry VIII. Bettws Gweyifyl 
Goch; Bettws Abergeleu; Bettws y Coed; Bettws Gannon; 
Bettws y Glyn. [Vide Arch. Brit,, p. 214, voce " Bettws", a 
place between hills. — W, 2>.] 

[lenan Bradford o blwyf Bettws ym Morganwg. — W, P.] 

Bettws Skebyv, in the Extent of Anglesey, by Edward III, 
for Bettws Geraint, which is Pentraeth, or Llanvair Bettws Ger- 
aint. 

Betwyb (n. pr. v.). Vid. Btdwyr, 

Bethoun, son of Glam Hector, Prince of the Irish Scots, whose 
sons invaded Britain about the year 440. Bethoun took pos- 
session of Demetia, G^yr, and Cydweli, ajid kept them tiU he 
was drove away by the sons of Cimedda Wledig. Vdhan in 
Gale's edition. In Flaherty, p. 431, Bdozan or Baothan is men- 
tioned as King of Ireland. (Price's Bescript apud Nennivs.) 

Beulan (n. pr. v.) ; Lat. Beulanus, — ^falsely Beularitis in Gale's 
edition. Hence ULanbeulan in Anglesey. Vid. Samud Britan- 
nu8. Nennius, the historian, mentions one Beulanus, a presby- 
ter, to whom he had been a scholar ; but qu. ? See Gale's Nen- 
niu8, c. Ixiii. 

Beulabius, falsely wrote in Nennius for Beulanus, Vid. 
Samud Britannus, 

Beuno Sant ap Hywgi ap Gwjmlliw ap Glywis ap Tegid ap 
CadeU, a prince or lord of Glewisig. (Vaughan's MS. Notes on 
Powel's Hist) Another MS. says he was son of Beuvagius or 
Beugi ap CadeU Deyrnllyg, and that his mother was daughter 
of Owen ap XJrien, one of King Arthur's generals. In Winifred^s 
Life, said to be taken from Robert of Salop's, and printed, it is 
said that Beuno was of noble parents in Montgomery, at the fall 
of the- river Ehyw into Severn, called Aberhyw. His father, 
Binsi, descended from CadeU, Prince of Glewisig; and hi^ 
mother from Anna, sister to King Arthur, who was married to 
a king of the Picts. That his grandfather was Gundeleius (Gwyn- 



CELTIC REMAINS. 35 

Uiw), and cousin german to St. Kentigern, Bishop of Glasgow, 
■who, being forced from Scotland^ founded the bishoprick of 
St Asaph. That he was educated under St. Dangesius ; but does 
not say where. When he had built a church and monastery he 
removed to some other part. Then he finished his monastery at 
Clynnog Vawr in Caernarvonshire ; from thence went to visit 
his friends in Flintshire. That one Trebwith, or Thewith, or 
Tyvid, a potent lord of that coimtry, had married the noble lady 
Wenlo, who was Beuno's sister ; and these were the parents of 
St. Winifred. She was born in the reign of King Cadwallon ; 
and Beuno's journey to Flintshire was in the reign of King 
Eluith the Second. But as Dr. Fleetwood shows that the Jesuit 
misunderstood Bobert of Salop's words, who says that this 
Thewith was son of Eluith, and was the next man to the King. 
JBeuno stayed so long on this visit that he built a monastery 
there ; and Caradoc ap Alen, King of that country, with his 
sword cut off the head of Winifred because she refused to lie 
with him. Beuno clapt it on, and she lived after that about 
fifteen years ; and Holywell sprung out of the ground where her 
head fell. Then Beuno returned to Clynnog, and received a 
present of a cloak which Winifred sent him by the river of Holy- 
well, which, watching the tides, coasted it along to Clynnog in 
Caernarvonshire, and landed there dry at Forth y Gasseg, which 
he says should be called Porth y Gassed, and a Cottonian MS. 
has it Porth y Saehlen, This is the sum of Eobert's account of 
Beuno. But this account of Beuno is very different from that 
in the British MS. at Jesus College, Oxon. 

Another account of Beuno runs thus. Beuno Sant ap Bugu, 
of Banhenic in Powys, near Hafren. His mother was Beren 
verch Ilawdden. He was brought up by Tangusius, a holy man, 
at Gwent, and was ordained priest. Ynyr, King of Gwent, 
became a monk and disciple of Beuno, and gave him lands, also 
the people and their goods. Beuno's father died, and he suc- 
ceeded in the estate, and built a church there, and planted an 
oak which would kill every Saxon that would pass its branches. 
From thence he went to Mawn, son of Brochwel, who gave him 
lands for his own and his father's soul. The voice of a Saxon 
frightened him from thence, and he left his church to one of his 



36 CELTIC REMAINS. 

disciples called Rithwlint, and gave him a cross. He went to 
Meivod to Tyssilio ; thence to King Cynan ap Brochwel, and 
begged of him lands to build a church ; and he gave him Gwydd- 
elwem, where Beuno raised ian Irishman from the dead who 
had been killed by his wife. There Beuno cursed some of 
Cynan's nephews who affronted him, and they died. Thence he 
walked along the river Dee, and came to the place called now 
Holywell, where Temic, son of Elwyd, gave him a town ; and 
there he built a church, and brought up Gwenfrewi, daughter of 
Temic. Caradoc, King of Tegeingl, watched an opportunity of 
her father's being in church, and attempted to lie with her. She 
refusing, he cut off her head. Beuno clapt it on, and brought 
her to life, and turned him to a pool of water ; and where her 
head fell, there sprung up a well called now Holywell, in Flint- 
shire. And so God and Beuno cured the maid, and many were 
converted. 

Cadvan, King of Wales, gave Beuno lands ; but Cadwallon, 
his son, gave him lands in Gweredog, in Arvon, which an infant 
claimed; for which Beuno gave the King a gold sceptre, which the 
King refused to return when Beimo gave up the land to the child. 
Beuno cursed him ; but Gwyddaint, the King's cousin, followed 
him, and gave him the town of Celynnog for his own soul and 
Cadwallon's, where he built a monastery, etc. One of the work- 
men of Aberffraw went to Gwent, and the Princess Digiw (Tegiawc), 
daughter of Ynyr, fell in love with him, and they were married. 
In his way to see his country, he cut her head off at Pennardd 
in Arvon, and went to Aberffraw, and bought a place in court. 
Beuno clapt her head on, and she became a nun with him ; and 
where her head fell, there sprung Ffynnon Digiw. Idon ap 
Ynyr Gwent came to see his sister, and prevailed on Beuno to 
go with him to Aberffraw. There Idon cut off the head of the 
man that had cut off his sister's head. The King of Aberffraw 
seized upon Idon, and swore he would destroy him unless Beuno 
would restore the other to life, which he did without hesitation. 
And the King repented he had tempted Beuno, and gave liim 
his palace at Aberffraw, where he now lives in, called Beuno. 
{Buchedd Beuno, from Bishop Fleetwood's.) 

That there was such a man as Beimo, that was abbot and 



CELTIC REMAINS. 37 

founder of the monastery of Clynnog, is certain. His grave is 
shown there to this day, and his name is found in many of our 
ancient British writers ; but the legends are so full of contradic- 
tions that we don't know what to believe of them. The miracles 
ascribed to him are beyond belief. He lived in the seventh cen- 
tury, an age of confusion and darkness, when the priests said 
and did what was good in their own eyes. 

In the Extent of Anglesey, taken by John de Deloes under 
Richard Earl of Arundel, Justice of North Wales 26 Edward III, 
in the year 1352, 1 find there are lands in Anglesey (Alaw 'r 
Beirdd) held of St. Beuno, and there the abbot of St. Beuno is 
mentioned. This was the monastery of Clynnog Vawr ja Arvon. 
Likewise in that ancient poem, " Beddau Milwyr Ynys Prydain", 
by Taliesin, Uanveuno is mentioned : 

Bedd Dylan yn Llanveuno, etc. 

It is said that all calves or lambs which were brought forth 
with a split ear were the inheritance or right of St. Beuno, and 
were offered to him at his church ; and this was called nodBeuno, 
or Beuno's mark. 

BiGEL (St.) ; Lat. Vigelius ; not Bugail. Llanvigel in Anglesey. 
Maen Bigel, a rock in the sea there ; another in the Sound of 
EnlU. 

BissAUD, in Doomsday Booh, Cheshire ; corruptly for Disert 
or Disart, a village in Englefield. 

Black Mountains, between Brycheiniog and Tir G^yr, 
[Mynydd Du.— /. Jf.] 

Bladudus : vid. Bhvddud. 

Blaen, an ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of places, 
signifying the upper part of a country ; as YBlaenau, the High- 
lands ; Gwy-r y Blaenati, Highlanders or mountaineers ; Blaenau 
Lloegr, the Marches {S, Llwyd) ; Blaenau aforvydd, the sources of 
rivers {E, Llwyd). 

Blaen y Cwm, the upper part of a valley where it begins, as 
Blaen Cwm Ystwyth; Blaen Cwm Eheidiol; Blaen Cwm Erfin. 

Blaen Gwent, a place in Monmouthshire. 

Blaen Llyfny, Castell in Brecknockshire, near Ilyn Safathan. 

Blaen Llywel (or Lleweny, as Camden). 

Blaen Pokth Gwithan, in Iscoed in Cardiganshire ; a town 



38 CELTIC REMAINS. 

and castle held by Earl Gilbert and the Flemings, A.D. 1116, 
where Gruffudd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr fought them, and got the 
place. (Powel's Caradoc, p. 179.) Blaen y Porth near Cardigan (?). 

Blaen Tren (nomen loci). 

Blaeniau, a man's surname (k hlaen and iau). Bees Blaen- 
iau, Owen Blaeniau, Ifan Blaeniau, etc. 

Tri mab leuan term bywyd 

Blaeniau pen gwybodau byd. — H, Pennant. 

Blaenllym. Einion Flaenllym ap Einion. 

Blaidd (n. pr. v), literally in Latin Lwp\is. Y Blaidd Ehudd 
o'r Gest, lord of Gest and Eifionydd (J. D.), grandfather of Haer, 
the wife of Blethyn ap Cynfyn. Also a cognomen. Vid. Ehiryd 
Flaidd. 

Blathaon (n. pr.). Penrhyn Blathaon ym Mhrydyn, the ex- 
treme point of Scotland to the north (JV. 2); Caithness. {E.Lhvyd.) 

Blas (n. pr. v.), a Norman or Norwegian name probably. Bias, 
mab ty wysog Llychlyu, i. «., Bias, the son of the Prince of liych- 
lyn, on the coast of the Baltic. {Tr. 84.) 

Bledrws, Prince of Cerny w, general of the Britains in the 
battle of Perllan Fangor, a.d. 605, when the Saxons were drove 
beyond the Humber ; but Bledrws was killed, and Cadvan, King 
of North Wales, crowned King of Britain. (Tyssilio.) 

Bleddfach, a gentleman's seat in Powys, qu. ? 

O Fleddfach nid glanach glain. — L. P., i 0. P. 

Bleddvach. Tomos ap Roger, arglwydd Bleddvach. 

Bleddian. Ilanfleddian, Glamorganshire. [Bleiddan. lian- 
fleiddan. — /. M,] 

Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. 

Bleddyn Ddu, a poet, an. 1090. (»/. D, Rhys,) 

Bleddyn Ddu Was y Cwd, an id. ? 

Bleddyn Fardd, a poet, an. 1246. 

Bleddyn Llwyd, a poet, an. 1260. 

Blegored, a Doctor of Laws in Howel Dda's time. {Dr. Pawd, 
p. 53.) 

Blegywryd, the 61st King of Britain, called the God of music. 
{Tyssilio,) 

BLEIDDLA.U. Cerrig y Bleiddiau, Anglesey ; Ffos y Bleiddiau, 
Cardiganshire. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 39 

Bleiddig (n. pr. v.), the father of Hyfeid or Hyfaidd, who, 
firom a slave or native tenant, advanced himself to be King of 
Deheuharth, or South Wales. (Jr. 76.) 

Bleiddtd ap Caradog ap levanawL 

Bleiddyd II, the 57th King of Britain. 

Blenwtdd (St) Church dedicated at Coedane, Anglesey. 

Blettkus ap Ceynawc Mawr. 

Bleuddud, Bleuddyd, or Bleiddyd, the 9th King of Britain, 
Latinized Bladtultts, son of Bhun Baladr Bras ; but by a coin or 
medal of his, mentioned by Mr. Wm. Morris of Cefn y Braich, 
his name is Ylatos, or Blatos, which may be a Greek termina- 
tion. 

Blenddnd a Moel Mud Madog ai ddymod. — Bedo Brwynllys. 

Leiand says his great knowledge in natural philosophy got 
him the name of a magician among the vulgar ; and that by pro- 
per application of sulphur and alum earths he contrived the 
hot baths at the city called by the Britains Caer Badwae, mean- 
ing Caer Badd-dim, which he interprets the Mountain of Baths. 
And this is the place which Gildas, in his little History, men- 
tions by the name of Mons Badonicus (where the Britains and 
the Saxons had a great battle about the time of his birth) ; and 
not in the Black Mountains over Severn, where Polyd. Virgil 
madly seeks for it. He says that this town is the ITiermarum 
of Ptolemy, so called from the British word Badune ; and that 
Badune doth not come from Badudus, the king ; for that the 
king's name was Bladvdus, and not Badudus ; and he thinks that 
there was a town on the same river Avon, at a place where 
there hath been a Benedictine monastery (which the Saxons, from 
one Maildaph, called Maildulphshury, now Malmesbury). There 
was an ancient British city called by the name of Cair Bladune, 
which comes nigher that prince's name, where there are remedns 
of great walls and ditches. (Leiand, Script BrU,, c. vi.) 

To a Cambro-British antiquary Cair Bladune is as distant 
from the name of the prince as Badvd ; and neither of them to 
the purpose, for the prince's name was Bleuddud, which, accord- 
ing to the English pronunciation, would sound something like 
BleUhid. So there is very little similitude between Bladune 
and Badud and this. Antiquaries should always remember that 



40 CELTIC REMAINS. 

anciept British letters do not sound like English and Latin. 
But as Mr. Leland seldom fails of shooting near the mark, I can 
let his readers into a secret, that the name of the ancient cas- 
trum which he caUs Cair Bladune was Ccier Bleddyn ; and no 
name more common among the Britains than Bleddjn, as 
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Prince of Powys ; Bleddyn Fardd, etc. Mr. 
Leland also defends the story of his inventing wings to fly, and 
shews it is not all an empty story. Vid. Owaith Faddon. 

Blodwel. Llan y Blodwel, a church and parish in Shropshire, 
qu. Uanymlodwel ? Ehiryd Voel of Blodwel. (J, JD.) Aber- 
tanat ymlodweL (i. G, Cofhi) 

Blowty (n, L) q. d. Ty Blawd. Cwm y Blowty, a gentleman's 
seat. Morris. 

BoD, an ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of houses or 
habitations (chiefly in Anglesey) ; some say from hod, to be (but 
qu. ?) : as Bodaeddon ; BodafoD ; Bodargolwyn ; Bodarnabwy or 
RonabwyjBodeUio in Lleyn ; BodeUiog, a gentleman's seat (J,D.) ; 
Bodelwy ; Bodelwyddan,vulg6 Bodolwiddan ; Bodenwydog in lal, 
a gentleman's seat ; Bodeuon ; Bodewryd, a chapel in Anglesey, 
and a gentleman's seat ; Bodfafon ; Bodfeddan, a gentleman's 
seat; Bodfeirig; Bodfel, a gentleman's seat in Lleyn; Bod- 
frwyn ; Bodgynda ; Bodidris in ISl ; Bodlew ; Bodlith, a gentle- 
man's seat (J. 2>.) ; Bodnant, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire ; 
Bodneithiar ; Bodoffwyr ; Bodegri ; Bodola, Anglesey ; Bodol- 
gadi ; Bodorgan, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey ; Bodowyr, a 
gentleman's seat {J.D), Denbighshire (Price) ; Bodrewyn ; Bod- 
rhyddan, Bodtryddan, or Botryddan, a gentleman's seat near 
Ehuddlan (see Ekvddlan) ; Bodronyn ; Bodlan ; Bodvach, a 
gentleman's seat in Llanfyllin ; Bodhalog; Bodhenlli; Bodiar; 
Bodig, Cefh y Bodig (which see) ; Bodedeym, a parish and 
church in Anglesey, from Edeyrriy a man's name ; Bodvaen or 
Bodfan, a gentleman's seat, Caernarvonshire ; Bodvari or Bot- 
fari, the fioman Varis ; Boduan (see Gam Boduan) ; BodfTordd, 
a township or villa in the commot of Malltraeth, Anglesey (JEso- 
tent of Anglesey, Edw. III). This was a free villa containing one 
carucat and half of land. No rent to the prince ; and only suits 
to the commots and hundreds, and to go to the wars at -the 
prince's expense, and pays no relief nor amobr, and has a mill 



CELTIC REMAINS. 41 

of its own called Melin Bodffordd. This was right British libei-ty. 
Bodwrda, a gentleman's seat in Lleyn; Bodwrog or Bodfwrog 
(vid. MiDTog, St.) ; Bodychain ; Bodyddfan, a gentleman's seat 
(•/. D.) ; Bodynolwyn or Wenolwyn ; Bodysgallen, a gentleman's 
seat ; Bodwine, a hamlet in Anglesey mentioned in the Prince's 
Extent, Edw. Ill, 135?. It was a free hamlet in the commot 
of MaUtraeth, and yet was liable to pay suits to commots and 
hundreds, relief, gobr, and amobr, IO5.; and the rent to the 
Prince yeariy was 16s., and paid quarteriy, 4*.; so that the 
Prince's chief profits were those accidental ones of gobr, amobr, 
etc. 

BOD ap Pasgen ap Helic. 

BoDVAN (St.) {Br, Willis.) 

Boni or Boer. Penboir and Rhyd Foir, Carmarthenshire. 

BoL. Cora y Bol, a bog in M6n of that name ; and Penbol (n. 
L), qu. whether in Tal y Bolion ? 

Bol Haul, in Ilangwnnwr, Caermarthenshire ; another in 
Anglesey. 

BoLG (Y), Belgica ; that is, Gallia Belgica, i.e., the Netheriands. 
Gw^r y Bolg, the Belgse. These were Germans that passed the 
Bhine before Caesar's time. (Qsesar, Comm., ii, 4.) The Irish 
writers call them Fir Bolg, i, e., the men of the Bolg. Vide BoL 

BoNGAM. Deicws Fongam ap Madog ap Llewelyn ap lor- 
werth. 

BoNOVER (q. d. Beaunovmr), one of the ancient names of the 
town now called Beaumaris or Beaumarish. 

Castell gwedi cael castiaid 

Bonover hwnt ban fo rhaid. — loan Brwynog. 

Camden (in Anglesey) says the town was called Bonover before 
it was rebuilt by Edward I, and was called by him Beaumarish. 
It was formerly called Llanvaes ; and it seems to have been, in 
very ancient times, called Pcrr^A Wygyr, one of the three principal 
seaports in the Cambrian dominions after the Saxon conquest 
of Loegria. {Triad 5.) Vid. Caer Fdn. 

BoNWM (n. 1.), Anglesey. 

BoRT (n. pr. v.), a German name. Bort, mab brenin Bort. (F 
Greal apud Tr. 61.) 

Bosso (n. pr. v.). Caervosso, Ehydychen, Oxenford. 

6 



42 CELTIC REMAINS. 

BoTEinjARUL, in Doomsday Book corruptly for Bodffari, a vil- 
lage in Englefield, belonging to the raanor of Ehuddlan when in 
the hands of Hugh, Earl of Chester, in William the Conqueror's 
time. 

BowcwN or BoccwN, Caer Vowewn, the ruins of an ancient 
fort in the turning where Nant Ceiliogyn falls into Trennig river, 
in the way as you go from Eisteddva Gurig along Llechinwedd 
Hirgoed in the east end of it. This fort kept not only the pass 
to Eisteddva Gurig, but also that to Dyf&yn Merin by Pistell 
Ddu. Vide Trennig, 

Brachan, in Ach Cynog, Vide Brychan, 

BiiADOG. Aeddan Fradog. 

ft 

Bradwen ap Unwch ap TJnarchen. Ednowain ap Bradwen. 
(JPymiheg Llwyth,) Penrhos Bradwen ymhlwyf Caer GybL 

Bradwen. Llys Bradwen (BrcUwen in the Gododin), near 
Dolgelleu {J. D), the seat of Ednowain ap Bradwen in the time 
of Llewelyn ap lorwerth. 

Bradwyn (n. pr. v.). 

Moes rhoi 'n gof maes arian gwyn 

Mwy par wedi mab Bradwyn. — M. LI. O. 

Braigh y Ddinas, a lofty and impregnable hill on the top of 
Penmaen Mawr, where are the ruinous walls of a fortification 
encompassed with a treble wall; and within each wall the 
foundation of at least a hundred towers all round, and of about 
six yards diameter, each within the walls. The walls of tliis 
Dinas were about two yards thick, and in some places three. 
There a himdred men might defend themselves against a legion; 
and it seems there were lodgings within the walls for twenty 
thousand men. Within the innermost wall there is a well which 
gives water in the driest summer. This was the strongest fort 
in all Snowdon. (E, Llwyd, Notes on Camden in Caernarvon^ 
shire) Vid. Meini Hirion and Penmaen Mawr, 

Braint (n. pr. v.) signifies dignity : hence Briant and Bryan, 
modem names. Vide Braint Hir, 

Braint Hir ap Nevydd, King Cadwallon's nephew, and one 
of his council, and lord of Uwch-Aled ; bore vert, a cross flowry 
or, {Pymtheg Llwyth) Qu., from his name, Sam Vraint and 



CELTIC REMAINS. 43 

Afon Vraint in Anglesey, mentioned by Llywarch Hen in Marw- 

nad Gadwallon ? 

Linesfc Gadwallon ar OeitU 

Uoegr ardres armes ameint 

Llaw ddillwng eUwng oedd Vreint, 

Ceint river is also in Anglesey. 

Braisg. Twain Fraisg ap Cyndeym Fendigaid. 

Bran (n. pr. v.). Bran ap Dyfiawal (Latinized Brmivu8),Qecond 
son of Dyfiiwal Moelmut, the famous British lawgiver. He mar- 
ried a princess of the Galli Senones, and by the help of his 
brother Beli {Belinus, rightly Belgiua), King of Britain, overran 
Italy, and took the city of Rome, and kept possession of it seven 
months. (Tysirilio.) This was about 390 years before Ghrist, and 
364 years after the building of Bome. Strabo plednly calls him 
Breriy and Poly bins corroborates the British history in this point. 
Vid. Brennvs and Urp. 

Bran, a river that falls into Towi near Ilanymddyfri (from 
Bran, a man's name). Hence Aberbran and Glanbran. IfarU 
Bran falls into the Wysg. 

Bran ap Llowarch. 

Bran ap Llyr, called Bendigaid Fran. (Tr, 45.) Vid. Ben- 
digaid Fran. 

Bran ap Melhym. He is called Bran ab y Melhym iaArch, 
Brit., p. 260. Qu., whether Mellteym or Myllteyrn ? In the 
MS. it is Mdsym. Vide Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Urien Beged 

Bran ap Gwerydd. (Arck. Brit., p. 261.) 

Bran. Dinas Bran, a castle on the top of a hill near Llan- 
gollen, which it is said belonged to Brennus. There is a lord- 
ship adjoining there caUed to this day Dinbran or Dinbren. It 
was in repair and inhabited by Gruffy dd ap Madog in Edward I's 
time, who was lord of Dinas Bran. 

Camden says the tradition was that it was built and so named 
by Brennus, general of the Gauls ; and he says some interpret 
the name " the king's palace"; for that Bren, says he, in British 
signifies a king. Mr. Camden was here sadly out, as he is gener- 
ally when he meddles with British etymologies. Bren was never 
the word in the British for a king, but brenhin and breyenJiyn. 
Others, he says, would have the name derived from bryn, a hilL 



44 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Poor guessing ! for most British castles were upon hills. And 
how comes king to be a proper name of a king ? An odd fanc7 
indeed ! 

Bran Galed o'r Gogledd, a prince or great man of North 
Britain, famous for his generosity. Corn Bran Galed oW Oogledd 
was one of the thirteen rarities of Britain kept at Caerllion ar 
Wysg in Arthur's time; Bran Galed of the North's horn. Desire 
any kind of liquor, and that horn would produce it. That is, I 
suppose, you were to drink in that house what liquor you 
desired ; unless there was a contrivance to convey liquors through 
secret pipes into it. Vid. Elurted, 

Bran, father of Caradawc. {Tr. 19.) 

Branes, a gentleman's seat, — Wynne's. {J, B) Also a sur- 
name : Hwmffre Branes of Branes Uchaf. (J. D) 

Brangor (n. pr. v.). Y Gfreal, quoted Triad 61. Brangor's 
daughter was Empress at Consiiridbl, i. e., Constantinople. 

Braniarth, part of Powys. 

Branwen, merch Uyv o Harlech, gwraig Matholwch WyddeL 
(See the Tr. 51.) Ti&r Branwen oedd Harlech gynt. Hi 
gladdwyd ar Ian afon Alaw ym Mon, medd Mabinogi Bendigeid- 
fran. Palfod Branwen verch Uyr Llediaith. (Arch. Brit., p. 258.) 
[Capel Bronwen in Anglesey. — W. D.] 

Bras, thick or big. Caradog Freichfras; Madog Benfras; 
Gruffydd Fraslwyd, tad Gruffydd Lwyd o Lanbrynmair. 

Bre, monSj collis, a mountain, a hill : hence Moelfre ; and the 
Bre (Bray) of Athol in Scotland ; Peribre in Carmarthenshire. 

Brecon. DinUe Vrecon, mentioned by Llowarch Hen in Mar- 
wnad Cynddylan. Mr. Edward liwyd guesses this to be Urico- 
nium or Wroxeter, near Salop. If it is, it should be wrote Ureeon, 
and not Brecon; for the British name of Uriconium is Caer 
Wrygion \ in the ancient orthography Chirigion; and it is found 
Ghiirigon in Nennius. 

Sylles o Dinlle Vrecon. — Llowarch Hen. 

Brechdwn. Gwem y Brechdwn, which see. 
Brecheiniog. (Price's Descript). Vid. Brycheiniog. 
Breiddin, Craig Freiddin in Montgomeryshire, a mountain ; 
corruptly, Craig Wreiddyn. Bre Freiddin. (Gwalchmai ap Meilir.) 

O Freiddin freenhin freiddgar. — Qwalchmai ap Meilir. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 45 

Breigh Mons, corruptly in John Major (Hist Scot, I. ii, c. 4) 
for Eryri, where Gwrtheyrn built his castle. [Qu. if not Craig 
y Ddinas (q. v.) on Penmeien Mawr ? — W, JO.] 

Breint (fl.) : hence Aberbreint, afon Praint in Anglesey, an J 
the rivers Brent in Devon and Middlesex, and the river Brent 
in the Venetian territory. All have their names from Braint, 
which see. 

Brenhin or Brenhyn, pL Brenhynoedd {k hraint and Jien), 

Dybu Brenhin Lloegr yn Unyddawc. — MeUir Brydydd. 

Breinioly Breiniau. 

Breenhin na frenhin brithfyd dybi. — Myrddin^ Hoianaa. 

Breyenhin, Breienh^, q. d. brainh^, the honourable elder. 

BRENHiNLLWtTH. Y Pum Brenhinllwyth,i. e., the five princely 
tribes. 

Brevi, a river at Uanddewi Brevi in Cardiganshire. {BrU. 
Sanct, March 1.) Qu. wh. from Gwenfrewi (see Owdl Dewi); or 
qu. wh. Brewi, from Gwenvrewi ? Leland is mistaken in the 
derivation from brefu, Vid. Byfrig and Dfnjoi. 

Bricgnau Mere, in Marianus, means the pool or mere by 
Brecknock called Uyn Safathan, and Castell Dinas by that lake. 

Briganted, in Armorica, thieves (qu. wh. k BrigarUes). [Sic 
in Glamorgan. — /. if.] 

Bristol, a city on the river Avon, part in Somersetshire and 
part in Gloucestershire. It had once the name of Caerodomant, 
and perhaps Bath was called Caerodor Uchaf. Odor then seems to 
have been the name of the river Avon ; and I should be apt to 
think that a smaller river runs into the Odor at Bristol, of such 
a name as Ysto, from whence Aberysto, and thence Bristow. 
[No river Ysto there. — L M,] Vid. Brittou. 

Britain, the English name of the island containing England, 
Wales, and Scotland. Vid. Prydain. 

Britannia, the Latin name of Britain. Vid. BrtU Ynys. 

Britenhuis, or THuiste Briten, the ruins of a tower in the sea, 
to be seen at low water, near Cattwiick at the mouth of the 
Ehine. Thus called by the Hollanders that dwell near it. Sue- 
tonius says that Caligula built a tower in that place ; and 



40 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Hadrian Junius, Camden, and Vitus, say that this is the ruins 
of the same tower ; but Ortelius, Groetzius, and Cluverius, deny 
it. (Selden, Mar. Clans,, p. 203.) 
' Brithdir, in GOsfield, a gentleman's seat. 

Brithdib, in Llangollen parish. 

Brithon. Co^jBri^A^m, Bristol {U8her)yOT perhaps Dunbritton. 

Brithwch. Caer Brithwch {Ystori KUhwch ap Kilydd), per- 
haps Caer Brython. 

Brittou. Caer Brittou (Nen7iiu8) : qu. whether the Caer 
Brithon of Usher's, which he interprets Bristol ? As Bristol lies 
on a very commodious spot for trade, it must be supposed there 
was a town built there in the infancy of the British government ; 
and though I have no authority for it from either Boman or 
British writers (neither Anton's Itinerary nor the Triades men- 
tioning it), yet I cannot help thinking that this town had a 
British name formerly, whence the name Bi-istow or Bristaw 
was formed. It is now pronounced by the Welsh Brustaw or 
Brusto; as the British name of the river is now lost, and nothing 
remains but Avon, which is the common British name for all 
rivers ; and who can doubt that Bristow was by the Britains 
called Aberysto, or some such name, as Aberystwyth is called 
from the river Ystwy th. Vide Bristol 

[Briw (n, 1.). Cefn y Briw; Uyn y Briw; Ehyd y Briw. Vid. 
Caer.— W. J9.] 

Bro, country, region ; different from Gwlad. 

A*ch gw^ oil wlad Fro Ghidell. — Rhys Nanmor. 
Henw 'ngwlad yw Bro Gadell. — D. ap Qwihjm, 
Swyddan yngwlad Bro Gadell. — D. ff. H, 

Bro Alun, where Llewelyn ap lorwerth fought with the Nor- 
mans, about the river Alun. 

Un am Fro Alun elfydd Cann a Ffrainc. 

Frydydd y Moch; i LI. ap lorwerth. 

Brochuael Hir (Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan). 

Brochwel, Bbychwel, or Brychfael (n. pr. v.). 

Brochwel, sumamed Ysgythrog (from a place of that name in 
Brecknockshire), ap Cyngan ap Cadell Deyrnlluc, Prince of 
Powys and Earl of Chester, was one of the generals of the Britains 






CELTIC REMAINS. 47 

in the great battle fought a.d. 617 between the Britains and 
Ethelfrid and his Saxons near the City of Legions (West Chester). 
Brochwel was stationed with a party of men to cover the monks 
of Bangor is y Coed, who were there in great numbers praying 
for the battle ; but Ethelfrid prevailed, and destroyed some hun- 
dreds of the monks. Several of them fled to Ynys Enlli (Isle of 
Bardsey); but the college or university was not touched, for 
Ethelfrid was defeated at Bangor. See Gwaith Ferllan Fan- 
gar; and also see Nennius. Camden, in his Remains, p. 108, 
writes this name BrochvaU Schiirauc, and explains it "gagg- 
toothed", but without reason or skill in the language ; and Price 
(Descript.) calls him Brochwel Ysgithrog, that is, " long-toothed". 
He had three sons, viz., Mawn, Tyssilio Sant at Meivod, and 
Cynan the Prince. {Biichedd Be^cno.) 

Brig gw;^dd Syr Gruffydd a'i sel 
Breichiaa Gwenwys a Brochwel. — Sion Geri. 

Ni bo dyn y' myw y M6n 

0*r Brychfaeliaid Brychfoelion. 

Englynion Saith Mob Cadifor, a.d. 11?0 \M. A. i, 418]. 
Brodir. 

M6r yw, tu hwnt y maeV tir, 

Meredydd tros fy mrodir. — J. Bafydd Ddu. 
Vid. Owlad, 

Bbodorddyn, Brodorddin, or Brordorddun (q. d. Bro Dorddy n, 

tarn quaere). Syr EogerVychan, arglwydd Brodorddyn a'r Cwm. 

Mawr o dwrdd ym Mrodorddun 
Mawr poen cant marw pen can. 

letmn wp Hywel Swrdwdl, i W. Vychan o Hergest. 

Ni bu drwoh wyneb y drin 

Heb wrid nrddas Brodorddin. 

leucM ap Stbw Oae Llwyd, 
Brodoryn, qu, Brodorddyn ? 

Cyfrwng Brodoryn brad o Wynedd. 

Hoiancm Myrddin. 
Bro Dtwi. (Z. 0. Cothl) 

Bro Gapell, Dafydd ap Gwilym's country. 

Brogior wrth Wenni, a village in Glamorgansliire. Fairs are 

kept here. [Aberogiar (never called otherwise) has an ancient 



48 CELTIC REMAINS. 

castle, and is a seaport in the Duchy of Lancaster, like other 
places in Glamorgan. — I, Jf.] 

Broginin or Brogynin, a valley and some houses above Gog- 
erthan in Cardiganshire, where the common report is that Davydd 
ap Gwilym, the poet, was bom ; but quaere. 

Bro Gwent. 

Brogeintun and Broguntun, the name of a place. Ywain 
Brogeintyn was a base son of Madog ap Meredydd ap Bleddyn. 

Bron, a breast; also fem. of ftryw, a hill (from 6re, 6ry, ot fry, 
above). Brongarth ; Bronheilin ; Y Fronwen ; Y Fronfraith ; 
Bron y Mwyn ; Bron Danwg ; Bron Feirig ; Broniarth ; Bron 
Heulog ; Brongwyn, a parish in Cardiganshire. Bron Gain, a 
gentleman's seat. {J, D.) 

Bron yr Erw, a place in Arfon, North Wales, where a battle 
was fought by Gruffydd ap Cynan and Trahaearn ap Caradoc, 
the reigning Prince of North Wales ; but Gruffydd was defeated, 
and fled into Anglesey, a.d. 1073. {Caradoc in Trahaearn.) 

Bromfield, part of Powys Vadog. 

Bron y Voel. 

Brothen (St.). Uanfrothen, Meirion. 

Brotre, a town, a village, or place belonging to Cynddylan 
Powys ; perhaps an appellative to Pengwern, 

Owae ieaaingc a eiddaant Brotre. — Llowarch Hen. 

Vid. Brodir and Bro. 

Bro Wyr. {Lewis Glynn Cothi.) 

Brulhai (n. 1.). {L. G, Cothi.) 

Brun Alb an, the same with Braid Alban in Scotland (Fla- 
herty, Ogygia, p. 323) ; called also Brunhere, perhaps Bryn Hir, 
i. e., Long Hill. Vid. Drum Alban. 

Brut or Brutus, son of Silius (Julius), not Silvius, founder of 
the British empire, who is said by our ancient traditions and his- 
torians to have been the first King of Britain of the Trojan race, 
who conquered this island, or settled a colony of Trojans in it, 
about 1200 years after the Flood, and 1100 before the birth of 
Christ, and to have given it the name of Tnys BnU, and by 
foreigners, called Britannia, q. d. Brut Ynys. But the British 
Triades say that the island of Britain had its name from Prydain 
ap Aedd Mawr, who conquered it. Both might give it their 



CELTIC REMAINS. 49 

names at different times. Camden says that the greatest part 
of learned authors, as Boccetins, Vives, Hadrianus Junius, Poly- 
dore, Buchanan, Vignier, Grenebrardus, Molinseus, Bodinus, and 
other persons of great judgment, do unanimously affirm that 
there never was such a person as Brutus ; and that many of our 
learned countiymen reject him as a mere impostor, as John of 
Wheathampsted, abbot of St. Alban's, a man of excellent judg- 
ment; and William of Newborough, a much more ancient 
writer, who fixed the charge of forgery upon Geofirey, the com- 
piler of the British History, as soon as ever he had published 
it ; and that Giraldus Cambrensis, who wrote in the same age, 
calls it the fabulous history of Geoffrey ; that the author who 
takes upon him the name and title of Gildas, and briefly glosseth 
upon Nennius, in the first place imagineth this our Brutus to 
have been a Soman consul ; secondly, a son of one Silvius ; at 
last, of one Hessicion. Here are all Mr. Camden's learned men's 
objections against Brutus. 

Gorpo teymfawr tywysogaeth Brut 
Ar Brydain diriogaeth. 

Cynddelw, i Twain Cyfeiliog. 

Vid. Prydain, Britannia, Brut y Brenhinoedd, 
Brutan and Brytaen, the isle of Britain. 

O Frutan Fawr ei attun. — L. Morganwg, 
Brytaen fal og&en i lawr. — lar. Fynglwyd. 

Brutaniaid, Britains. Not of the same origin with Brython. 

Brutus Darianlas, or Brutus with the blue shield, the sixth 
King of Britain. 

Brutwn, a Britain. 

Brut y Brenionoedd, the title of the British history which 
goes by the name of Tyssilio, a bishop, son of Brochwel Ysgithrog, 
Prince of Powys, who was either the author or continuer of 
it from the Koman conquest to his own time, which was about 
the year 660, and was continued by another hand to the end of 
the reign of Cadwaladr. It was translated out of British into 
Latin by Galfridus, Bishop of St. Asaph, who, by adding some 
things of his own, to please the taste of the age, hath hurt the 
credit of the history among the modern critics. But as the 

7 



50 CELTIC REMAINS. 

translation of any author should not, among people of common 
sense, be the standard to commend it or condiemn it, such critics 
would do well, before they too hastily condemn the authority of 
the British history, to learn to read it in the original The trans- 
lator, Galfrid, hath not done the author justice, as abundance of 
British copies all over Wales and England will make appear. 
Vid. Galfridus and Tyssilio, 

Brwyn (n. pr. v.). Brwyn, father of Madog, one of the " tair 
aurgelein'\ Brwyn mab Cynadaf. (Tr. y Meirch, No. 7.) 

Bkwyneu Hen ap CorthL 

Brwynllys, one of the three commots of Cantref Canol in 
Brecknockshire (Price's Description) ; called also Eglwys Yail. 
Hence Bedo Brwynllys, a smooth poet of the 15th century. 

Bkwynog (n. 1.), in Anglesey, signifying a place of rushes : 
hence Sion Brwynog, a poet. 

Brych. Heilyn Frych. 

Brychan Brycheiniog, son of Anllech Corunawc, Xing of Ire- 
land, according to the Triades; but in Ach Cynog it is read by 
Mr. Edward Ilwyd, " Cynog sant ap Brychan ap Cormur ab 
Eurbe Wyddel." Cormur is a corruption of Corunawc. He 
settled in that part of Wales which after him is called Brych- 
einiauc or Brecheiniog, in English Brecknockshire. He made 
himself master of this country either by marriage or conquest 
(when all the kingdom went to wreck and ruin) in the very 
beginning of the 5th century, and was cotemporary with Uthur 
Bendragon. His daughter Nefjoi was wife of Cynfarch Hen, 
and mother of Urien and Ilew ap C3mfarch. He is by the poets 
called Brychan Yrlh. 

Brychan Yrth breichian nerthawg. — B, ap OwUym. 

He had 30 sons and 30 daughters (Camden says but 24 daughters), 
all saints (Camden in Brecknockshire), most of whom were 
sainted. His sons are : Cynog Sant, Drem Dremrudd, Alychini, 

Clydawc Sant, Uan, Pan, Kynodi, Euvan yn Manaw, 

Marcharuchun yn Nghyfeiliog, Dingad yn Ilanymddyfri, Berwin 
yn Nghemiw, Eeidoc yn Ffrainc, yn Cwmbreidoc, &c. His 
daughters: Arianwen, Ceindrych, Clotvaith, Cenedlon, Clydai 
Ceinwen, lleian, Meichell, Nevyn, Nefydd, Gwawr, Gwi^n, 
Goleuddydd yn Llanhasgin, Gwanddydd or Gwawrddydd yn 



CELTIC REMAINS. 51 

Nhowyn Meirionydd, Dwynwen yn Llanddwyn ym Mon, &c. 
Yid. Anllech Gomnawe,Cormur; and Giraldus CambrensiSj/rtn., 
L i, c. 2. 

Brychan {Bracanus, Flaherty, Offygia,^, 372), about the year 
357, is said to be son of Coelbad and one Cathan, who was son 
of Muedan (vid. Llangathan) ; and about A.D. 327 another Brecan 
and Comech, Boman saints. 

Brych Cadarn (Y),a elwid Einion ap Meredydd Hen ap Uew- 
elyn. (Llyifir Achau, fol. 117.) 

Brychgoch. Angharad verch Dafydd Frychgoch ; in another 
MS. verch Dafydd Fyrgoch. 

Brycheiniog, Brecknockshire ; called in Price's Description 
Brecheinoc. Vid. Brychan, 

Brychtyr, son of Howel ap leuaf. 

Brymbo or Brynbo, a gentleman's seat, Most)m's. («/. D.) 

Bryn, in the composition of places, as Bryn Hafod (i. O. Cothi) ; 
Bryn Gwyn, a gentleman's seat («/". D) ; y Bryn Glas ; y Bryn 
Du ; Bryn Llwyd ; Bryn Euryn ; Bryn y Vuches ; Bryn y Bar ; 
Bryn Bras ; Biyn Dreiniog ; y Bryn Mawr ; Bryn y Moelddu ; y 
Bryn Moel; Bryn Brenin (n. 1.); Bryn Buga, one of the com- 
mots of Cantref Iscoed in Gwent ; also a town and castle, by 
Latin writers called corruptly Buren Begi, now XJsk, on the river 
Wysc, about the midway between Caerllion and Abeigavenni ; 
Bryn Caredig(n.l.); Bryn Caw; Bryn Cain Caw (GV. aft Jfr.); Bryn 
Ceneu'nBhos(vid.Be/y?i); Bryn Cunallt, a gentleman's seat, Trevor 
(J.D.); Bryn Cur,vulgoBrynkir,aplace in Caernarvonshire; Bryn- 
kir of Brynkir, a family ; Brynddin, Lat. Brannodunum ; but I 
should rather take Brannodunum to be Branddin, or Dinbran, or 
Dinas Bran ; Bryndewyn, Dafydd ap Gronwy ap Bryndewyn ; 
Bryn Eglwys, a church and parish in I&l, Denbighshire ; Bryn 
Ffanogl near Menai, Anglesey ; Bryn Ffenigl, a gentleman's seat 
in Denbighshire (J.D.). Ednyfed Vychan, baron of Bryn Ffenigl. 
Bryn lorcyn, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire {J, D,) ; Brjm 
Lluarth, a gentleman's seat {J.D.), Iloyd ; Brynllys (n. L) ; Bryn- 
llysg^ the name of a tumulus or barrow about half a mile from 
Bala. The name seems to me to imply the original use of it, — 
the burning mount, where they burnt the bodies of their dead, 
and consequently a place of urn burial, though Mr. Edward Llwyd 



52 CELTIC BEMAINS. 

{Notes on Camden) thought it was one of the Bomaii watch-mounts. 
There is another of them at the outlet of liyn Tegid : vid Towr- 
men y Bala, Bryn Tangor, a gentleman's seat {J, 2>.). Bryn y Bala, 
near Aberystwyth in Cardiganshire, signifies the outlet of a lake 
(Th. Williams). Bryn y Beili, a tumulus near Wyddgruc ; Bryn 
y Pin, a camp and entrenchment of Owen Gwynedd, A.D. 1157. 

Brynach (n. pr. v.). Brynach Wyddel o'r Gogledd (Jr. 30) ; 
i. e., Brynach, the Scot, from the North. 

Brtnaich and BunnYCEyBemicii, the people of Bemicia, north 
of Britain, to the north of the Tweed (TV. 16). Dei/r a Brynaich, 
Deira and Bemicia. 

Pan dyffont g^wyr Brynaich ir gwarth laydd. 

jBbumau Myrddin, 
Rhag gelyn Brynaich branhes dychre. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Gr. ap Gyuan ap O. Gwynedd. 

Brynaich (from brynniau, hills), Hill-men. Dei/r (from dwfr, 
water), men of the watery country. 

Bryt, a contraction of Brutus. Ynys Bryt, one of the three 
ancient names of Britain in some copies of the Triades. 

Bbython, Britons or Britains, q. d. Brithion, painted men. So 
the Armoricans bslj Breton ; li.Breathruich, Mjrddin Wyllt, who 
was himself a Pictish Briton, gives this derivation of it firom hrOh: 

Brython dros Saeson, 

Brithwyr ai medh.^-Hauinai« Myrddin, 

Perhaps the northern Britains were at first only called Brython, 

from the colony of Picts among them, and the southern called 

Brutaniaid, 

Fy nhafawd yn frawd ar Frython, 

O Fdr Udd hyd F6r Iwerddon. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Bodii ap O, Gwynedd. 

Brythoneg, lingua Britannica. 
Brythwn or Bbytwn, a Britain. 

Gorea Brytwn hwn a henwir. — W, Lhyn. 

Brythyn or Brithyn, a Britain ; q. d. brUh-ddyn (JR Lhwyd) ; 

Ir. Breathnach, The plural is Brithon or Brython, Vid. Brython, 

Bbyttaen. 

£i henw ymlaen Fryttaen fry, 

Un o'th hynaif wnaeth hyQny. — H. SuordwaU 



CELTIC REMAINS. 53 

Brttbus. Ednywain ap Bleddjm ap Brytrus. In another 
place Brutus. 

BuARTH Arthur, or Meini Gw^r, on the mountain near Kil y 
Maen Llwyd; a circular monument of stones, such as those 
ascribed to the Danes. {E. Llwyd) 

BuARTH Gadvan (n. L). Vid. Oadvan. 

Buccus, in the Salique Law, is a Celtic word (bwch) signify- 
ing a he-goat and a buck, which hath puzzled our glossaries. 

BuDDAi or BUDDEI. Cacr Fuddai (Triades), Vid. Fuddei. 

BuDDUGRE (n. 1.). Bach Buddugre. Ilys Buddugre. (Prydydd 
y Mochf i Gr. ap C. ap 0. Gwynedd.) 

BuELLT or BuALLT {k hi and dUt), Ooceliff {E. Llwyd), a town 
and castle in Brecknockshire, on the river Gwy. This is the 
Bvilasum SUurwm of Ptolomy, says Mr. Camden ; and he says 
the neighbouring rocky country is from this town called Buallt, 
where Yortigem retired from the incursions of the Saxons. 
But he retired to Gwrtheymion, which is not in Buallt. Near 
tins place likewJBe Llewelyn ap Grufifydd was betrayed by Madog 
Min, and kiUed a.d. 1282, in the reign of Edward I. Here Pas- 
centius, son of Yortigem, by permission of Aurelius Ambrosius, 
governed, as Nennius says ; and in his chapter of wonders he 
has an odd story about the print of the feet of King Arthur's 
hound in the stones to be found here. 

Mr. Edward Llwyd questions whether Bullmum was not at a 
place called Caerau^ hard by BueUt, if at all in this country ; 
and there is a place called Castellan hard by, and Buellt was the 
name of a small country here, from whence the ancient Bullaeum 
might be denominated. {E, Llwyd) 

Rhys ap Grufiyth demolished the old castle of Buellt, and the 
Breoses and Mortimers built there a castle since. {Camden) Gil- 
bert Earl of Gloucester fortified this castle a.d. 1210. {Caradoc) 

It contains Swydd y Fam, Y Drevlys, and Isyrwon. (Price's 
Descr) Yid. Caer FJUi. 

BuGU, the nsmie of Beuno's father. Yid. Byvyi and BiTid. 
{Bewru>'8 Life) 

BuiLKE, one of the sons of Glam Hector^ who took the Isle of 
Man from Tibion, son of Cunedda Wledig, and killed him there. 
(Nennius apud Price.) Yid. Glam Hector, 



54 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Bun (n. pr. f.). Bun,* the daughter of Culfynawyd Prydain, 
wife of Fflamddwyn, notorious for her lasciviousness. (TV. 56.) 
Vid. Fflamddwyn in Nennius and in the Grododin.) 

BuRGEDiNG, ymhlwy Cegidfa. ( Yat March.) 

BuRGWYN, or Byrgwyn, or Byrgwin, Burgundy in France. 
ByrgwynioTiy Burgundians. 

Ar win Byrgwin bob ergyd. — Hywel Da/ydd. 

Burn (fl.) : viA Y Fumwy. 

BwA, a bow to shoot with, or a bending. Several places take 
their names from this word, as T Bwa Drain, Cwm Bwa, PentreV 
BwAau. [Rhos Bryn Bwa.— W. 2>.] 

BwcH, a buck. Places named from it ; as Hafod y Bwch, a 
gentleman's seat, Denbighshire, Boberts ; Dinbych, i. e,, Dinas 
y Bychod ; Castell Bwch in Henllys, Monmouthshire ; Bychryd. 

BwLAN (n. L), k bw and llan. 

BwLGH, literally a gap, passage, or strait. This word is pre- 
fixed to several names of places in Wales that are passes through 
mountains. Bulgium in Antoninus' Itinerary {Blatum BtUgium) 
is, I doubt not, one of these bwlchs or passages in the Great Wall. 
Bwlch y Groes; Bwlch Tresame; Bwlch Meibion Dafydd; 
Bwlch Caneinog ; Bwlch y Rhiwfelen ; Bwlch Ffrainc ; Bwlch 
y Caleb ; Bwlch Coed y Mynydd ; Bwlch Rosser ; Bwlch yr 
Adwy Wynt ; Y Bwlch Glas ; Bwlch Carreg y Fran ; Bwlch yr 
Esgair Hir ; Bwlch Ilorien (Llyivarch Hen), qu. whether Iloren, 
Montgomeryshire [Denbighshire, W, 2>.] ; Bwlch y Ddinas, a 
castle in South Wales ; Bwlch y Saeth Lydan, a place on Wyddfa 
Mountain. [Bwlch y Cibau ; Bwlch y Ddar. — W. D.] 

BwLEN, Bulloign in France. 

Y mae wylaw ym Mwlen 
Yn ol ei wyr a'i law wen. 

Dafydd Ejppynt^ i Wm. Herbert. 

BwRDD Arthur : vid. Owal y Viliast, 

BwYDEG ap Khun Rhuddbaladr. 

Bychan, little or small ; a surname of men. Cantref Bychan, 
one of the four cantrefSs of Carmarthenshire, signifying the Little 
Cantref, there being another called Cantref Mawr, the Great 
Cantref. And who is so blind as not to see that the division of 
the shire of Aberdeen, in Scotland, into Buchen, Mar, and Strath- 



CELTIC REMAINS. 55 

bogy, is the ancient British division of Bychan, Mawr, and Ystrad 
Bogwy ? 

Byddar. Llan y Byddar, Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here. 
Vid. Byddavr, 

Btddaib. llan y Byddair, a church in Carmarthenshire, near 

the Teifi. 

Bwyd a gwin i'r byd a gair 

Heb weddn'n Llan y Byddair. — QuUoW Olyn, 

Byddig (n. pr. f.). Lat. Boadicea. {K Lhoyd) 

Bydno, a river which runs fi*oin the North to Uangurig : hence 
Aberbydno. 

Bybddin, a river which falls into Wysc at Bryn Buga, the Bur- 
rium of Antoninus ; named, no doubt, from that river. In Mor- 
den's map Brithin, Vid. Bryn Btiga [s. v. Bryn], 

Bysaleg : vid. Basmlech 

Bywyn ap Gorddwfyn or lorddwfn. 

C. 

Cadafael (n. pr. v.), a hostage. Cadavael mab Cjoifedw yng- 
wynedd (Tr.76),one who advanced himself from a native tenant 
or slave, to a king in Gwynedd. (Tr) 

Cadafael Ynfyd (n. pr. v.). [Cadafael is still a name of oppro- 
brium ; but why I know not. It cannot be from the Lat. coda- 
ver.— W.B.] 

Cadaib. Tudur ap Gronw ap Howel y Gadair. 

Cadair Arthur, on the southern hills in Brecknockshire, men- 
tioned by Giraldus Cambrensis in his Itinerary, From the 
puissant King Arthur. [Also a clifT near Edinburgh : vide His- 
tory of the Rebellion in 1745. — W, jD.] 

Cadarn, strong. Ynys Gadam, an island near Anglesey. It 
is likewise the surname of several persons, as Efroc Gadam, Der- 
fel Gadam, Hawys Gadarn, etc., etc. 

Cadawc, Cadoc, or Cadog (n. pr. v.) : hence Ilangadog, Car- 
marthenshire ; Hendre Gadog, Anglesey. 

Cadawc, mab Gwynlliw Filwr, un o'r tri chyfion farchog. 
(TV. 84.) Vid. Cattwg Sant. 

Cadog ap Gwlyddien. 

Cad Coed Llwyfain : vid. Llwyfain. 



56 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Cadean (n. pr. v.), father of Stradweul. 

Cadeir, a poet, father of Elmur. (TV. 13.) 

Cadell (n. pr. v.). Cadellns {Dr, Davies). Bra Oadell, Dafydd 
ap Gwilym's country. 

Henw 'ngwlad yw Bro Gadell. — D. ap Owihfm. 

Cadell, one of the sons of Bodri, among whom he foolishly 
divided the government of Wales, a.d. 877. 

Cadell Deyrnllyg, a poor man in I&l, who entertained St. 
Grannon ((rermanus) when Benlli Gawr, the Prince, refused to 
let him enter his city to preach against the Pelagian heresy about 
the year 450. Vid. Benlli Gawr. 

St. Grarmon went to this poor man's cottage with all his fol- 
lowers, who had nothing to entertain them but one calf which 
followed Ids cow. This calf he killed and dressed, and they eat 
it up ; but Garmon ordered that not one bone of it should be 
broke or lost ; and next morning the calf was by a miracle re- 
turned alive to the cow again. So Cadell and all the region 
came to be baptized by St. Garmon, and to receive his doctrine ; 
and as a recompense for the calf, St. Garmon gave Cadell his 
blessing ; and that day made him King of Powys, and promised 
that of his progeny there should be a prince {du£) there for ever; 
and Kennius says the kings of Powys in his days were of his 
seed. {NenmuBy c. xxx-xxxiv.) I think this was no extraordi- 
nary compliment to the kings of Powys ; but Nennius delivered 
it as he found it in some author of the life of St. Germanus, 
perhaps Constantine. 

Cadell ap Geraint, the 44th King of Britain. This is he 
whom the Triades call Gaydyal ab Eryn, in whose time an army 
of 65,000 were hired here to assist the Gauls and Germans 
against the Romans. This was about the time of 

Cadelling, the country of Cadell. — Cynddelw. 

Cader and Mynydd Cader signify a fortified mountain. Cader 
Idris; Cader Dinmael; Cader Ferwyn ; Cader yr Ychen; Cader 
Arthur ; Cader Sidi ; y Gader Ynghomwy. In the Irish, eathair 
is a fort (from eau, to enclose ; and hence cadam, strong). 

Cader Arthur, a fort on a mountain near Edinborough, 
Arthur's northern palace being kept at Edinborough. (Jo. Major, 
HUt. Scot, L ii, c. 6. So say the Triades also.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 57 

Cader Benllyn, Gader Ddinmael, etc., were ancient British 
forte. 

Cadeb Facsen, on Frenni Vawr mountain, Pembrokeshire. 

Gader Idris, near Dolgelleu. 

Gader Vyrddin, i, e., Myrddin's Fort or Gastle. Hence a cock 
which has a double comb is called ceUiog cader Fyrddin, from 
the comb's resemblance to a castle. 

Nennius says that Gwrtheym gave Myrddin Emrys a castle 
and all the provinces of the west of Britain. " Time rex dedit iUi 
arcem cum omnibus provinciis plagse Occidentalis Britanniae": 
i. e., he made him chief bard in those countries. 

Gadfach : qu. an id. Cadfarch ? 

Gadfael ap Gadell. 

Gadvael : see Dincadvael, an ancient strong fort. 

Gadvan (n. pr. v.), Latinized Catamamis. Gadvan, the 106tli 
King of Britain, father of Gadwallon, who was father of Gad- 
waladr, the last King of the Britains. This Gadvan was Prince 
of North Wales, and lived in Anglesey, when the famous battle 
was fought at Bangor is y Goed between the Saxons and Britains, 
after the massacre of the monks of Bangor at Gaerlleon (West 
Chester) by Ethelfrid, King of Northumbria. This battle is 
called, in the Triades, Gwaith Perllan Fangor. On the side of 
the Britains there were Bledrws, Prince of Gornwall and Devon, 
their chief leader ; Brychwel, Prince of Powys ; Gadvan, King of 
North Wales ; and Meredydd, King of Dyfet. On the Saxons' 
side were Ethelfrid, King of Northumbria ; and Ethelbert, King 
of Kent ; with all the other petty princes of the Saxons. This 
being a religious war made them all mad ; for the Britains refus- 
ing to agree with the tenets of the Ghurch of Borne, brought 
over with Austin, were cursed by him ; and the enthusiastic 
Saxon kings thought it was a meritorious act to destroy such 
obstinate heretics. But the issue of this battle was that the 
Saxons EtheMrid and Ethelbert were overthrown with a great 
loss, as Tyssilio (who was son of Brychwel, one of the generals) 
says, of about ten thousand men. (Tyssilio; Caradoc*8 Chronicle; 
Triades,) Gadvan, upon this defeat of the Saxons, for his be- 
haviour in this battle, was by general consent, at West Ghester, 
created King of the Britains ; Bledrws, their chief, being killed 

8 



58 CELTIC REMAINS. 

in the field. From hence the Britains followed their conquest, 
and drove Ethelfrid over the Humber ; and, coming to an agree- 
ment to let the Humber be the boundary, peace was made, and 
great friendship ensued. Ethelfrid's queen being iU used by 
him, she, big with child, ran for shelter to Cadvan's court in 
Anglesey^ and there her son Edwin was bom and brought up, 
who was afterwards King of the Korthiunbrians and of the 
Britains for some time. Vid. Edvrm. The Saxon Anncds place 
this battle in A.D. 607; the Ulster Annals in 613; Dr. Powel, 
from Castor, in 617. Cadvan was buried at the church of Eg- 
Iwysael in Anglesey, now called Uangadwaladr, and his grave- 
stone is there with an inscription. 

Ilangadvan in the deanery of Pool ; Buarth Gadvan ; Dol- 
gadvan. 

Cadvan Sant o Lydaw. Uangadvan. 

Cadvan, Abbot of Bardsey. 

Cadfarch (St.). Church at Penegoes. 

Cad Gamlan, the great battle fought at Camlan in Cornwall, 
in the civil war between King Arthur and Medrawd his nephew, 
which ruined the Britains. Vid. Medrod. 

Cad Goddeu : vid. Goddeu, 

Cadgyffro (n. pr. v.), the father of Gilbert. {Tr, 29.) 

Cadhayarn ap Gwerydd ap Ehys Goch. 

Cadivor (n. pr. v.). Cadivor Wyddel, or the Irishman, lived at 
the Pant uch Pentraeth in Anglesey, and was cotemporary with 
Owain Gwynedd about the year 1160, and probably one of 
Gruffudd ap Cynan's followers from Dublin, and a relation. It 
seems, by the dark accounts we have of this affair, that Ffinog, 
by whom Owain Gwynedd got Hywel ap Ywain Gwynedd, was 
a sister of Cadivor Wyddel ; for it is certain that he was brought 
up in Cadivor's family, and that four of the seven valiant sons 
of Cadivor died in defending his cause, and in following his wars. 

Baant brwysgion braisg arfaetb, 
Bnant briw ger ei brawd faeth. 

See "Englynion i Saith Mab Cadifor Wyddel." 

Tra fnam yn saith, tri saith ni'n beiddiai, 
Ni'n ciliai cyn an llaith. 

Cadifor ap Gwaithfoedd. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 59 

Cadlys, a king's temporaiy canip or palace. 

Gras Arthur a'i groes wrihyd 
A'i lys a'i gadlys i gyd. 

Cadlys drain. Y Gadlys, near Dulas, Anglesey. Y Gadlys in 
Aberdar, Glamorgan. Vid. Y Gadlys. 

Cadmor : qu. whether it is a family; or name of a place ? 

Cado, tad Gwrei ; q. d. Cato (?) and Cattw. 

Cadretth, son of Porthfawr Gadw ; one of tri unben IJys 
Arthur. (Tr. 15.) 

Cadrod (n. pr. v.). Cadrod Calchfynydd, son of Cynwyd Cyn- 
wydion. 

Cadw (n. pr. v.) : qu. whether Cato. Cadw gadr Swysson, un 
o'r tair colofn celfyddodion (one of the three pillars of arts and 
sciences). Prydydd y Moch, i Eodri ap Owain Gwynedd. 

Cadwal Gryshalawg. 

Cadwaladr (n. pr. v., k cad and gwaladr, q. d. a lord of the 
battle). Cadwaladr, the 108th and last Loegrian King of the 
Britains, son of Cadwallon. There are several churches in Wales 
dedicated to him, which is a strong proof of his being sainted 
by the Church of Eome, as our British history mentions. But 
Bede's Catwalda wants this authority of being sainted. Uan- 
gadwaladr in Anglesey ; Llangadwaladr Chapel in the parish of 
Uanrhaiadr, Denbighshire. Vid. Cadvan, 

Cadwallon (n. pr. v., a cad and gwallaw, — Dr, Barnes), Cad- 
wallon ap Cadvan, the 107th King of Britain. He was father 
of Cadwaladr, the last King of the Britains. This is he that 
Bede, L ii, c. 20 (in the English translation from Dr. Smith), calls 
Ca^dwal and Ceadwall ; and in the Heidelberg Latin edition 
(L iii,c. l),Carduella and GeduaUa; and by WiUiam of Malmes- 
bury, Cadwallin, 

Teulu Cadwallawn ap Cadvan, un o'r tri diwair deulu, followed 
him in Ireland seven years, and never asked a recompense, for 
fear of being obliged to leave him. (Triades, 34.) 

Cadwgawn (n. pr. v., k cad and gwgavni, — Dr, Dames), Cadw- 
gan Buffudd, a Demetian poet of the 14th century, author of 
Araith Wgon. 

Da o Ddyfed ced Cadwgawn Bnffudd, 
Da o'r iaith ddigadd Araith Wgawn. 

Marwnad Trahaeam. 



GO CELTIC REMAINS. 

Cadwk Wenwyn ap Idnerth. 

Cadwynfan (Y), enw lie. 

Cadyal, mab Eryn. (TV. 40.) This was Cadell mab Geraint, 
the 43rd Bang after Brutus, who gave that great supply of men 
to Urp Luyddog. Vid. Urp. 

Cad y Coedanau, a battle fought by Llewelyn ap lorwerth : 
qu. whether against Davydd ap Owen Gwynedd, or Rhodri, and 
the Manks men. 

Gad y Coedanau cadr anant borthi 
Bnrthiaist wyr yn ddifant. — Prydydd y Moeh. 

Brwydr y Coettaneu. {Aer: Camb. a.d. 1195.) 
Cadyr Urdden. (Breiniau Powys.) 

Cadyryeith Saidi (n. pr. v.), or Cadeirj'-eith Saidi {Tr. 89), 
one of King Arthur's hospitable knights. 
Caeawc or Caeog (n. pr. v.). 

Cadwyr foddawg 
Elfan, Cynddylan, Caeawg. — Llywarch Hen. 

Cae Du, in Llansannan, Denbighshire. William Salisbury, 
gentleman, author of a 12mo Gram. Brit., 1593 (published, I sup- 
pose, after his death), was of this place. What W. Salisbury was 
author of the Welsh-English Dictionary, 4to, 1547 ? Sometime 
member of Lincoln's Inn. (Nicolson's £ngl. Hist, Libr.) 

Caenan Hal, enw lie yn Sir Henfifordd. 

Caeo. Dafydd Fongam o Gaeo. 

Caer. This is a most ancient Celtic word from the beginning 
of times, and signifies an enclosed town, or fort, or stronghold. It 
is derived from cau,to shut orenclose; firom hence also comes (rosier, 
a fort ; as Cader Idris, Cader Benlljm, Cader Facsen, Cader Arthur, 
Cader Vyrddin, etc., etc. ; and the word cadam, strong ; cademid, 
strength. Other ancient nations had words of the same or like 
sounds, to signify the same thing, as Kir, Kiriah, Kiriath, a 
town ; Ca7ia and Carthago ; and Grand Cairo in Egypt. In the 
Sarmatic or Scythian, car and carm ; in the Parthian, certa, as 
Badocerta, Tigranocerta, etc., signify a town. 

Caer is prefixed, in the British, to the names of most of the 
ancient British cities, as Ca^r Ludd, London ; CaerUion, the City 
of Legions, etc. ; and very often, where the British hath caer, the 



CELTIC KEMAINS. 61 

Saxons have put Oeter, Oaster, Gester, or Ohester ; as for Oaer Esc, 
Exeter or Exceter ; for Goer Davm, Doncaster ; Gaerwynt, Win- 
chester, recti Windcheater ; Goer Loyw, Gloucester. Therefore, 
for GaerLvdd in this Dictionary, see the letter L ; and so of the 
rest 

Caer Adanau or Adanaw {Lli^warch Hen in Marwnad Cyn- 
ddylan), perhaps a fort belonging to one Aedenau. See Aedenau 
febGleisiar. (Tr,) 

Caeb Akdreb. 

Caek Akderydd : vid. Arderydd. 

Caer Ardudwy, Harlech in Meirion. See Llech Ardvdwy, 

Caer tn Arpon, a town from which the county of Caernarvon 
or Caernarvonshire (so called in Llewelyn ap lorwerth's time, 
1200) takes its name. The county is called by the natives Sir 
Gaer*7iaTfon. Before the division of Wales into counties it was 
called, says Camden, Snaiodon Forest ; and in Latin historians it 
is called Snattdonia, as also Arvonia, 

Camden, out of Matthew of Westminster, says that the body 
of Constantius, father of Constantino the Great, was found here 
in the year 1283, and buried in the church of the new town by 
command of Edward I, who at that time built the town of 
Caernarvon at the sea-side, out of the ruins of the old city, 
which lies higher. In Nennius it is called Caer Gtcstenit; by 
Camden, out of Nennius, corruptly Cystenydd ; in the Triades, 
Goer Arfon, 

In the Life of Gruflfydd ap Cynan it is said that Hu, Earl of 

Chester, built a castle at Hen Gaer Cystennin. Vid. Arfon and 

Gnsteint, 

A Chaer yn Arfon a charant yngnif 

YngnaWB coll am peidiant. 

Prydydd y Mochy i Lew. ap lorwerth. 

Caer Baladin, Shaftsbuiy. 

Caer Biblin. 

Caer BLADDON,Mabnesbury. (Humph. Llwyd,BnV.i>e5cr.,p.24.) 

Caer Bro. 

Caer Caradoc, Salisbury {Th. Williams) ; in Nennius, Gair 
Ga/radauc; in the Triades, Gaer Garadoc and Garadawc (tm o'r 
tri dyfal gyfangan). 



62 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Mr. Camden (in Shropshire) says : " Where the river Colunwy 
meets the river Teme ariseth a hill of great antiquity, called 
Cojer CaradocJiy because about the year of our Lord 53, Carata- 
cus, a renowned British king, environed it with a bulwark of 
stone, and defended it gallantly against Ostorius and the Eoman 
legions till they^ by making a breach in so sUght a stone work 
(some ruins of which are yet to be seen), forced the disarmed 
Britains to betake themselves to the tops of the mountains." 
And so he proceeds with a story out of Tacitus, how Garatacus 
behaved at Bome, etc. 

A story thus confidently told by an author so admired as 
Camden, and in so pompous a book as the Britannia^ one would 
have expected to be unexceptionably true, especially when such 
authors as Tacitus and that excellent antiquaiy, Humphrey 
Iloyd, are quoted in the margin ; but if you please to look into 
H. Lloyd's Breviary of Britain, you will find Mr. Camden gives 
the Britains no fair play. H. Llwyd says that he, travelling in 
Shropshire about the Earl of Arunders affairs, saw an ancient 
fort which answers the description of that passage in Tacitus 
about Caratacus, which he doth not doubt is the real place where 
Caradoc fought, and fortified by art and nature. Mr. Camden's 
environing this hill (of great antiquity) about the year 53, and 
his slight stone work, and the ruins to be yet seen, don't come 
up to H. Llwyd's description. And the ancient book of Triades 
will teU you that at Caer Caradoc there was a monastery con- 
taining 2,400 monks ; which will not very weU agree with this 
fortified hill ; and yet Mr. Camden hath quoted these l^riades 
twice in his Britannia. After this grand description of the 
battle he says : " Tho' our sorry historian" [meaning Galfrid] 
''hath omitted both this battle and this gallant Britain, the 
country people tell us that a king was beaten ux)on this hilL" 
This last is out of H. Llwyd. 

Caer Cori or Ceri, Cicester in Gloucestershire ; i. e., Ciren- 
cester. (H. Llwyd, Brit. Descr., p. 24.) 

Caer Chyrnwy, Corinium (B, Llwyd) ; probably Ohwymwy, 
rapid water. But there is a place in Anglesey called Comwy 
(a river runs by Caere), which sounds more like Corinium. Also 
Llanvair Ynghomwy, and Y Gam Ynghomwy. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 63 

Caer Dathal. 

Am ardal Caer Dathal doethant. 

Cynddelwy i Owain Owynedd. 
Caeb Degog, Mod. 

Caer Drewin [near Corwen] in Meirion ; from the Druids, 
as E. Llwyd thinks. See Tre'r Driw, 

Caer Dro : see Tro. 

Caer Dyf (wrote also Caerdydd), Cardiff, a town and castle 
in the east of Morganwg. {Pawd, 123.) See JDyf. 

Ni chair y dwr uwch Caerdyf 
Eisian arian i'r siryf. — letcan Tew, 

Sir a gawn sy aer gennyf 

Eisiau 'r gwr daeth sir Gaerdyf. — Lewya Morganwg, 

Caer Dduwarbawl. 

Caer Eillion, in Powys {Owdygorddau Powys), See EiUion. 

Caer Ennarawd (Triades,) Another copy, Caer Guarad. 

Caereneon or Caereinion Yrth, in Montgomeryshire ; part 
of Powys Wenwynwyn, near Cymmer ; one of the two commots 
of Cantref Llyswynaf. (Price's Rescript) 

Caer Fallwch, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) 

Caer Ferwig, Berwick. 

Curo k blif ddylif ddelw 

Cerrig Caerferwig fyrwelw. — lolo GocJi, i Edward III. 

Vid. Y Ferwig and Aberung. 

Caer Fon, qu. whether Beaumaris. (Jeuan ap Huw Oae Lhtyyd) 

Caervyrddin, now called in English Caermarthen, a seaport 

town and chief of the county of Caermarthen in South Wales. 

Jo. Major {HisL Scot, 1. ii) calls it Oarmadyne and Oarmaiin, 

Since a neighbouring author of no greater antiquity than a.d. 

1521 can thus blunder^ and murder names of places, what can 

we expect in Ptolomy, Antoninus, etc. ? What are we to trust 

I to, then, but our own ancient authors, poets, etc. ? In one copy 

I of the Triadea, Goer Verdin. 

Caer Gai, a gentleman's seat in Meirion, not far from liyn 
Tegid. Camden calls it Cuius* Castle, built by one Caius, a 
Roman ; but he doth not say when, and only says the common 
people of that neighbourhood report great things of him, and 
scarce credible. {Camden in Merionetlishire.) The common 



64 CELTIC REMAINS. 

people never heard of " Caius, a Roman", nor any other "Roman" 
there ; but the ancient tradition is, as well as the written his- 
tory and works of the poets, that Cai Hir, penswyddwr yn Ilys 
Arthur (i e., Cai the Long, chief officer in "Arthur's palace), had 
a seat here ; probably his family seat. 

Caer Gangen, Canterbiuy. 

Caer Gidwm, yn Eryri, uwch ben Ilyn Tarddenni. 

Caer Gleddyf, Tenby. {Th, Williams) 

Caer Golink. P, V. 

Caergreig, a castle on an island in Scotland (Flaherty, p. 1), 
which he takes to be the Urhs Guidi of Bede ; in Lat., Victoria. 
(Bede, L i, c. 12, p. 36, EngL) This island is in the middle of 
the arm of the sea called Edenborough Frith or Forth Frith. 

Caergreu. {Tr, 35.) See Greu. 

Caergwrleu or Gwrle, a village in Flintshire. 

Caergyffin, Conwy. (Price's Description.) 

Caer Hawystl. 

Caer Hen {Oamden in Carnarvonshire) ; corruptly for Caer 
Bhun, i. e,y Rhun's Castle, and not old city, as Mr. Camden 
would have it; and after him E. Llwyd, who was not well enough 
versed in our history to know that Rhun ap Maelgwn lived at 
this place ; which, notwithstanding, might have been before a 
Roman station by the name of Conovium, as it is plain it was 
by a Roman hypocaust discovered near the church of Caer Rhun ; 
imless we allow that Rhim, who was near the time of the 
Romans, might make a hypocaust there. Mr. Llwyd imagines 
this place was called by the Britains Ca£r Lleion ar Gynwi/y 
because a hill near it is called Mynydd Caer Lleion. Tliis shews 
a fertile fancy, but we have no authority of writers for it. 

Caerleil: see Carlisle, 

Caerlleon Gawr, a city now called Westchester and Chester. 
It was called by the Saxons Legeacester; by Antoninus, in his 
Itinerary, called Deva; by Ptolomy, Deunana; Bede (1. ii, c. 2) 
says the Britains called it Carlegion, meaning some Britain that 
had wrote in Latin ; by the Triades, Caer Lleon ; by Tyssilio, 
Goer Ueon, because built by Ileon, King of Britain ; by Nen- 
nius, Oair Legion Gaur vsvr, which by the blundering of tran- 
scribers is unintelligible ; in the Saxon Annals, Legerciestere and 



CELTIC REMAINS. 65 

Legncetirt ; by the British poets and native Britains, CaerUean 
Oawr. 

Gaerlleon Oawr i fawr i faoh.-^2i. 0. Ooihi, 

But sometimes, when it is to be distinguished from Caerllion ar 
Wysg, it is called Gaerlleon arDdyfrdun/, i. e., Caerlleon on the river 
Dee; and not Oaer Leon ar dujyrlhvy, as Mr. Camden is pleased 
to name it. The Britains never call it Caer Legion ; nor is such 
a name to be found in any of their writings, except in that ill 
wrote Latin catalogue of cities in Nennius, done by ignorant 
transcribers, who trimmed it to agree with Bede. Mr. Camden 
hath taken a good deal of pains to deprive the Britains of the 
honour of being the first founders of this city ; as if his own 
honour had been at stake if he could not give it the Bomans, to 
whom he is very liberal at the cost of the poor Britains. These 
are his words : " Tho' I know some do aver it to be older than 
the moon; to have been built many thousands of years ago by 
the Giant Leon Vaur/' According to Mr. Camden, the Giant 
Leon Yaur was older than the moon. But who are these some 
that aver so ? No British author hath any such words, though 
Mr. Burton, in his Notes on ArUoninus, makes use of the very 
same phrase with Mr. Camden, pointing at the British history and 
tradition. Galfrid, who was as ignorant ajs Camden of this aficdr, 
hath in his Latin translation turned the name Leon into LeU; 
and this because he found a city called OaerleU in the north of 
the island, which he thought agreed better with his author's 
description. But these are the words of Tyssilio, the original 
British author, which Galfrid maimed in the translation : " £f a 
adeilawdd ddinas yngogledd yn ynys hon ac ai gelwis oi enw ei 
hun Caerlleon"; {. «., he built a city on the north side of this 
island, and called after his own name, Caerlleon. 

Mr. Camden says '' the Britains called this city Caerlegion, 
Caer Leon Vaur, and Caer Leon ar dufyr Dwy." No writers 
among the Britains, except the maimed Nennius, call it Caer 
Legion, nor did the native Britains ever make use of such a 
name in their own tongue. And as for " Caer Leon Vaur", it is 
a fictitious name of Mr. Camden's own creation ; either confound- 
ing Oawr and Vavrr through his ignorance of the language, or 
else setting up a shadow of a king or a giant to be demolished 

9 



66 CELTIC REMAINS. 

"by himself The Britains never heard of Lleon VauTy 1. 1, Leon 
the Great, in the writings of their nation, or anywhere else but in 
Camden ; and they do Tiot deny but that the words "lleon Vawr" 
in the British may signify a great legion, as Mr. Camden would 
have it, by only changing the letter e into i, and so make it Llion, 
which is the way they write Caerllion ar Wysg, which they 
allow might take its name from a legion quartered there, the old 
name being Caerwysg. 

A mi ynliref Ghierllion. — L. 0. ColJvL 
Mawr yw'r cri ynghaerllion. 

But why should letters be changed to please the fancy of a 
modem writer, against the ancient national history and universal 
consent of the people, who always called it Caerlleon Gawr, and 
not Vawr. Mr. Camden had some notion that there was a Caivr 
(which he translates a giant) in some part of the story; for, says 
he, " whether it is not more natural to derive the name of this 
city from a great legion, or the Giant Leon, let the world judge." 
But whether he did not, on purpose, confound Cawr and Vawr^ 
let the world again judga 

"There are young antiquaries", says Mr. Camden in great 
triumph, "who make this city older than the moon, and to have 
been built by the Giant Leon Vaur ; and the name itself may 
convince them of the greatness of this error." After all this 
flourish of the moon and of the "Giant Leon Vaur'^ a creature 
of his own head, the character of a young antiquary will fall 
upon Mr. Camden himself when the world (who, according to 
his own proposal, is to be judge) sees that Lleon Gawr in the 
British doth not signify Leon the Giant, but lleon the Prince or 
King ; and in that sense all the ancient writers understood the 
word cavrr; and he was never by the Britains called Lleon 
Vaior, nor by any writer but Mr. Camden^ that I have met with. 
Cawr, in the dialect of the Cambrians, was an epithet given to 
the most warlike of their princes, as was Gwledig among the Loe- 
grian Britains, and Priodawr among the Albanian Britains. 

Gamp cawr yw cwympo caerydd, 

says lorwerth Fynglwyd ; i, e., the quality of a caipr is to over- 
throw walls of cities. Benlli Gawr, Phili Gawr, Idris Gawr, 



CELTIC REMAINS. 67 

Othrwm Gawr, Ehitta Gawr, Ehuddlwm Gawr, Ileon Gawr, etc., 
were valiant princes who got their surnames for their valour and 
wisdom ; and Nimrod is called *' Nemrwth Gawr" {Sion Cert) ; 
so Henry VIII is called by one of our poets, 

Oator pann M6n carw Pen Mynydd. — Sion Brwynog. 

Tman fu'r cyfrdan ddwyn Cator y Gedyrn 
A'a ceidwad a'u blaenawr. — Bhys Brychan, 

" Cawr y Cedym" is the prince of the strong men. 

But to close this argument. I have seen in Hengwrt Library 
a MS. in the handwriting of Dr. Thomas Willianis, author of the 
Latin-British part of Dr. Davies' Dictionary, which gave an 
account of all the ancient forts on the mountains of Wales, with 
the names of the princes that bmlt them : such as Cawr Idris, 
Cawr Othrwm,etc., etc., who were no more giants than Mr. Camden 
was ; and in the ancient book called the British Triades (which 
I copied in that library, A.D. 1738, out of the handwriting of the 
great antiquary Mr. Robert Vaughan, compared with four ancient 
MSS. on vellum), I find King Arthur's third wife was Gwen- 
hwyvar, the daughter of Ogyrfan Gawr; the same Queen that 
was dethroned by his nephew, Medrawd, when Arthur followed 
hia wars in GauL 

Now I ask, in my turn, as Mr. Camden did about Caerlleon, 
whether it is more natural to say that Arthur, a King of Britain, 
married the daughter of Pririce Ogyrfan, or of the Oiant Ogy^-fan^ 
and let the world judge. See Leonis Castnim, Holt, and Lleon. 

Caerlewon : see Llewon. 

Caebuweltdd : see Lliwelydd. 

Caer Lyn (^Triades) : see Llyn, 

Caeemalet, or Camalet, or Camalot, lAys Camalot {Llyfr y 
Great, apud Arch. Brit, p. 262), one of the palaces of King Arthur 
in Somersetshire (Humphrey Uwyd, Brit, Descr,, p. 24, ed. 1731) ; 
rightly Cwm Aled. See Aled, Gamalodunum, and Oambodunum, 
in Antoninus' Itinerary, of the same original 

Caeb Mblwr, a place near Llanrwst ; not Cae'r Milwr, as some 
think. 

Caernbddog, ym Mon. {MS) Maethlu Sant ynghaerneddog 
ym Mon. 



68 CELTIC BKMAINS. 

Gaer Offa. Offa's Ditch^ between England and Walea 

Geidwad ar j ddwywlad dda 

Tw Qraffadd dan Ghier Offa.— fiyweZ OUan. 

Q. d. Oflfa's Fortification, See OlaiDdd Offa. 

Caer Phily: vid FJUi The Bulkeum SUurum of the Eomans, 
as Mr. Ed. Ilwyd thinks. (Notes on Glamorgan.) See Oaer VwL 

Caeb Eeged, the old name of AberystwytL 

A chastell cafell y cawn 

Caer Beged nwch owrr eigiawn. 

Moths Llwyd WiLianiy i yrraV Oleisiad i Aberystwyth. 

Caer Sallawc. 

Pan fon gorforyon meibion Eidawc 
Y bydd bore taer awch Caer Sallawc. 

Hoianau Myrddin. 

Caer Segont, Caernarvon. (Price's Descr.) 
Caer Swys, a town once in Montgomeryshire ; destroyed in 
war, now in ruins. 

Dwy Bowys a Chaer Swys wen.— L. 0. GoOU, 

So it was distinct from the two Powyses. See Sivy9. 
Caer Tre Baris, Paris in FrancQ. 

Tor a bwrw Gaer Tre Baris 

Trwy warr Ffrainc fal torri ffris. — lorwerth Fynghoyd. 

Caervarchell, Pembrokeshire (from Marchell, n. p, v.). 

Caer Vorran, a place on the Boman WaU, near Kirkwall and 
Ashler ; of which Mr. Camden could give no account. (Camden 
in Northumberland.) The Wall is here thicker than elsewhere. 
See Warburton. 

Caervwl, Caervul,Caervyl, and Caervyli; Mr. Edward Ilwyd's 
guesses at the British name of Caer Phili, which he makes to be 
the BtUlcevm Silurvmi of the Bomans, and not Buallt^ which 
Mr. Camden guessed to be the BtUlcmm ; and yet Mr. Llwyd 
owns, in his Notes on Oamden, that no Boman coins, inscriptions, 
statues, bricks, or arms, have been found at Caer Phili. 

Caerwedros, a castle mentioned by Cynddelw to Howel ap 
Owain Gwynedd, a.d. 1150. Qu. Gwaedros ? 

Caerwedros cafas y ganthaw 

Cadarn dan gwan try wan trwy dda w. — Cynddelw. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 69 

Also a lordship in Cardiganshire, one of the three conmiots of 
Cantref GasteU. 

Agos 7 w GaerwedroB ym. ^^Deio ap leuan Du, 

Caer Went, the Venta Silurum of Antoninus,- a village four 
miles from Chepstow. {Camden) See Owent ; not so called from 
Venta {E, Llwyd), but Venta from Gwent. 

Caer Werydd, Lancaster; made by Gwrgan Farfdrwch. {MS), 
Caerwys, a town and castle in Englefield, now Flintshire, 
called by Camden " Caerwysk". 

Rhwyfwyr cad rhyfawr en c^ys 

Rhychorion Bhiw a Ghaer^ys. — B, wp EdmwnJt, 

Caerwysg, the Castrum Oskee of Giraldus ; the Burrium of 
Antoninus ; and Bryn Buga, from Burem hegi, (Oamden in Man- 
mwUhshire) 

Caeb Wythelin, Vitellinus. 

Caer t Berllan, Meirion ; a gentleman's seat, and an old fort 
in ruins, whose lime was made with cockle-shells burnt There 
were no limestones till of late discovered in Merionethshire. 

Caer Ynwch, a gentleman's seat, Meirion. 

Caer Ystwyth, the garrison town of Aberystwyth. 

Caer Ystwyth oil Grist a'tibi ad. — C I. Llwyd* 

Caeth: qu. a river? Uwch Caeth and Is Caeth,two commots 
in Cantref Brenhinol, Morganwg. 

Caffo (St.). UangafiFo Chapel, Anglesey. They used to offer 
young cocks to St. Caffo. 

Cai (n. pr. v.); Lat. Cains f Cai mab Cynyr, tywysog Amgyw 
neu Angyw, xmo'r tri thaleithiog Cad Ynys Prydain. {Tr, 26.) 
Cai, penswyddwr Arthur; to him he gave Peitw and Angyw. 
{TyssfUio) 

Cai ap Ithel, in King Arthur's time. 

Cai Hir ap Edwyn. 

Cai Hir ap Sefin (Ymddiddan Arthur a Gwenhwyvair), See 
Oa^ergai. 

Caian (St.) : hence Tregaian, a church and parish, Anglesey. See 
Gibyr, This and several other churches in Anglesey are called 
chapels, though they have parishes belonging to them. But they 
are called chapels because there are two or three of them included 



70 CELTIC REMAINS. 

in a rectoiy, being singly too poor to maintain a minister, which 
seems to be the original reason of joining two or three parishes 
in one cure. See Geiamts, 

Cain, fl. (hence Abercain), faUs into the Maw below Dolgelleu. 

Cain ach Evrog Gadam. 

Cainradh ach Evrog Gadam. 

Caint (fl.), mentioned in Uywarch Hen (Marwnad Cadwallon 

ap Cadvan) : 

Llnest Cadwallon ar Ghiint. 

Caint, Kent, the county of Kent ; called also Ceint, Cent, or 
Cynt ; derived of cyntaf, or the first inhabited part of Britain. 

Oder GairU, Canterbury ; q. d. the City of Kent. 

Kentish men, Cyntiaid or Oynniaid. See OeirU, 

Caio or Caeo, one of the three commots of Cantref Bychan, 
Caermarthenshire. (Price's Description,) 

Caioros, in Doomsday Book (Cheshire) ; corruptly for Caerwys, 
a village in Englefield, now Flintshire. 

Caissar, Caessar, and Caisar, Julius Caesar. 

Caled. Iddon Galed ap Trehayam. 

Calatyr, Caledonia. (JE, Llwyd) 

Calchfynydd (n. L), q. d. the chalky mountain ; perhaps the 
Boman Calcaria. Cadrod Calchfynydd, Earl of Dunstable, about 
AJD. 560. 

Caldecote (Doomsday Boole), Calcoed, in Flintshire. 

Caledfwlch, Anglic^ Hardnotch, the name of King Arthur's 
sword in TyBsilio's British History. This word old English 
writers, after their usual ignorance or negligence, have turned 
into Oalibum, which hath very little affinity with the original 
See Spelman's Glossary in the word OalUbwrn; and Hoveden in 
Bichard I, in whose time this famous sword of King Arthur was 
in being, and surrendered or delivered by Richard I to Tancred. 

It was the custom among other warlike nations to give names 
to their swords ; but the ancient Britains took a particular pride 
in adorning their swords, and making them polished handles of 
the teeth of sea-animals (see Solinus, Polyhistor^ c. xxv) ; and 
their warlike disposition and love of the sword was such, that it 
was the custom for the mother of every male child to put the 
first victuals into the child's mouth on the point of his father's 



CELTIC REMAINS. 71 

Bword, and with the food to give her first blessing or wish to 
him, that he might die no other death but in war and arms. 
(Solinus, Polyhistor; Selden, Mar, Claus., 1. ii, 3, 2.) Nay, this 
nation, by long struggling in defence of their country, had got 
to such an enthusiastic pitch of warlike madness, that I have 
read in an ancient British MS. now at Hengwrt, that it was cus- 
tomary, when a man grew old and infirm among them, to desire 
his children or next relations to pull him out of bed and kiU 
him, lest the enemy might have the pleasure of that office, or 
that he should die cowardly and sordidly, and not by the sword. 
See Prydwen. 

Caletwr, a river in Cardiganshire, q. d. dwr caled. Hence 
Dol y Clettwr, near Tre'r Ddol ; i. e., Tre Dol y Clettwr. Castell 
Humphrey, in the valley of Calettwr, fortified A.D. 1150 by 
Howel ap Owain Gwynedd. 

Callestr. Caer y Gallestr, Flint. {Tho8, Williams.) See Fflint. 

Cam. Llwyth y Cam, a family in Anglesey, anciently in great 
note. Elian, the founder of Llan Elian Church about A.D. 500 or 
sooner, had the surname of Cdmiad. Elian was the son of All- 
tud Eedegog, and the expression in Mabinogi favours this. 

Cvmmorth g^n Elian Ceimiad. 

Y Prydydd Bychan, in the 13th century, mentions Llwyth y 
Cam and Ceimiad. EHan Ceimiad, Beimo Geimiad, etc. Some 
think they had this appellative because they were swift of foot, 
or great travellers. 

See Marwnad Madog Mon; also Prydydd y Moch to Eodri 
ap Ywain Gwynedd, lord of Anglesey. 

Ef gogawn glyw Gammawn Ceimiad. 

See 0am and Elian (St.). 

Camafan (n. L) ; perhaps Cwmavan. 

Camalac, a British Bishop carried away captive by the Danes 
from Irchenfeld (Erging), which they laid waste with fire and 
sword, A.D. 715. {Oamden in Herefordshire,) Probably Cyfelach 
(Ilangyfelach). 

Camber ap Brutus, neu Camber ap Prydain. 

Camddin, Lat. Cambodunum. (E, Llvjyd) 

Camddwr and Camdwr (fl.) in Cardiganshire. Y Camddwr 



72 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Mawr, Camdwr Bach, rivers that run into RheidioL Aber Cam- 
ddwr. Ehyd y Camddwr, Pont ar Qamddwr, the ford and bridge 
on a river Camddwr, which falls into Teivi in Cardiganshire. 
Here a battle was fought between Gronwy and Llewelyn, sons 
of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, etc., against Ehys ap Owen, to revenge 
their grandfather's death, where Bhys and Bhjrtherch ap Caradog 
were defeated, a.d, 1072. 

Camelon (pronounced Camlan), near Falkirk in Scotland, on 
the river Alaun, hath its name from hence, t. e., Cwm Alawn. 

Camlas (fl.) falls into the Wysg in Brecknockshire : hence 
Aber Camlas. 

CiiHMARCH, a river that falls into the Irwon. Llangammarch 
in the diocese of St. David's. 

Camryd ; Lat. Camboritum. {K Llwyd) Hence Camryd near 
Conwy, vulgo Cymryd. The river fordable there. 

Canawl, one of the four cantrefe of Ceredigion. (Price's De- 
script^ 

Cangellwb, a chancellor ; Lat cancdlarius, Cangel, a chancel 
(from ccm and cell), originally the singing-room in a monastery, 
etc. But see about twenty derivations of this word in Spelman. 

Canologion, one of the three commots of Cantref Lleyn. 
(Price's Deseript.) 

Canon CvNLLArrH. Gwenddydd, in Cyfoesau Myrddin, caDs 
her brother Merddin "Cydymaith a Chanon Cynllaith." See 
Machynlleth and Cynllaith. Qu., whether he was a canon of Some 
cathedral of that name ? 

Gan wyt Cydymaith a Chanon Cynllaith. — Kyf, M. a G, 

Cantref, a cantred or hundred, from carU and tref, a himdred 
townships or villas. 

Cantref a chan Eidionydd. — Llywarch Hen, 

Spelman, therefore, is mistaken when he supposes the Cambro- 
Britains had not this division of countries from their ancestors, 
but &om Alfred and the Saxons. If Llywarch Hen had not said 
it, the very word carUref, being British and Irish, shews it. 

Cantref Bychan : see Bychan. 

Cantref Castell, one of the four cantrefs of Cardiganshire, 
anciently contained Mabwynion and Caerwedros. (Price's De- 
script,) 



OELTIO REMAINS. 73 

Cantref Cemhaks, one of the three cantrefs of Anglesey, con- 
taming the commots of Talybolion and Twrcelyn. 

Cantref Coch (Y), th^ Forest of Dean. 

Cantref CYNAN,one of the five cantrefs of Powys Wenwynwyn, 
containing anciently the commots of Cyfeiliog and Mowddwy. 
(Price's Bescr.) 

Cantref Gwaelod. The great bay between Ueyn and Aber- 
ystwyth, called by sailors Cardigan Bay, was a tract of level 
ground belonging to Gwyddno Garanhir. It was overflowed by 
the sea about the year 500. There is some account of this acci- 
dent in Llyfr Du Caerjyrddin, — " Caniad pan aeth y M6r dros 
Gantref Gwaelod." [A. B., ii, 59.] 

Ardal dwfyn boewal Dinmilwy, 
Eissytyn gwylein. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Lew. ap lorwerih. 

The boundary to the north seems to have been Sam Badrig, 
Tradition has it that there were several towns there which were 
swallowed up or overflowed. It seems there were dams between 
it and the sea, and that by drunkenness the floodgates were left 
oi)en, as that ancient poem hints. Moms Uwyd Wiliam, A.D. 
1560 (i'r Gleisiad) sajrs : 

Oyfeiria acw foroedd 

Lie bu'r tir, Uwybr it' oedd. 

Mr. Vaughan, in his British Antiquities Revived, mentions it. — 
Trees in the bay ; a stone with an inscription. 

Caper ap Puder. 

Caph, the 58th King of Britain, 

Capoir, the 68th King of Britain, which one copy calls Pabo. 

Cappel Coch in Brecknockshire. Fairs kept here. 

Caractacus, Caradog ; but doth not signify warrior, as Ains- 
worth makes him. 

Caradoc (n. pr. v.), also Caradog, beloved {k car) ; latinized 

Caradoeus and Oaractacus. Hence Caer Caradoc in the catalogue 

of cities in the Triades; in Nennius' catalogue, Caer Garada^iic; 

and in a MS., Caer Qradaiic, (Tr. 19, 23.) " Un o'r tri dyfal 

gyfangan." A prince of Gwynedd of this name was taken by 

the Bomans, whose behaviour was admired by them ; and as out 

countryman hath described it, 

10 



74 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Boma catenatum tremait 
Spectare Britannum. — E, W, 

[Nage, Tywysog y Gwenhwyson (Siltires) ydoedd Caradoc ab 
Bran. Gwel Achau lestin ab Gwrgan. — L M.] 

Gakadoc o Langarvan, Caradocus Lancarovanenais (Zeland), 
author of the Histoiy of the Kings and Princes of Wales from Cad- 
waladr, the last King of Britain, to A.D. 1157. He was a monk of 
the Abbey of Llangarvan, and was cotemporary with Galfrid the 
translator of the British History from Brutus to Cadwaladr. Le- 
land says he could not find whether the History was first wrote in 
British or Latin ; but that he beUeved Caradoc first wrote it in 
Latin, and not in Cambro-British. (Leland, Script Brit, c. 162.) 
If so, how happens it that no Latin copy of it can be met with, 
and that Humphrey Llwyd made his English translation from the 
Cambro-British, which Dr. Powel afterwards published with his 
learned annotations ? The name of that history among the 
Canibro-Britains is BnU y Tyivysogion. There are several British 
copies in Wales, and one in Llyfr Coch o Eergest in Jesus Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

CAEADOC (St.). Llangradog. His life was written by Giral- 
dus Cambrensis, who lived near his time, and is in Capgrave. He 
was first in great favour with Rhys, Prince of South Wales ; but 
falling out with the Prince, he entered himself monk in the 
church of St. Teilo in Llandaf ; from thence retired to the deso- 
late church of St. Kined ; thence to St. David's, and there was 
made priest ; from thence to the isle of Ary. Here he was car- 
ried off by Norway pirates, and released, and had the Monastery 
of St. Hismael, in Boss, assigned him. {Brit. Sanct,) Died A.D. 
1124. 

Caradawc Fbeichfras was penhynaif in Cemyw when Arthur 
was chief king there (TV. 7) ; father of Cawrdaf (IV. 19); Cad- 
farchog {Tr. 23). See Bedwyr, 

Caradawc ap Bran (TV. 19), one of the Cynweisiaid. 

Caradok, an id. Caradoc ? 

Caranir, q. d. Garan hir vel Corun hir. Gwyddno Garanir. 

Caranval, son of Cynddylan. (Llywarch Hen in Marwnad 
Cynddylan.) 

Carcludwys ap Cyngen ap Ysbwys ap Cadrod Calchfynydd 
ap Cynwyd Cynwydion. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 75 

Caredio, the 105th King [of the Britons] ; Lat. Oareticus, kind, 
loving. 

Caredigion, Cardiganshire ; so named from Caredig, son of 
Cunedda "Wledig, about the year 440. 

Carentius (Jo. Major, ffist, Scot, L i, c. 15). This is the 
Caravm of Tyssilio, and the Carausius of the coins. He made 
peace between the Scots and Picts about the battle of the Dog, and 
they all turned their arms against the Bomans. See Cad Chddau 
[s. V. Ooddau\ 

Carfan. Ilangarfan (from carw in the Life of Dewi). 

Carlegion. Bede says the Britains in his time called Lega- 
cester by the name of Carlegion. Some Britains might, but a 
Saxon could know nothing of that. See Caerlleon Gator. 

Carlisle, the English name of a city in the north of Britain, 
about the ancient name of which there is great contention among 
antiquaries. Camden, in his BrUannia, who treats the rest with 
contempt, says that the Bomans and Britains called it Lugvhal- 
lum and Luguvallium or Lagybalia ; that the Saxons called it 
(as Bede witnesses) Liial; Ptolomy (as some think), ZeiwJopiWa; 
Nennius, Oaerlualid ; the ridiculous "Welsh prophecies, the city 
oiBvballus; we,0aa'li8le ; and the Latin, from the more modem 
name, OaerUolum ; and that Luguballia and Carlisle are the 
same, is universally agreed upon ; and that Leland had taken 
pains to no purpose about it. Afterwards he says he will pro- 
duce his "own conjecture that the Military WaU of the Bomans 
gave it the name, for that Antoninus calls it '' Luguvallum ad 
Vallum". Is not this "Vallum ad Vallum" tautology, if that be 
the case ? Further on he says that Pomponius Mela has told us 
that *^lAigvA or lAiCiis signified in the Celtic a tower ; for that 
what Antoninus calls iMgo Atigusti, Pomponius calls Turris 
Augvsti ; so that Luguvallum is really a tower or fort upon the 
waU or vallum". But take notice, that if Lugus is a tower, and 
vallum a wall, the " Luguvallum ad Vallum" of Antoninus is a 
Fort on the Wall at the WalL Qu. whether this is common 
sense? 

As the antiquities of the Britains are concerned in these asser- 
tions of Mr. Camden, give us leave to examine them. First, he 
says the Bomans and Britains called it Lugu-ballum. The latter 



76 OELTTO REMAINS. 

we deny, for such a name is not to be found in all the writings 
of the Britains. That the Cambridge copy of Nennius calls some 
city, the 17th in his catalogue, Lualid, we allow ; but Mr. Cam- 
den ought to have been so candid as to let the worid know that 
the Cottonian copy has no Caer Lualid, but hath Zigualid, the 
third city in the catalogue ; though neither of the copies says it 
is either Lugu-ballium, Carlisle, or anything else. As for the 
ridiculous Welsh prophecies, Mr. Camden should not have made 
a general charge against them aU, but have told us in what 
authors he had found the city Carlisle called the city of Duballus. 
But this we may gather from Mr. Camden's extensive knowledge in 
the affairs of the ancient Britains, that he never saw any of their 
prophecies except that Latin translation of Prophwydoliaeth 
Myrddin Emrys in Galfrid, where I find this passage : " The fox 
of Caerdvhalum shall take revenge on the Hon, and destroy him 
entirely with her teeth." This is all that is said in any "Welsh 
prophecies of Caerdvhalum ; and this, too, in Latin. And is not 
he a very ridiculous antiquary that positively makes this Caer- 
dubalum to be Carlisle ? A prophet, indeed ! Is not this more 
likely to be Cjter Dubai, i. e,, Tubal's Castrum, — some feigned 
name made use of in that pretended prophecy, if Galfrid dealt 
fair in his translation ? This prophecy is not in the British copy 
of Tyssilio, it being added to the history by Gralfrid when he 
turned it into Latin. 

It doth not follow that Lucus in the Gaulish and British sig- 
nifies a tower, because P. Mela calls Antoninus' Lugo Augusti 
by the name of Turris Augusti, Lucus was a Latin word signi- 
fying a chapel or temple, which might give name to places as 
well as the supposed Lucus or Lugus of the Gauls. As for the 
Britains, they have no name for this city as ever I could meet 
with ; so that I suspect it to be entirely of Roman original, and 
of the same age with the Roman Wall, unless it be Caer Ewer- 
ydd, which is mentioned in an ancient MS. to have been the 
place where Rhun ap Maelgwn landed when he carried the war 
to Scotland. See Rhun and Morwerydd, 

Carn and Carnedd, an ancient Celtic word signifying a heap 
of stones, prefixed to the names of several places, as, 

Gam Aret in Medrigia in Ireland. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 77 

Y 0am in Flintshire. 

\Y Oam, a high hiU near KstyU Khaiadr.— fT. 2>.] 

Y 0am Wen, in Trefeirig, Cardiganshire, South Wales. 
YOam ynghom/wy, Mon. 

Hence also Gamau or Oameddau PlymJymon, etc. Prodigious 
heaps of stones on the tops of mountains ; sometimes as tombs ; 
sometimes,! apprehend, to make fires on their tops, to give notice 
of the approach of an enemy. 

Cabn Boduak, a moimtain in IIe3m, Caernarvonshire ; from 
Bodftan, a gentleman's seat, just by. 

Carn Ddyddgu, Cardiganshire. 

Carn Fyitydd. 

Men yd las Trahaeam yngham Fynydd. 

Meilir Brydydd, in Marwnad Gr. ap Cynan. 

Called by Caradoc Mynydd Camo, and by Marwnad Trahaeam 
Mynydd Cam. 

Carn Hendwll, Cardiganshire. 

Carn Llechart [Cam Zlecharth. — J. Jf.], in the parish of 
Uangyfelach, a monument on a mountain-top of that name in 
Glamorganshire. (K Zlwyd.) 

Carn Madrin, in Ueyn, a high mountain on the top of which 
there are the ruins of a British fort. Qu. whether mentioned by 
Giraldus Cambrensis in his Itinerary t 

Carn t Naid, in Momomia, Ireland. 

Carn y Bhod, in the county of Wexford. 

Carnedd Ddaftdd, a mountain in Eryri. {E, Llwyd) 

Carnedd Elidir, a mountain near Llanberis. 

Carnedd EEigin, in Caernarvonshire. 

Carnedd Llewelyn, a mountain near Llanberis. {E, Llwyd.) 

Carnbwillon, one of the three commots of Cantref Eginog, 
Caermarthenshire. 

Carnguwch, a parish in Caernarvonshire. 

Carno (n. 1.), near Abergavenny. On the mountains called 
Mynydd Camo a battle was fought, in the year 728, between 
Ethelbald Bling of Mercia and the Britains. {Caradoc, p. 15.) 
On Camo mountains was also fought that memorable battle 
between Grufiludd ap Cynan and Trahaeam ap Caradoc, the 
reigning Prince of North Wales in the year 1079. Gruflfydd ap 



78 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Cynan (being half-brother to Encumalhon^ King of Ulster in 
Ireland) had a strong power of Irishmen, which he landed at 
St. David's Head, and joining with Rhys ap Tewdwr Mawr, 
Prince of South Wales, who claimed the crown of South Wales, 
they encamped on Mynydd Camo, where they were met by 
Trahaeam ap Caradog and his cousins of Powys, the sons of 
Ehiwallon ap Gwyn ap Bleddyn, viz., Caradog, Grufifudd, and 
Meilyr, who were aU slain in battle, and Gruff, ap Cynan had 
the government of Wales. See Meilir Brydydd's poem, who 
calls it Mynydd Cam. See Cam, 

Cabok and Cabawn, Lai. Oarausiua, a king of the Britains, 
who about the year [300] threw off the Roman yoke, and kept 
the island from them for about seven years, being an entire 
master of the sea. 

Caron, in Ceretica. 

Caron, a river in Scotland. {Nennius,) 

Carnwennan, the name of Arthur's dagger. (Dr. Davies.) 

Carreg (pL Cerbig), a stone, in the composition of several 
names of places, as Carreg Hova, Carreg Fergus in Ireland, Car- 
reg Tstum Ilaeth, CasteU Carreg near Caerfyrddin, Cerrig y 
Drudion, Cerrig y Gwyddyl ym Mon {Tr, 49), Carreg Cynnen 
Castle, about ad. 1240. (Caradoc) 

Carreg Ddiwin, in the parish of Beddcelert, where about 50 
brass spear-heads of the ancient Britains were found in the year 
1688 by removing a great stone. They were sdmost in sight. 
(E. Ilwyd, Notes on Camden,) 

Carreg Hova, a castle by Oswestry, taken by Owen Cyfeiliog 
AD. 1162. 

Carreg Hudwtdd, which Mr. Edward Uwyd thinks to be 
Berry, which is not far from Wroxeter in Shropshire, where he 
imagines Cynddylan's seat was. 

Carrog or Carrawg, a place in Cardiganshire. 

Gh)rea ceraint gw^ Carrawg, 
Cyttyn fydd rhyngtbyn* y rhawg; 

Dew cUf leuan Du, 

Carrog, in Mon, q. d. Carregog, stony ; and I suppose a river 
in Dol Garrog, Caernarvonshire. 
Carthan : vid. Ammivyn Carthan, 



CELTIC REMAINS. 79 

Cabun^ a river in Scotland (hence Abercaron, contracted Aber- 
com), is called after the name of Garausius, King of Britain. 
(Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 343.) Jo. Major (L i, f. 19) calls it Oaron. 
See Oaron, Oaravm, and Abercv/mig. 

Carwed Fynydd, in Isaled, a gentleman's seat. (J, D.) 

Garwed, near Beaumaris. 

Gaseg Falltraeth, a rock in the entrance of Malltraeth har- 
bour. It bears the name to this day. {Moras Llvryd WUiam, 
AD. 1560.) 

Gasgwent or Gastell Gwent, Ghepstow; anciently Gaer 
Went. [N"ag6, lie arall yw Gaerwent. — I, M.] 

Gabnab Wledig ap Iludd ap Beli Mawr, father of Pwyll Pen- 
defig Dyfed. (Maiinoffion.) 

Gasnodyn Fardd, a poet a.d. 1240. [lived at Llangyfelach 
in Morganwg. — /. Jf.] 

Gasswallawn and Gaswallon (n, p. v.). Gaswallon ap Beli 
Mawr was the Prince that headed the Britains when Julius 
Gaesar invaded Britain, He had killed his brother Iludd in a 
battle fought for the dominion of Britain^ which caused Afarwy, 
the son of Ludd, to go over to Gaul to Gaesar to desire his assist- 
ance. Gaesar calls him Oaasibellatmus or Gassivellaunus in the 
Latin ; and it is probable the Oassii, a people of Britain (Gas- 
walliait), were his own patrimony. He went to Bome for Fflur, 
the daughter of Mugnach Gorr (Tr. 77) ; so that it seems he was 
in peace with the Bomans then, and took pride in their alliance, 
or else he went incognito, 

Gasswallon Law Hir, or the generous, a Prince in the Isle 
of Anglesey, and was one of the northern Britains that took 
refuge there. He was son of Einion Yrth ap Gunedda Wledig, 
and was the &ther of Maelgwn Gwynedd, wbo was- afterwards 
King of Britain. The legend of St. Elian, who hath a church in 
Anglesey, says that the man of God struck Gasswallon, lord of 
Anglesey, blind for some misdemeanors against the Ghurch. 
Some call him GatwaUon Law Hir, un o'r tri eurgryd, as in 
Triad 49. 

Gastell, properly a caBtle,castellum. Perhaps an ancient Geltic 
word from ca/n and astdl, to inclose with boards or piles. 

Gastell, a river between Greuddyn and Perfedd,Gardiganshire. 



80 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Castell Bwch, Monmouthshire. 

Oastell Caissar, Salisbury. 

Castell Carbeg, in Cantref Bychan near Caerfyrddin^ a castle 
on the top of an inaccessible rock with vast caverns. {Carnden 
in CaermartheTisJi/ire.) 

Castell Coch ym Mhowys, or Castell Gwenwynwyn at the 
Pool, A.D. 1195, taken by the Archbishop of Canterbury. (Oar- 
adog in Un. ap lorwerth.) 

Castell Crogen, the old name of Chirk Castle. See Chirk. 

Castell Cynfel. Huw Ilwyd Cynfel, a poet. 

Castell Dinas Bran, Biennus' Castle, a castle on the top of 
a round hill near Llangollen, anciently called Dinas Bran, Llys 
Bran, Brenhinblas Bran, EurUys Yran, Ucheldir Bran; and 
Howel ap Einion calls it Dinbrain. 

Ym nend glyd dy hnd hydr riain 

Wanlledd or wenllys ger Dinbrain.— 'J7. ap Eimon* 

It is in the commot of Nanheudwy. 

Castell (tOLLWYN is between Wysg and Gwy in Brecknock- 
shire: 

Pan eistedo Saeson yn ei sarffryn 

A chjrchu o bell Gkistell GoU^yn. — Hoianau Myrddm. 

Castell Gwalchmai, one of the three commots of Bhos (now 
Boose) in Pembrokeshire. See OwalcJimai ap Gwyar^ nai Arthur. 

Castell Gwys, Guise Castle. See Owys. 

Castell Maen, a village in Badnorshire, where fairs are kept ; 
in English, Huntington Castle. (Price's Deacript) 

Castell Mai Mannor, Caernarvonshire. 

Castell March (n. L). See March Amheirehion. 

Castell Moch ym Mochnant. 

Castell Moel. (i. 0, Cothi,) [An old castle and village in 
the parish of Ilangarfan in Glamorgan. — I, M,] 

Castell Newydd Bach yng Nghemmaes, Pembrokeshire. 
There are fairs kept here. 

Castell Newydd yn Emlyn, Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept 
here. See Emlyn. 

Castell Newydd yn Rhos, Caermarthenshire. There are fairs 
kept here. 

Castell Paun (from Pain, a Norman) a village in Radnor- 



CELTIC REMAINS. 81 

shire, where fairs are kept ; also a commot there. Near this was 
the fight of Machawy. 

Caswennan. Gorffrydau CanoenTian (i. e., the streams of Cas- 
wennan), a great overfall of the sea near the Isle of EnUi, where 
King Arthur's favourite ship, Gwennan, was cast away. This, 
it seems, was a ship of war called after the name of his daughter, 
Ann. The place bears the name to tliis day. 

Os anodd ar Gaswennan 

Droi ar lif o'r dwfr i'r Ian. — Boheri Leiaf, 

Deuliw berw Caswennan, 
Golwg dedd amlwg diddan. — Hywel a/p EiniotL 
See Gwennan. 

Cathen or Cathan. Llangathen parish in Caermarthenshire. 
See Caiheiniog, 

CA.TENEYS, corruptly for Caithness. See Caiheiniog, 
Catguallon, wrote anciently for Cadwallon. {E, Llwyd.) 
Catguogan, wrote anciently for Cadwgan. {E, Llwyd) 
Catgwaladyr, wrote anciently for Cadwaladr. {E. Llwyd) 
Cathgoed ym M6n. Dona ynghathgoed ym Mon. Hence 
Uangoed, a parish there. 

Cathness, the most N". E. comer of Scotland ; probably from 
an island of that name formerly called Gathynys, i. e.. Cat Island; 
or OaethynySy the Prison Island. The ancient Britains wrote 
enes for what we now write ynys, an island ; and this makes me 
suspect that Totness in Devonshire (which is said in Tyssilio to 
be the place where Brutus first landed, and wrote in the British 
copy Totenys) was anciently an island of the name of Tot Ynys; 
and that all other places of the same termination in Britain, 
such as Dungness, Sheerness, Eastonness, Inverness, etc., do not 
signify n^se, as oui' English antiquaries imagine, but are the 
same with British names of islands of the like sounds in Wales 
used to this day, as Mon Ynys, Anglesey ; Y Voel Ynys ; Y Las 
Ynys ; Y Wen Ynys and Y Fel Ynys, the ancient names of 
Britain ; and every island, in the British, is to this day called 
ynys, Weik of Cathness. (Major, Hist Scot) 

Cattbaeth, or Cad Traeth, some place in Scotland where a 
battle was fought by Mynyddawc Eydyn. " Gosgordd Mynydd- 

11 



82 CELTIC REMAINS. 

awe Eiddun yn Nghadtraeth". (Tr. 86.) One of the 3 gosgordd 
adwy Ynys Prydain. 

Kiglen am dal medd mjned draig Cattraeth 
Gy wir i harfaeth arfan llifaid. — Eirlas Owain. 

See the Gododin. 

Cattw ap Geraint ap Erbin ; q. d. Cato, 

Cajtwg (Sant Llangattwg),or CADOC,or Cadawc, son of Gund- 
Iseufl (Gwynlliw Filwr) ; and his mother was Gwladus, daughter 
of Brychan Brycheiniog. (Oapgrave,) He was instructed by 
St. Tathai, who was an Irish doctor at Gwent in Monmouthshire, 
brought there by Garadog ab Ynjrr the King. From thence 
Gadog went to Uangarvan, where he built a church and monas- 
tery, and there opened a school, where Illdud and Gildas were 
his disciples (at Gwenllwg near Pontvaen). He was succeeded 
at Uangarvan by his disciple Ellenius. {Brit. Sanct) [catvc 
inscribed on a monumental stone in the parish of Llandeveiliog, 
two miles north of Brecknock. — W. D,] 

Gattwn Hen o Eufain, Gato the elder. 

Gaw (n. pr. v.). Gaw o Dwrcelyn. 

Gaw, a poet mentioned by Gynddelw. 

Gathlau clan cerddan Gaw. 

Gaw, father of GUdas, Huail, &c. (Triades,) See Glides. 

Gaw : see Bryn Caw. 

Gaw ap Gowrda, lord of Gwm Gowlwyd in Arthur's time. 

Gawr was an appellative or title given some warlike princes, 
especially in Gambria, signifying a warlike prince, which an- 
swered to Wledig in Loegria, and Priodawr in North Britain. 
Gogyrfan Gawr was father-in-law of King Arthur ; Ysbyddadden 
Pen Gawr o'r Gogledd ; Benlli Gawr ; BeU Gawr ; Albion Gawr ; 
Idris Gawr; Othrwm Gawr; Rhitta Gawr; Nemrwth Gawr; 
Llocrin Gawr. 

Gamp Gawr yw cwympo caerydd.— lor. Fynglwyd, 

Truan fa*r cyfrdan ddwyn Gawr y Cedym 
A*n ceidwad a'a blaenawr. — Rhys Brychcm, 

Gawr pen Mon carw Pen Mynydd. 

Sion Brwynog^ i Harri viii. 

Mr. Baxter will have the word to come from cau and ur, which 



CELTIC REMAINS. 83 

he makes to be a cave-man, or a wild man living in caves ; but 
cav, is not a cave in the British : and this derivation is whimsi- 
cal, and a mere conceit, like too many of his. See Caerlleon Gawr, 

Cawrdaf, son of Cariadog Freichfras. {Tr. 19.) 

Cawknwy, a place. 

O Wy hyd Ghiwmwy. — Mar. Trahaem, 

Qu. whether Oomwy in Anglesey ? 

Cat AN. . Llangayan. Tregaian. 

Ceccye, river. Aber y Ceccyr. 

Cecil, a modem name in England from SeiaylU or Seidll, an 
old British name of the 16th King of Britain. Seisyll ap Grwat. 

Cbdewain or Cydbwen, a cantref of Powys Wenwynwyn. Y 
Drefnewydd ynghedewain. See Cydewain. 

Cedic ap Caredic ap Cunedda. 

Cedol Sant (n. pr. v.). Cappel Pentir. Cors y GedoL 

Cedweli (n. L). Z. O. Cothi, See Cydweli 

Cedwyn (St.) Uangedwyn, a chapel in the parish of lian- 
rhaiadr, Denbighshire. Also Uangedwyn in Meirion. [Ynya 
Cechvyn in the Vale of Tawy, on the confines of Glamorgan and 
Brecknockshire. — W, D.] 

Cedyrn (Y). Ynys y CedyrUy the isle of strong men or heroes. 
Great Britain. 

Cefenni ; Lat. Oobanhium. (E, Llwyd in Monmouthshire) 

Cefn and Cefen, anciently wrote GebheUy is a Celtic word used 
in the composition of names of places in Britain and Gaul, sig- 
nifying the back of anything, and applied to mountains and 
high lands ; hence the Gehenna and Gebennae, a mountain in 
Gfiul, which should be wrote Cebhenna. 

Cefn yr Aelwyd (n. 1.), where a battle was fought by Cadwallon 
ap Madog. {Cynddelw, in Marwnad Cad. ap Madog.) 

Cefn yr Ais (n. 1.). 

Cefn Ammwlch (n. ].). 

Cefn Bodig, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) Vaughan's. 

Cefn Bryn, the most noted hill in Gower Land. Here is a 
vast cromlech called Arthur's Stone. (Ed. Llwyd, Notes on Cam- 
den.) See Gijbyr. 

Cefn Cerwyni, wrote by Mr. Edward Llwyd Cefn Gonoyni. 

Cefn Cocu (Y), uomen loci. 



84 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Pen y Cefn. 

Cefn Cribwr, in Llandugwg, Glamorganshire. Qu. whether 
Cibwr ? [NeLgBfCrihor. Y mae Cibwr yn agos i 30 milltir tua'r 
dwyrain oddiyno.— J. M.] 

Cefn Cynwarchen, a place in Dyfed, where the Flemings 
sent to Ileweljna ap lorwerth for peace. [Garadoc) 

Cefn Deuddwr, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) Nanney. 

Cefn Digoll, the Long Mountain between Newtown and 
Salop, where Cadwallon fought Edwin. Here a battle was fought, 
after the death of Llewelyn ap Grufiydd, between Ehys Am- 
redydd and the Marchers, 1284 (qu. ?). 

Cefn Du (Y), nomen loci [Gefn Du in lal. — W. 2>.] 

Cefnffigen, or, in English, Kynfigs, a town and castle in Mor- 
ganwg near Aberavan. {PmoeL) CynflSg. {Mr. E, Llwyd) In 
the highway between Margam and Cynffig is a stone with the 
inscription, Pompeius Carantgrius. {E. Llwyd,) [Cynffig is the 
Welsh name. It is not found anywhere but in Powel written 
Cefnffigen. — I. Jf.] 

Cefn y Garlleg, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.) 

Cefn Gwyn, nomen loci. 

Cefn Hafod, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) 

Cefn Hir, a gentleman's seat. {J, D) 

Cefn Llwyd, nomen loci. 

Cefn Llys, a castle in Maelienydd. (Camden's Britannia) 
Castell Cefn llys. 

Cefn y Maes, nomen loci [in Glamorgan. — /. 2f.]. 

Cefn Mabli, nomen loci. 

Cefn Melgoed (n. 1.), a gentleman's seat in Cardiganshire. 

Cefn Nithgroen, nomen loci. 

Cefn yr Odfa, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) 

Cefn Rester, mountains not far from Caermarthen, where 
Rhys, Prince of Wales, encamped, 1160. 

Cefn Trefehsi, nomen loci. 

Cefn Trefeilir, nomen loci. 

Cefni or Cefenni, a river in Anglesey. Nant Cefni, the valley 
of the river Cefni, in Anglesey, is mentioned in ^Qnmvi^^ History 
of the Britons, where there was one of the wonders of Anglesey, 
a stone which wandered about in the night, and always returned 



CELTIC REMAINS. 85 

home by morning. {Nennins, c Ixxxiv.) Here is a church called 
Llangefni, dedicated to St. Cyngor. See Chenin. 

Cegid (qu. a river ?) Ystum Cegid, a gentleman's seat. (J. D) 

Cechdfa, a parish in Montgomeryshire. Y Garth ynghegidfa. 

Cegidog, a church and parish (rectory) in the deanery of Ehos, 
Denbighshire. 

Cei or Cai. Caergei in the Triades, i, e., Caergai. There is a 
place in Meirion called Caergai ; but I think it cannot be that 
meant in the Triades for one of the 28 cities, but the house of 
Cai Hir. (Price's DescHpt), See Cai Hit, 

Ceianus or Keianus, a Scot mentioned by Camden out of 
Nennius, in Glamorgan and Caermarthenshire, whose sons are 
said to have possessed Kydweli and G^yr till drove out by 
Cunedda. Not in Gale's NenniiLS, 

Ceidiaw, tad Gwenddolau. (Tr. 12.) 

Ceidio (n. L) in Anglesey. Cappel Ceidio, Anglesey. Ehod 
y Geidio. Ceidio, a church in Lleyn. 

Ceidio Sant ap Coryf ap Caynawc Mawr. 

Ceindrech Penasgell, daughter of EliferGosgorddfawr. (rr.52.) 

Ceindkych Santes verch Brychan ynghaer Godolawr. 

Ceinmeirgh, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) Ceinmyrch and DyflF- 
rjTi Clwyd were two cantrefs belonging to Davydd ap Gruffydd, 
A.D. 1256. 

Ceint, a river in Anglesey. 

Ceint, the ancient British name of Kent, as if wrote in Eng- 
lish Keint or Kynt ; by the Eomans, Cantium ; the people, Oan- 
tii. Caergeint is one of the 28 cities in the Triades ; in another 
copy it is Caergent; by Thomas Williams, C^oergfam^, and by him 
Englished Canterbury, Usher has it Caer Cent The name 
seems to have been formed from cyntaf, first or primitive inha^ 
bitants. The Iceni also were the same people, but were distin- 
guished by the name of Uwchcyniaid, or upper Cyniaid, i.e., 
the upper first men. They inhabited the land called now Suffolk, 
Norfolk, Cambridge, and Huntingdonshire. The Trinobantes 
were the same primitive inhabitants, called so horn their town 
.Tro Newydd. 

Ceinwen Santes, daughter of Brychan. Her churches in 
Anglesey, Llangeinwen, and Cerrig Ceinwen. She is called by 
the Latin legendaries Keina, See Brit. Sanct, Oct. 8. 



86 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Ceinydr Sant o Feilionydd ap Rhiengar Santes. 

Cp:iuchiog, a chapel and parish in Anglesey. 

Ceiriog, a river. Hence Glyn Ceiriog or Dyffryn Ceiriog in 
Denbighshire. Here is a pass through the mountains, where 
Henry II with his vast army had warm work with the Britains 
in the year 1165 ; pan dalwyd y gwystlon. (Caradoc, p. 169.) 

Ceirionnydd (n. 1.). Llyn Ceirionnydd. {Taliesin,) 

Ceirit. Caer Ceirit (Nennucs) ; qu. Ceiut ? See Seri. 

Ceirw, a river in Wales (E.Llwyd), in Llywarch Hen's Marw- 
nad Cynddylan. Ceiro, or perhaps Ceirw, is a river near Plym- 
lumon, that falls into Kheidiol at Aberceiro. \Geirwy falls into 
Alwen near Bettws Gwerful Goch. — W. D.] 

Ceiswyn, a gentleman's seat. (/. D) Lloyd. 

Celemon. Caer Celemon. {Nennius) See Sdemion. 

Celer. liangeler, a parish in Carmarthenshire. Qu., the same 
with Celert? See Bedd Celert, 

Cellan Sant. 

Cellan, a parish church in Cardiganshire. Also Rhos Cellan, 
Cardiganshire. 

Cellan y Gog, in Brecknockshire (qu. ?) 

Celleu: see Gelleu, 

Celli, a hazle wood ; Lat coryletum. Hence the names of 
places in Wales, etc. Y Gelli Gandryll ; Celli'r Ffrydau ; GeUi 
Fadog ; Celli'r Eirin ; Gelli Gogau ; Gelli Fabwen ; Gelli Lyfdy ; 
y Gelli Dywyll ; Gelli Goch ; Pen y Gelli : hence a surname, 
PengeUy. 

Celliwig (n. 1.), King Arthur's palace in Cornwall. {Tr. 46.) 
Here King Arthur was chief king, Betwini head of bishops (i c, 
penesgyb), and Caradawc Vreichfras chief elder (i.e., prince). 
See Dexci, 

Celyddon. Coed Celyddon, the Forest of Caledonia in Scot- 
land. {Hoianau Myrddin), See Myrddin WylU. 

Celynin Sant. Llangelynin in Meirion. 

Celynnog or Clynnog Fawr yn Arfon (from celyn, i, e., a place 
of holly), a village with a large church, where was an abbey 
which had formerly great privileges. It was foimded by the 
famous Beuno,who is said to have i*eplaced the head of St. Wini- 
fred, which Caradog had cut off. See Bcioio. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 87 

Cemlyn ap Meirion Goch o L^. 

Oemmaes, a church and parish in the deanery of Cyfeiliog, 
Powys. Oemmaes comes from ce/n and metes. It is wrote also 
Cemmes and Cemais. 

LI an dwr yw a llanw di wres 

Llewjg ami drwy hoU Gemmes. — 8xon Mawddwy, 

Oemmaes, a lordship and sea-port in Anglesey. 

Cemais, one of the eight cantrefs of Dyfed. (Price's Descript) 
Gwrwared ap GwUym o Gemais. 

Cemoyth, King of the Picts. (Caradoc, A.D. 856, p. 29.) In 
Irish Cionaod, {Ogygia, p. 481.) 

Cenaf or Cynau, verch Tewdwr Mawr. 

Cenakth, a parish in Carmarthenshire. 

Cenau ap Coel Godebog ap Tegfan ap Deheufraint ap Did- 

bwyll ap ap Grudd ap Buadel Frych ap Eydeym ap En- 

digaid ap Endeym ap Enid ap Endos ap Endolau ap Afallach 
ap Aflech ap Beli Mawr ap Manogan. 

Cenedlon verch Brychan. 

CENHENFA,enw lie. [Cynhinfa, nom. loci, in Ilangyniw parish. 
— W.R] 

Cenin, a river : hence Cwm Cenin in Llandeilo Fawr, Carmar- 
thenshire. 

Cennant (fl.), Cardiganshire. 

Cennen, a river in Carmarthenshire. 

Dwy wlad a Chedweli wenn 
Dwy oes cwyned Is Cennen. 

L. Morganwg, i H. Penri. 

Cynnydd y Drefoewydd nenn 

Gynnor gw;^ deutn Cennen. — Bedo Thylip Bach. 

In Morden's Map Cunrum, 

Ceneig {k een and rig, rex. See Baxter). 
Cerdieselment : see Blved. 
Ceedin, a river. 

Ucha' cardod nwch Cerdin 
Isa'r fost sy ar ei fin. 

leuan Detdwynj i Dafydd Llwyd ap Llewelyn o Gastell Hy wel. 
[Cerdiny a rivulet in Ilandyssnl on the Teivy. Uwch Cerdin and 



88 CELTIC EEMAINS. 

Is Gerdin, two divisions of the parish. It is in Cwmwd Gwin- 
ionydd.— W. 2>.] 

Ceredic ap Cunedda Wledig ap Edeyrn. 

Ceredigion, Ceretica, the county of Cardigan ; from Ceredig 
ap Cunedda Wledig, about the year 440 drove out, with his 
father, from North Britain by the Irish Scots. 

Ceretica, Ceredigion. 

Ceri, a commot in Cantref Melienydd ; now a village and 
church near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. 

Hawdd imi 'ugwlad Geri gael. — leuan Tew. 

Ceris, Keris. Hence Pwll Ceris, the name of a spot of foul 
ground, or whirlpool, in the Straits of Menai channel, very dan- 
gerous for shipping : such another place, in name and nature, as 
Charybdis in the Straits of Sicily. Nennius, the British histo- 
rian, calls it Fwll Kervtt 

Cernyw, Cornwall, Corinnia. The country opposite to this 
was anciently called Cernyw or Corrumailles; and afterwards, 
by Cynan Meriadoc, Pi^dain Vechan^oi Little Britain. See Vertot. 

Cernyw (Llan), a parish and church in the deanery of Rhos, 
Denbighshire. Church dedicated to St. Digain. {Br, Willis.) 

Cernyweg, lingua Corinmce. 

Cerrig, stones, in the names of places. Hence the county of 
Kerry in Ireland ; in Irish, Kiemg ; and the Isle of Skerries, 
q. d. ys cerrig. 

Cerrig y Drudion, or the Druids* Stones, a village in Den- 
bighshire, North Wales. 

Cerrig Gwyddyl ym Mon. 

Cerrig Havael. 

Cerrig Hydwydd. {E. Llvxyd) 

Cerrig Hywel, in Brecknockshire. Fairs kept here. Rectfe 
Crug Howel. 
• Cerrig Niwbwl, certain stone in Cader Idris. 

Cersith. ap Hydwn D wn. Censith {D. MS) 

Ceryn, the 47th King of Britain. 

Cesail Gyfarch, a gentleman's seat in Caernarvonshire. 

Cesaryeit, Csesarians, i. e., Romans belonging to Caesfitf, or 
the followers of Julius Cassar. {Tr. 40.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 89 

• Cettell or Kettel. Here a battle was foiight between Bar- 
cLred King of Mercia and Mervyn Vrych, where Mervyn is said 
to have been slain. (Powel, Car., p. 27, a.d. 843.) 

Cethin. leuan Gethin ap Madog Cyffin. 

Cbthineoc (Price's Descript). See Oytheiniog. 

Ceugant Peiluawt orPEiLLiAWC,un o'rtri aurgelein. (2V.68). 

Ceulan, a valley near Tal y Bont in Cardiganshire. Here I 
was shown the grave of Taliesin, in an open field, encompassed 
with flat stones, but without any inscriptions in sight. L. M., 1745. 

Ceunant (fl.) : hence Aberceunant. 

Ceurwys Amheurwy. 

Ceyna (St.), a virgin, daughter of Brychan ; her acts in Cap- 
grave, Oct. 8 ; called in British Oeinvayre, or Keyna the Virgin, 
i. e., Ceinforwyn ; turned serpents into stone of that shape. 
{Brit, Sanct) 

Chenin, a valley in Anglesey, in the Cambridge copy of Nen- 
nius, where there was a wandering stone which always returned 
home by promise. Ci/ieinn, the same valley in the Cottonian 
copy of Nennius ; GheJiennius, the same valley in the Oxford copy 
of Nennius ; Ohieninn, the same valley in Sir Simon D 'Ewes' 
copy of Nennius. 

There is a deep valley and a river called Cefni (anciently 
Cevenni) in Anglesey, which is the place meant in Nennius, 
where this tra^velling stone was said to be. Some trick of the 
monks, no doubt. There is a church near that river called Llan- 
gefuL 

Chepstow, the Saxon name of Casgwent by Castell Gwent. 
[Casgwent is the same as Castell Gwent. — L if.] 

Chikk, a parish, church, and castle, part of Powys Vadog, 
Denbighshire ; in Welsh Y Waun, but called anciently CasteU 
Crogen. 

CiAN (Sant) : hence Llangian. There was an Irish saint of 
the name of Kienan in the fifth century. (Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 409.) 

CiBDDAR (n. pr. v.). Drych eilCibddar, un o'r tri Uedrithawc. 
(Tr. 33.) 

CiBWR (or Cibowr as in Price's BescripL), one of the commots 
of Cantref Brenhinol, Morganwg. [Cibwyr is between the rivers 
Taf and Eleirch, vel Ehymyn sen Ehympyn, — /. M.] 

12 



90 CELTIC REMAINS, 

CiL, a recess or hermitage ; an ancient Celtic word. Aburid- 
ance of churches in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, are named from 
this word, as Cilkenin in Cardiganshire ; Cilcwm in Cannarthen- 
shire ; Cil y Sant ; Cilwri in Cheshire ; Cil Maenan ; Cilgeraint. 
In Ireland, Kildare, Kilkenny, Kilfinan, Kilmallock, Kilamey, 
Kilaloe, Kilfenora, Kilworth ; Kilrenny, Kjlblain,Kilmoney, Kil- 
moir, etc, in Scotland. 

CiLBEBYLL, Glamorganshire. 
. CiLCARN, Pembrokeshire. 

CiLCARW, Carmarthenshire. 

CiLCELFF. Cynan Cilcelff ap Tryfifin Varfawg. 

CiLCEN, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) Mostyn. A church (rectory 
and vicarage) in Flintshire. Dafydd person Cilken : qu. an id. 
Kilkenny in Ireland ? 

CiLCENiN, in Cantref Penwedig, Ceretica. 

KiLCHERAN, a place in North Britain wherie Aeddan ap Gafran 
was buried a.d. 606. (Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 476.) He was bom in 
Kyntir. 

CiLYCWM, Carmarthenshire. 

CiLFACH: see Y GUfach. 

CiLFACH Afal, a house in Cardiganshire. 

CiLFACH YR Haidd, Glamorganshire : qiL Cil Fechan ? 

Cil Fargen or Fargak, Caermarthenshire. Vid. Margan. 

CiLGARAN (Camden in Perribrokeshire), oorrxiptly for Cilgeraint. 

Cilgeraint, a village and castle in Dyfed, on the river Teivi, 
which Mr. Camden says was built by Giraldus of Windsor ; but 
Powel {Oaradocj p. 169) says that Eoger Montgomery begun a 

castle about a.d ; and where Gilbert Strongbow, Earl of 

StrygiU, built one a.d. 1 109, the county of Caredigion being given 
him by Henry I to win and keep. This place is famous for 
nothing but salmon fishery. The name signifies the Eetreat of 
Geraint, and is of great antiquity. 

Cilgerran : see Cilgeraint 

Cilgwri, Worrall in Cheshire. 

Cil Hendre, a gentleman's seat. (J, D.) 

Cilmanllwyd, Pembrokeshire. 

CiLMiN Droed-ddu {i, «., Cilmin with the black foot, one of 
the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales) ap Cadrod ap Gwrydr ap 



CELTIC REMAINS. 91 

Elidir ap Sandde. He came with Mervyn Frych from North 
Britain about the year 840. He lived at Glyn LUvon in Uwch 
Gwirfai. He bore argent quartered ; on the first quarter an eagle 
displayed with two heads sable; 2, three rugged sticks gules; 3 
and 4, ditto, — a man's leg couped sable in an eschutcheon argent. 
The tradition is, being a conjuror, and in going through hell, lus 
foot slipt into a river there, which coloured it black. There was a 
king in Ireland in the year 516, called NiaU Glinddu, i. «., Niall 
with the Black Knee. 

CiL Owen, a place in Flintshire, so called from Owen Gwyn- 
edd*s retreat there in the war with Henry II, King of England, 
A.D.1157. {Caradoe in 0. Gwynedd.) 

Gil Bhedyn, Carmarthenshire, a church and parish. Also a 
place in Pembrokeshire. See Bhedyn. 

CiLRHEDYNEN, a gentleman's seat in Englefield. 

Gil Ehiwa, in South Wales. 

Gil Euadd, in Ireland, where St. Golman built a cell. {Ogygia, 
p. 413.) See Zlangolman, 

Gil y Sant, a church in Llanwinio parish, in Derllys hundred, 
in Garmarthenshire. The retreat of the saint : qu. ? 

GiLYDD (n. pr. v.). 

GiLLYN YNAD. 

GiNAST, enw lie. Syr Eoger o Ginast. 

KiNED (St.), probably Ov^nadl; Llangwnadl. Kined was a 
hermit of the 6th century, honoured with the friendship of St. 
David. (Brit. SancL, Aug. 1.) 

GiNiN ap liowarch Fychan. 

GiNMEL or Gynmael, a place yn Sir Dinbych. 

GiOG or CuAWC, a river which falls into Dyfi at Dolgiog in 
Montgomeryshire. 

Yn Aber Cnano yd canant cogen. — Llywarch Hen, 
Dolydd Kjog. — Llywarch Hen, 
See Abercuawc. 

KiRKiNN, a battle where Dyfngart^ (Domangard) ap Aeddan 
was slain a.d. 598. {Ogygia, p. 475.) 

Glaerddu, in Geretica, a river which falls into the Wye. 

Glaerwen, a river in Geretica that faUs into the Wye. 

Clam Hoctor, Clamoctor {Gild, Gotton.), and Olam Octor 
{Camden). This is a King of Ireland mentioned by Nennius, 



92 CELTIC REMAINS. 

-whose sons invaded and possessed some parts of Britain, as Dal)]!* 
eta in North Britain, the Isle of Man, and G^yr and Cydweli 
in South Wales ; but were drove out of all the regions of Britain 
by Cunedda and his sons. This was in the year 460 ; one of 
the irruptions mentioned by Gildas. The Irish history is almost 
a blank about this time of confusion at the very dissolution of 
the Boman power in Britain. But in Flaherty (p. 429) I find 
one Loagair mac Neil that reigned from 428 to 463, and was suc- 
ceeded King of Ireland by one OUlol Molt, son of a King of 
Conacht, who reigned twenty years. The above Clam Octor was 
either one of these, or perhaps one of the petty kings of Ireland. 
See Glam Hector, Ysgroeth, Builke, and Bethoun, 

Clarach (fl.), Ceretica. 

Clare (St.), died a martyr in Normandy. {BiHt. Sand., Nov. 4.) 
Parish of St. Clare's, Carmarthenshire. 

Clas (in Mr.Llwyd's copy), an island mentioned in the Triades, 
supposed by Mr. E. llwyd to be Carfu, an island in the Ionian 
Sea on the coast of Greece. Vid. Cla^ Merdin, 

Clas Merdin, or, as some MSS. have it, Clas Meitin, the 
first name of the isle of Britain {Tr. 1) : perhaps the Olds of 
Myrddin (see Glas) ; perhaps corruptly for Glas ; in the same 
sense as Latin writers called it Insula Cserula, or the blue island. 
See Selden, Mar. Olaus., L i, c. 2. 

Clawdd Offa, Offa's Ditch, a deep trench and mound thrown 
up by Offa, King of Mercia, from sea to sea, to prevent the incur- 
sions of the Welsh, about the year 784; about which time also 
the Princes of Powys were obliged to remove their seats from 
Pengwern Bowys (Salop) to Mathravael. (Caradoc in Cynan 
Tyndaethtay,) 

Cledawc ap Brychan, videtur idem quod Clydawc. 

Cleddau Du, one of the rivers that go to Milford Haven ; the 
other is Cleddau Gwyn. A. hundred there called Dau Gleddau. 
(Caradoc in Llewelyn ap lonvertJu) 

Cleddyf. Caergleddyf is Tenby. (Thomas WiUiams.) 

Cleddyf, a river. 

Cleddyfrudd, a surname signifying a ruddy sword, i.e., bloody. 
Gwgon Cleddyfrudd ap Caradoc Freichfras. Vid. Bhudd, 

Cledfryn yn Ehos, the Castle of Denbigh in Denbighshire. 
{Camden.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 93 

. Cledri ap Cadivor. 

Cledwyn ap Brychan Brycheiniog. 

Clegyr (Y), a gentleman's seat, Anglesey. 

Clegyr Gwynion (Y), Anglesey. 

Cleifiog, a place near Holyhead (from clai). 

Cleirwy. Boger Vychan o Gleirwy. 

Cleitddyn. Twain ap Cleuddyn. 

Cleugoch (fl.) : hence Abercleugoch, Carmarthenshire. 
. Clocaenog, a parish in Denbighshire, dedicated to St. Voddyd. 
(Br. Willis,) See THllo Caenog, 

Clodrudd, a cognomen. Elystan Glodrudd, is also wrote 
Clodrydd. 

Cloff, lame. Arglwydd Glofif. 

Clogwyn Carnedd t Wyddfa, called also Clogwyn y Gam- 
edd, the highest rock in the three kingdoms, famous for Alpine 
plants. {E, Llwyd!) 

Clogwyn Du (Y), ym mhen y Glyder, a mountain near Llan- 
beris. {E, Llvryd.) 

Clogyuddwr or Clegyrddwr, a gentleman's seat. [J.D) Jones. 

Cloit and Cloith, in Doomsday Book, corruptly for the Clwyd 
river which runs by Bhuddlan. 

Clonenau, i. q. Celynennau, enw He. 

Clorach (n. 1.) in Mon., and a river. Khyd Glorach. 

Clotvaeth verch Brychan. 

Clud (qu. a river ?), a country in Maelienydd. Hence Einion 

Clud ap Madoc. 

Priodawr clodfawr Clad ac Aeron. 

Cynddelw, i Cadwallawn ap Madawc. 

Clun, a castle of the Normans in Elvel, a.d. 1142 (qu. ?). 

Clun Castle in the Marches, taken by Lord Eys A.D. llOr*, 
and burnt, in Shropshire. British, Colunwy. 

Clwch (n. I.)* Clwch Tymog, a place in Anglesey noted for 
chrystals. 

Clwyd (fl.), a river of this name divides between Flintshire 
and Denbighshire, in Dyffryn Clwyd ; Engl., the Vale of Clwyd. 
Another in Scotland called by Latin writers Olota, and the people 
bordering on it the Stradclwyd Britains ; and by the Saxon 
writers, Stratclyde Weales, i, e., Welsh or Brutaniaid Ystrad 



94 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Clwyd, now called Clyde, which runs through Clyde's Vale to 
DunbartoQ and Glasgow. See Yatrad and Strat. 

Clydau, a parish in Pembrokeshire. 

Clydawg (St.), or Clitauc, son of Clitguin, Prince of South 
Wales : see his Life in Capgrave and in Dugdale^s Monasticon, 
voL iii He was buried, where he was killed, by the river Min- 
gui (Mynwy), where a church was erected and dedicated to him 
by the Bishop of Llandaf. {Brit. Sanct.) 

Clydawg ap Cadell, slain by his brother Meuric, ad. 917. 
(Powel, Caradoc, p. 47.) 

Clydawg ap Ithel, the 53rd King of Britain. 

Clydei verch Brychan. 

Clydno, the 54th King of Britain. 
, Clydno Eiddun, a Prince of North Britain (qu. Edinborough ?), 
father of Cynon. {Tr. 53.) 

Clynennatj or Celynennatt, a place in Caernarvonshire. Sir 
John Owen of Clenenney. (/. JD.) 

Clynnog or Celynnog (a place of holly), a church dedicated 
to St. Beuno in Caernarvonshire. 

Clyno ap Cynyr Farfdrwch. 

Clynogwr, a parish (qu. ?) in Glamorganshire, or Glyn Ogwr. 
Vid. Offwr, river. 

Clyw^DOG (n. ti),^,,8onarus (qu.). Llanvair y Clyieedogau ; two 
rivers of that name there meet. Several of this name. [ Watein 
Clywedog, a poet — W^. -D.] 

Cnbppyn Gwrthrynion, a poet of the country of Gwrthrynion. 
[Marvmad Trahaem,) 

Cnwccin, a place not far from Oswestry {Dr, Powel, p. 381), 
where Madoc defeated the Marchers. A parish and church now 
called Knockin, Shropshire. The castle was founded 1242, says 
J. K, by John le Strange. 

Ckwx)c Glas, in Badnorshire, a gentleman's seat 

Cnwch (n. 1.). Pen y Cnwch. 

CocH, properly red. Cantref Ooch, formerly one of the seven 
cantrefs of Morganwg, is now in Gloucestershire, called Forest 
of Dean. (Price's Description.) Y Fron Goch ; y Plas Goch ; y 
Ehiw Goch ; y Garn Goch ; y Ehos Goch ; yr AUt Goch ; Traeth 
Goch, etc. lorwerth Goch (n. pr. v.). Y Castell Coch ymhowys. 



CET4TIC REMAINS. d5 

the Eed Castle in Powysland, now called in English Pcmis CastU, 
It lies on an eminence above the river Severn, near the town of 
Welsh Poole, in the county of Montgomery, and hath a prospect 
that wants nothing (except a view of the sea) to make it com- 
plete. It is a grand, ancient house, built on a rock, in form of a 
castle, and hath been a stronghold in the time of the ancient 
Britains. 

GocHWiLLAN, a gentleman's seat in the parish of Uandygai^ 
near Bangor Fawr. From hence came the famous John Williams, 
Archbishop of Canterbury [York. — W. J9.] 

Coed, properly wood, in the composition of names of places, 
as Caer Penhwyl Coed ; Uangoed, a church in Anglesey and 
Brecknockshire. 

Llan-goed fal llwynau Godwin. — Hywel Bafydd. 

Coedmor or Coetmor ; Coed Llys ; Tsgubor y Coed ; Coed Gron- 
wy; Dugoed Mowddwy; Llechwedd Hiigoed ; Argoed ; y Coedty ; 
y Goedtref ; Glascoed ; Coed y Brain ; y Perfeddgoed ; y Glyp- 
coed, Anglesey ; Coed Celyddon, yn yr Alban ; Coetalog, i. e., 
Coed halawg ; Coedtraeth, near Tenby; Trawsgoed ; Pen y Coed ; 
Ty'n y Coed ; Cantref y Coed, one of the eight cantrefs of Dyfed ; 
Coed y Mynydd ; Uwchcoed and Iscoed, etc. 

CoEDANE or CoEDANAU, a chapel of that name in Anglesey. 
See Cad y Coedanau. 

Coed Celyddon, near Litchfield. 

Coed Cae' Du, in Trawsfynydd. 

Coed t Cra, a gentleman's seat, — EUises. {J. D) 

Coed y Cymmar, Brecknockshire. 

Coed Eulo : see Euh. 

Coed Gronw, near Abergavenny. {H. Llwyd) 

Coed yr Haf, one of the three commots of the Cantref of Pen- 
fro. (Price's Descript) 

Coed Llwyfain : see Lhvyfain. 

CoEDMOR (n. L). Llangoedmor, a church and parish, and a 
gentleman's seat, in Cardiganshire. See Coetmor. 

Coed y Mynydd, in TegeingL (D, ap Edmund,) 

Coed Ehygyn, a house in Trawsfynydd. 

CoEDRWG, in lal, a gentleman's seat. 

Coedtraeth, near Tenby, a place not^d for trees appealing in 



96 CELTIC REMAINS. 

the sand at low water. (See TJwyd's Notes on Camden in Pem^ 
hrokeshire.) This is by Camden erroneously wrote Groytarath, 
No wonder that the Romans wrote the names of our places so bad. 

CoEDTY (Y), Glamorganshire. 

Coed y Llai, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) 

Coed Yspys. A battle fought here, where the Nonnans were 
defeated by Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Powys, who the same year, 
with GruJBTydd ap Cynan, Prince of North Wales, had taken their 
castles in Cardigan and Dyfed, a.d. 1092. (PqwcI) 

CoEG. GaUwyn Goeg. 

CoEL (n. pr. v.). Camden derives it from Codius, as Howel 
fix)m HcrUus, sunbright, used in Britain before the Soman inva- 
sion. 

CoEL, son of CadeU ap Geraint, the 45th King of Britain. 

CoEL, Earl of Gloucester, the 85th King of Britain, father of 
Elen (i. c, Helena Augusta), his only child, called by the Britains 
Elen Lwyddawg, or the Prosperous, the wife of Constantius, and 
mother of Constantine the Great, Emperor of Bome. 

CoEL GODHEBOG, or Coel Hen, priodawr o'r Gogledd, the son 
of Tegfan ap Deheufraint, was a Prince in North Britain, father 
of Cenau, from whom descended several great warriors, Padam 
Beisrudd, Pabo Post Prydain, Urien Reged, Uywarch Hen, etc. 
These two Coels are confounded together by some of the poets, 
etc., who have misled Geo. Owen Harry and several other writers. 
See Hanes 24 Brenhin, 

Coel ap Meurig, the 78th King of Britain. 

Coel Momadawg. 

[CoELBRYN. Capel Coelbryn in Brecknockshire. A Roman 
causey thereby. Arch.y i, p. 297. — W. D,] 

CoETEN Arthur, i. e.. King Arthur's Quoit. By this name a 
great many of those ancient monuments in Wales are called, 
which by the modems are supposed to have been the altars of 
the Druids ; but in some places they are called croinlech, pi. crovft- 
lecfiau. One of them at Llanvihangel Tre'r Beirdd, in Anglesey, 
is called Coeteri Arthur ; another, near Harlech, etc., etc. 

CoETMOR, a place in Carnarvonshire, t. e.. Coed Mawr ; and 
Llangoedmor, a parish in Cardiganshire. Hence Catmore in Rut- 
land. Pugh of Coetmor. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 97 

CoF Angharad, enw Awdl i Angharad verch Ricart. (D. ap 
Givilyfn) 

[CiG, the name of two villages and two or three farmhouses 
in Glamorgan. Qusere, what does it mean ? — L M.] 

[Cog AN, the name of three or four villages in Glamorgan.-/, ilf.] 

CoLEDAWG or CoLEDDAWG (n. pr. V.), mab Gwyn, un o'r tri an- 
heol. Qu., anneol, unchosen ? 

CoLEiGiON,one of the three eommots of Cantref Dyffryn Clwyd; 
from Coel ap Cunedda Wledig. (Price's Descript) 

CoLEYON (Price's DescripL), by mistake for Coleigion. 

CoLMAN (St.). Llangolman in Dj^ed. Colman was an Irish 
saint, and the third Bishop of lindisfame. Died 676. {Ulster 
Annals.) There have been several Irish saints of this name about 
A.D. 661. (Brit. Sanctj Aug. 8.) 

GoLMON, the name of some Irish general that invaded Anglesey 

about A.D There is a great ditch thrown up near Tre 

Wynn, called F/os Golmon to this day ; and the ruins of a town 
hard by, called Y Gaimeddau, or the Heaps ; but no tradition 
what town it was. A wedge of gold, about 20 lbs. weight, was 
lately found near the place, and other treasure. 

CoLOFN Prydain, some measure of poetry, it seems. (Cynddelw, 
i Hywel ap 0. Gwynedd.) 

O Golofn Prydain y prydaf 
Yn gelfydd or defnydd dyfnaf. 

CoLUN, CoLUNWY, in English Clynn or Clun. See Oolun, 
CoLUNWY, a river in Shropshire. {Camden.) Hence the Forest 
of Clun, Shropshire. 

CoLUNWY, a surname, from the river. 

Maccwy Colunwy, cei lawenydd. 

I). M. Tttdur^ i Howel Colnnwy. 

CoLWEN. CasteU Colwen (Camden, Britannia), which he 
makes Maud's Castle in Colwent. Qu., whether CasteU Colwen ? 

CoLWN : see Oolun. 

CoLWYN, a river. Ystum Colwyn, a gentleman's seat, Mont- 
gomeryshire. 

COLYN, the name of a man among the ancient Britains : hence 
Ehos Colyn in Anglesey. I know Mr. Rowlands fancied it came 

13 



98 CELTIC REMAINS. 

from Colofn, or a column erected there by the Romans at the 
extreme boundary of their conquest. Hence also Dincolyn, an 
ancient fort in the parish of Diaerth in Tegeingl, where, in a 
field called Bryn Colyn, there are ruins of an old fort. (E, 
Llwyd, Itinerary,) See T Ddiserth and Colyn Dolphyn, 

Colyn Dolphyn, a Briton pirate in Bristol Channel in Eichard 
the 3rd'8 time, a.d. 1477. (Powers Caradoc, p. 139.) 

CoLYNNOG Fawb yn Arfon, or Celynnog or Clynnog. 

Coll (n. pr. v.). CoU mab CoUfrewy, un o'r tri Gwrddfeich- 
iad. (TV. 30.) This man was the principal king-at-anns in 
King Arthur's time ; for it appears in this Triad that he gave 
the eagle to Brynach the Scot, and the wolf to Menwaed of 
Arllechwedd. This shows the great antiquity of bearing arms 
in Britain. Un o'r tri prif hut. (Tr, 32.) Hut Rhuddlwm Gawr 
a ddysgodd i Coll mab CoUfrewy. [Tr. 32.) Coll mab CoUfrewy, 
un o'r tri prif Uedrithawc. {Tr, 33.) 

CoLLAWN (n. pr. v.). CoUawn mab Berch. {Tr, Meirch, 8.) 

CoLLEK (St.) ap Gwynawg ap Clydawg ap Cowrda ap Cariadog 
Vreichfras. Llangollen, a church, parish, and village in Den- 
bighshire. Fairs kept here. The Abbey of Valle Crucis in ruins 
near this place ; and also Castell Dinas Bran^ an impregnable 
fort. Pont Llangollen, a curiosity. 

CoLLFRYN (n. L), q. A Bryn y CyH 

Cnewillyn y Collfryn cell. — H, Oilan^ i Gr. Deuddwr. 

[Coll-fryn, from loss of a battle ; and Cefn Digoll, where it was 
retrieved. — W, DJ] 

CoLLWYN (n. pr. v.), and not Collfryn, 

Collw^n tylwyth Bleddyn blaid.— flyweZ Dafydd, 

CoLLWYN, a river. Dyffryn CoUwyn, Breconshire. 

CoNGARTH Fechan, the old name of the place where the Castle 
of Pembroke was built by Gerald Steward of Pembroke, A.D. 
1108. {Carad., p. 163.) Qu., whether the Oangi t 

CoNiACH, Conaught in Ireland. 

A hyder o wychder iach 
Hy goresgynny Goniach. 

lolo Ooch to Sir Bog. Mortimer. 

CoNSTANS, or Cwsteint, the 86th King of Britain. This is Con- 
stantius Chlorus, father of Constantine the Great. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 99 

CONSTANnus ; Cambro*British^ Cwsteint and Constans. 

CONSTANTINUS ; Cambro-British, Owstenin. Camden says " in 
some parts of the realm" he was called Custance, meaning Wales ; 
but he was wrong. All our British writers call him Cwstenin 
oxCwstenyn; and there is a church in Caernarvonshire dedicated 
to Cwstenyn Fendigaid^ called Llangwstenyn. See Custeint. 

CONSTINOBL (Triad 61), i. e., Constantinople. 

CoDstinobl a'i phobl. 

Conwy, or, as Mr. Edward Llwyd would have it, Cynvry; Lat- 
inized Conovium by Antoninus (rectfe Convium) ; a garrison town 
and a beautiful castle built on the west side of the river Conwy 
in Caernarvonshire, which stands to this day. The river is called 
by the natives Alerconwy ; Latinized Aberconovium ; by Ptolomy 
called Toisovius for Conovius {Oamden), It is comiptly called 
in English Conway, This place was by the Princes of Wales 
found more convenient than the situation of Diganwy, which 
was the ancient town that lay on the east side of the river, 
where the Princes of Wales formerly resided ; and where King 
John came with a vast army to destroy all Wales and every 
living thing in it, A.D. 1211 ; but was defeated by the Welsh, and 
reduced to great extremities. See Teganwy. 

The Abbey of Conway was buUt by ; and here they kept 

the records of the acts and successions of the Princes of North 
Wales, and buried their chief men. This Abbey was spoiled and 
burnt by Henry III, a.d. 1245, who then lay at Diganwy, which 
Matth. Paris calls Gannock. Hugh Earl of Chester fortified 
Conway before Edward I's time. (Camden in Caernarvonshire) 

Conwy is also an appellative. Hugh Conwy ap Robin ap Gr. 
Goch. Hence the surname of Conway, It is wrote Conwy by 
our learned poets ; as, 

Neam bn aralldyd ym rydyd rwy 
Cer moreb cain wyneb Conwy. 

Prydydd y Moeh^ i L. ap lorwerth. 

Gwdion mab Don ar Gonwy 
Hndlaih ni ba o'i fath fwy. 

D, ap OwUym. 

Wyr i'r gwalch o oror Gwy 
Wyd a*i genedl hyd Gonwy. 



100 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Y cawn ar Ian Conwy *r wledd 
Nan Conwy man cawn y medd. 

Tudur Aled. 

Coppa'r Leni, a gentleman's seat near a hill of that name near 
Rhuddlan. [Coppa^r Oleuni, a beacon there. — W. JD,] 

CoRANNiAiT or CoRANYEiT,one of the three molesters of Britain. 
(Tr. 41.) This is a nation or colony of strangers said to have 
come to Britain in the time of Ilndd ap Beli, which was before 
the Roman conquest, and are said to be originally Asiatics. 
These may be the people called by Roman writers Coritani. (See 
Camden, who could give no account of them.) It is probable 
they were Grermans, for Lludd went over to Gaul to advise with 
his brother Llefelys about them ; so they were not Gauls. {Tys- 
silio,) See " Stori 'r tair Gormes." [Of these L. M. gives, in his 
own opinion, a very good account. — I. MJ] 

CoRDiLA or CoRDEiLA, a Quecn of Britain who reigned five 
years, being the 11th Prince of Britain of the Trojan race. She 
was daughter of Ilyr. 

CORINEWa 

CoRMUR ap Eurbre Wyddel. See Btychan. 

CoRNDOCHEN. Castell Comdochen, the ruins of a castle, of 
which no author makes mention, says Mr. E. Llwyd. {Notes on 
Camden,) It lies in the parish of Llanuwchllyn in Merionydd- 
shire. It is seated on the top of a steep rock at the bottom of a 
deep valley, a wall surrounding three turrets, and the mortar 
made of cockle-shells. Mr. Edward Hwyd thinks it built by the 
Romans, but gives no reason for it. See Prysor, [It is more 
likely to be British than Roman. There were no coins nor any 
other Roman relics found. No Roman military way goes near 
it. The situation might have served for a short defence ; but 
the besieged would soon find the inconvenience of the place. 
The Romans, according to Hyginus, always chose a place where 
they might conveniently draw out to figlit. These brave people 
never fortified such places inaccessible as would show they were 
afraid of the enemy. Camdochen and Treberry (Tre'r Biri, or 
Castell y Biri, q. v.), if any, are of Welsh construction, thinks 
Daines Barrington ; and he would, he says, add Castell Dinas 
Bran, if not so near the English frontier. He adds that the 



CELTIC REMAINS. 101 

Welsh princes had neither money, skilful masons, nor a sufficient 
number of hands, to complete such works. He had never seen 
a coin of a Welsh prince. None of them (meaning the Welsh) 
can now lay courses so well, or hew so regularly, as those in 
many of the ancient castles. — W, D,] 

CoRNWY, a mountain in Anglesey ; and qu. whether a river by 
Caerau ? Y Gam ynghomwy. 

ComwyLys and ComwyLan are divisions of a lordship there : 
hence a church, lianvair ynghomwy. See Extent of Anglesey. 

CoROLWNG ap Beblig. 

CoRS, a bog ; frequent in Ireland ; used in the names of some 
places where there are no bogs ; as, Cors y Gedol, Meirion ; but 
chiefly of places so situated. Dol y Corslwyn, a gentleman's 
seat ; Cors y Bol ; Cors Eilian ; Cors Ddygai ; Cors y Cefndu ; 
Glan y (Jors, a gentleman's seat ; y Gors Ddu ; y Gors Wen ; y 
Gors Eudd ; Ehiw Rygors ; y Gors Lwyd ; y Gors Fawr ; Uan- 
gors, Brecknockshire, etc. Mr. Edward Ilwyd, in his Letter to 
Nicolson, author of the Historical Library y says that cors signifies 
a marsh, which is a mistake I don't know how he could be guilty 
of, for a marsh is rnorfa ; and he further adds that cors signifies 
also a reed, and marshes being often overgrown with them, it 
was thence probably they were called corsydd. [Gors is a marsh 
in South Wales ; cors is also a reed in South Wales. — L J!f.] 
This was also a great oversight in Mr. Ilwyd, for corsen in the 
British and Armoric, and not cars, is the name for a reed, which 
is plainly derived from ctw-a, a bog, because often growing in 
bogs ; and corr in Irish is a pit of water. 

Frenniau cors are the subterranean trees found in bogs, but 
not in marshes, unless such marshes have been bogs. Oorsydd 
are inland, but marshes are on the sea-coast, and so called 
because overflowed by the sea, and therefrom called morfa. 
There is also a distinction between mavm cors and rriavm mynydd, 
i. e.,bog turf and mountain turf; but there is no turf in marshes, 
which are clayey ground. 

Cors Fochno, a bog by the river Dyfi. 

A chad Cors Fochno a chad ym M6n. — Hoi. Myrddin. 

Cors Heilin, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) 



102 CELTIC REMAINS. 

CoRS Y GEDOL,in Meirionyddaliire,the seat of William Vaughan, 
Esq., Member of Parliament for that county. 

[CoRS T Saeson. — JT. D.] 

CoRTHi (o Lwyn Dyfnog) ap Medrod. 

CoRUN ap Ceredic. Harri Corun. Cwm Corun. 

CoRWEN, a vlUage in Edeymion in Powys Land, where Owain 
Gwynedd, with the forces of North and South Wales and Powys, 
came to meet Henry II, King of England, with a vast army fix)m 
England, Normandy, Anjou, Gascoine and Guyen, Flanders, and 
Britanny. Here the Britains encamped, and the King of Eng- 
land encamped on the river Ceiriog, where they disputed the 
pass with him with some loss of both sides ; but he got over, 
and encamped on the side of Berwyn Mountain. Here Owain 
Gwynedd got master of all the passes, that neither forage nor 
victuals could come to the King's camp, nor durst a soldier stir 
abroad. To augment his miseries, such heavy rains fell that the 
strangers, not used to such grounds, could not stand upon their 
feet ; so with much ado the King returned with great loss of 
men and danger of his life, without effecting his purpose of de- 
stroying aU that had life in the land, as he intended and threat- 
ened. A.D. 1165. (Garadoc in Owain Gvjynedd.) See Berwyn and 
Crogm. 

CoRYBANTAU, rect^ Ov/To i hantau. The Corybantes among the 
CeltaB were the same with the Curetes, priests of Cybele. Six 
brethren who had the care of bringing up lou were so called from 
their curOy beating their weapons together to make a noise. This 
they did in the isle of Crete, that Saturn might not hear his son 
lou cry. And when lou came of age he rewarded them, and made 
them priests to Cybele in Mount Ida in Phrygia. See Curetes. 

CosGARN EiNiON, in Basaleg, Monmouthshire. 

CossEiL or CossAiL, a consul ; the principal of&cer or general 
of the Boman party of the Loegrian Britains ; and the word was 
in use even after the Saxon conquest of Loegria. 

Ny thorrei Oosseil fy nherfyn. — Llywarch Hen. 
Ni cbarei OossaU fy ngwrthlid. — Llywarch Hen. 

Cot : vid. Oynlas. Whether Coth, old ? 
CoTHi, a river in Caermarthenshire, falls into the Towi. Hence 
Dol y Cothi (n. 1.) ; Glyn Cothi. See Glyn and Dol, 
Lewis Glyn Cothi,, a famous poet, A.D. 1456. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 1 03 

CouNSYLLT, one of the three commots of Tegengl hundred. 
See Prestatyn and Bhttddlan, the other two. 

CouNSYLLT, a strait or pass near FKnt. Here Owain Gwynedd 
with his North Wales men met and fought Sondel Earl of Chester 
and Madoc ap Meredyth, Prince of Powys, with hired soldiers 
from England, more in number and better armed than the Gwyn- 
eddians, where Owen gave them a total defeat, and very few 
escaped except the chief oflScers by the swiftness of their horses, 
A.D. 1148. (Caradoc in 0, Gwynedd,) Here also King Henry II, 
in his first attempt against the Welsh, took the standard of 
England ; and the King lost several noblemen, and was obliged 
to fly. (Powers Chron., p. 207.) See Ooed JEulo. 

CowBRiDGB, or Bontvaen, a town in Morganwg. 

CowNi, a gentleman's seat. (/. D,) 

CowRDA Sant. A church of his at Llangoed. Cowrdaf ap 
Gariadog Freichfras. Bron Llangowrda, the ruins of a chapel in 
Cardiganshire. [GalU Cawrda, a monastery of Glamorganshire, 
now in ruins. — I. MJ\ 

COWRES (n. L), qu. a river ? 

Llys Gowres lies ag arian.— -O. op LI. Moeh 

Tri o gariad trwy Gowres. — Eywel Swrdwal. 
See Gowres. 

CowRTD ap Cadvan : qu. Cywryd ? 

CowRYD ap Perfarch ap larddur. 

CowYN or CowiN, a river. (Llyivarch Hen in Marwnad Cadwall- 
awn.) Llandeilo Abercowyn, Caermarthenshire. See Abe^-camyn, 

CoYTY, a lordship in Morganwg ; or perhaps Coedty. (Powel, 
p. 122.) [The richest parish in Britain,as the inhabitants boast; it 
has a very rich soil, plenty of wood, coal, lime, iron, lead, marble, 
freestone, slate, millstone, potter's clay; salmon, trout in abund- 
ance ; two castles, two churches, a market-town (Pen y Bont ar 
Ogwr) ; the large village of Coetty, and several other villages. — 
/. M.] ' 

Crach. Gruffydd Gr&ch. 

Cradifael Sant. A church dedicated to him at Penmynydd 
in Anglesey. See Gradifel. 

Cradifel (n. L). L. G. Oothi. 

Cradoc or Cradog ; Lat. Caractacus, {E, Llwyd). See Caradog, 



104 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Crafdin Grythob, a famous musician of Ireland, a.d. 48. Crab- 
tine Grutaire. {Ogygia, p. 283.) 

Crafnant, a river in Eryri, which runs from Ilyn Crafnant, 
about two miles from Trefriw, perhaps took its name from craf, 
wild garlick. Qu., whether that plant abounds there ? 

Craig, a rock, used in the names of places ; as Craig Buna, 
Eadnorshire; y Graig Coch; y Wen Graig; y Greigddu; y 
Greiglas ; y Greigwen ; y Greiglwyd ; Pencraig, Anglesey ; y 
Greigfryn, etc. 

Crau Swch. Lands of Crau Swch mentioned in the Prince's 
Extent^ A.D. 1352. It signifies soccage tenure. Crau is that part 
of the swch, or share, that the wood goes into the iron. See 
Lledwigan and Milain Aradrgaeth. 

Credic ap Dyfiawal Hen. An id. qd. Ceredig t 

Credyw Sant. (Broume Willis.) 

Creg. Gwenhwyfar Grfeg. 

Creirwy (n. pr. f.). Creirwy verch Cludno Eiddim ap Cyn- 
wyd Cynwydion. 

Creirwy, merch CeritwexL (Tr.73.) This is Caridwen Wrach, 
wife of Tegid. 

Creirwy, sister of Morfran ap Tegid, a lady in Arthur's court. 
(Tr. 73.) See Gamy. 

Crenant. Cappel Crenant, Morganwg ; recti CreunarU, blood- 
brook. See Creunant [Cappel Creunant, ymhlwyf Uangyfelach 
y mae ; always pronounced Creunant ; a village with a chapel 
and fairs. See Almanetc. — I. M.] 

Crbsi, Cressy in France. 

Gwae a'i gweles ynghresi 
Gwr di wael mewn trafael tri. 

lolo Oochf 1 Syr Rys. 

See Dr. Davies in the word Oresi, mistaking it for a verb. 

Cresfain (Y), enw Ue. 

Creuddyn (wrote also Creidhyn by English writers), one of the 
three commots of Cantref Penwedig in Cardiganshire ; from crau, 
blood, and dun, a fort ; q. d, bloody fort. Qu., whether of the 
same origin with Cruthen in Vita S. Patricii, (Ogt/ffia, p. 180.) 

Creuddyn, a commot in Caernarvonshire ; one of the three 
commots of Cantref y Rhos. 



CELTIC REMAINS. ' 105 

Y cri oedd yn y Creuddyn 

■A-g wylo tost glowed hyn. — B. Ddu, 

Car iddynt wyf o'r Creuddyn, 
Llyna haid o'r Uin i hyn. 

Deio ah leuan Du. 

Perhaps Croydon, near London, is of the same origin. 
Creulon. Einion Greulon ap Einion ap Eirid. 
Creunant, bloody brook. 

Ami celain ynghrain ynghrennant. 

Cynddelw, i 0. Gwynedd. 

Cribach, a harbour in Cardiganshire. 

Crib y Ddiscil, a mountain near Ilanberis in Eryri. {E. Llv>yd.) 
[Crib y Ddysgl {Ddistyll), one of the three peaks of Snowdon as 
observed from Capel Curig. — W, D,] 

Cricciaith or Crucciaith, a town and castle in Caernarvon- 
shire. 

Pendefig Cmcciaith maith mygr difwng. 

Ein, ah Mad, Rhahawd^ i BofT. ap Llywelyn. 

Rhys ap Sion o'r happus iaith. 

Gwr yw accw o Gracciaith. — L, O. Cothi, 

Cridia, an abbey of White Monks, burnt by Henry III, be- 
cause a refuge for the Welsh, near Ceri and Montgomery, men- 
tioned by Matth. Paris ; where Henry III gave leave to Hubert 
de Burgh to build a castle, which by the peace then made Llew- 
elyn ap lorwerth insisted to be rased on his own charge. 

Crigion, in the parish of Guildsfield, Montgomeryshire. 

Crimmach, in Anglesey. 

Criniogau or Crinioge (or qu. whether Ceinioge), a gentle- 
man's seat. (/. D) 

CRiSTik (n. f.), Christiana. Cristin verch Gronwy (Ronwy) ap 
Owain ap Edwin, arglwydd Tegengl, oedd wraig Owen Gwyn- 
edd ; mother of Dafydd and Rodri. {MS.) See " Awdl Saith 
Mab Cadifor.'' 

Cristiolus (Sant yn Uedwigan) ap Howel Fychan ap Howel 
ap Emyr Llydaw. {MS) Llangristiolus ym M6n. Dr. H. Mor- 
ris, a famous preacher in Charles II's time, was of this place. 

Cristog. Y Barwn o Gristog. 

14 



106 • CELTIC REMAINS. 

Croes Oswallt, Oswald's Tree or Cross, now Oswestry, in 
Shropshire. 

Crogen Castle, a pass on Ofifa's Ditch near Oswestry, where the 
Britains, in defending it, slew a great number of Henry II's men 
in his expedition to Berwyn. Castell Crogen was the old name 
of Chirk Castle in the commot of Nanheudwy. SeeAdu^'rBeddau 
and Com^en, 

Crogen Iddon, a gentleman's seat in the parish of DangoUen, 
Here was a battle fought between the Welsh and Normans. 

T Plas ynghrogen ar Ian Dyfrdwy. {Dr, D) 

Cromlech, a gentleman's seat in Anglesey, which takes its 
name from one of those altars of the Druids called cromlechau, 
which still stands near that house. It is very large and high, 
and worth the observation of the curious. 

Cronerth, one of the four cantrefs of Morganwg. (Price's 
Descript.) It contains three commots, viz., Ehwng Nedd ac Afan, 
Tir yr Hwndrwd, and Maenor Glynogwr. 

Croytarath {Camden in Pembrokeshire), rect^ Coedtraeth. 

Cruc Mawr, a mountain in Ceretica (Cardiganshire), men- 
tioned in Nennius (Flaherty, O^yfa, p. 292), where he says there 
is a grave which fits the length lying in it, short or long. 

Crug, a heap or tumulus : hence the names of places. Crug- 
unan ; Crug Howel ; y Crug in Eryri ; Crucmor or Crugmawr ; 
yr Wyddgrug ; and perhaps Crugciaith ; Pen y Crug (Lat. Pen- 
nocrucium) ; Gallt y Crug ; Crug Eryr ; Plas y Crug. 

Crug Eryr (n. L). Z, Glyn Cothi 

Crug Howel {£, 6. Cothi), a town on the Wysg ; also a com- 
mot in Brecknockshire. 

Crug y Dyrn, in the parish of Trelech, Carmarthenshire, a 
timiulus of the ancient Britains. Mr. E. Ilwyd interprets it the 
King's Barrow, making Dyrn to be teym, and supposes it pagan. 

Crugunan (n. 1.), qu., in Eadnorshire ? [and CreigTiant in Mei- 
fod parish. — W, 2).] 

Crupl. Madog Grupl ap Grufifydd. 

Cruthinii Populi, supposed to be the Picts. The people of 
Dalaradia in the time of St. Patrick. 

Crydon (n. pr. v.). Crydon, father of Cywryd. ( JV. 73.) 

Cryg. Ehys Gryg, Angl. hoarse. 



CELTIC REMAINS. * 107 

Crymlyn, a river (qu.) in Coy church, Glamorganshire. Blaen 
Crymlyn. Crymlyn or Cremlyn in Anglesey. 

Ckyniarth, in Edeymion, a gentleman's seat. {J,D) [Another 
in Mochnant, Denbighshire. — W, 2?.] 

Crys Halawg : vid. Oadwal 

Cu ap Gweneu o Frecheiniog. Gwen gu verch Gruffydd. 

CUAWC (fl.). Abercuawc {Llywarch Hen) ; id. quod Ciog, See 
Dolgiog. 

CuHELYN (not Cyhelyn), Archbishop of London, who brought 
up the Roman lady who afterwards married to Cwstenyn, brother 
of Aldwr, King of Ilydaw; and afterwards, on Gwrtheym's seiz- 
ing the crown of Britain, escaped over to Llydaw (Armorica) with 
her two sons, Emrys and Uther, Vho were both afterwards kings 
of Britain. {TyssUio) Latinized by Galfrid and Virunnius, 
Gmtolinus. 

CuL. Meirchion Gul ap Gwrwst Ledlwm. 

CULEDREMNE, a battle fought by Conall Mac Conagail, King of 
Alban, a.d. 563. (Ogygia, p. 473.) 

CuLFYNAWYD (n. pr. V.). Culfjrnawyd Prydain, father of the 
three unchaste wives, Essyllt, Penarwen, and Bun: {Triades.) 

CUNALLT : see Bryn Cunallt, 

CuNEDDA, the 12th King of Britain, reigned here thirty- three 
years, about the time Romulus founded Rome. 

CuNEBDA Wledig, a Priuce of a country in Scotland called 
Manau Guotodin, whence he was drove by the Scots {i, e:, the 
Irish Scots or Gwyddyl Ffichti), with his eight sons, 146 years 
before the time of Ma^lgwn Gwynedd, i, e,, about a.d. 440. This 
was the time the Scots came over from Ireland, and settled in 
Argile. (Usher, Prim,, p. 1023.) Nennius says he brought eight 
sons with him from Manau Guotodin (see Gododin) ; and Price 
(Descript) names them and four more. He might have some sons 
in Cambria before. — 1, Tibion, father of Meirion ; 2, Arwystl ap 
Cunedda; 3, Oaredig ap Cunedda; 4, Dunod; 5, Edeyrn; 6, 
Mael ; 7, Coel ; 8, Dogvael ; 9, Rhufaon ; 10, Einion Yrth ; 11, 
Ussa ; (in a note) 12, Maelor ap Gwran ap Cunedda. Selden, in 
Mare Clav^im, p. 251, concludes, from his driving the Scots 
out of aU the islands and countries of Britain, that he must have 
very great strength in shipping. 



108 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Uii o*r tri Sanctaidd Linns. ( TV. 42.) 

CURETUYR, in the old orthography Cwr^^es. Curet in the ancient 
orthography would be wrote in the modem Ov/rydd, which sig- 
nifies a beater ; and those priests were called so because they 
beat drums, and clash their armour together. See Corybantau, 

CURIG (n. pr. V.) ; Lat Cyricus, Curig Lwyd. Llangurig, a 
church in Montgomeryshire erected by Curig, an Armorican. 
Curig yn Nhrefdraeth. 

CUKMWR, alias Morfawr, ap Caden ap Bran ap Llyr Uediaith. 

CusTANS, verch Tomas Hen o SalbrL 

CusTEiNT or CwsTEiNT (n. pr. V.) ; Lat. Constans. In Nennius' 
Catalogue there is Caire Custenit; in Usher, Goer Custeint, Some 
say it is Caer'narfon ; for that Constantius re-edified it, and was 
buried there. It is not [called] by this name in the Triades, 

CusxENiT. Caer Custenit, in Nennius, supposed to be Caer 
Cwstennin, i, e., Caernarvon. 

CuwcH (in the English maps Keach), a river in the cantref of 
Emlyn in Dyfed. The river is the bound between Pembroke- 
shire and Carmarthenshire : hence Uwch Cuwch and Is Cuwch, the 
names of two of the three commots of Emlyn. Price (in Deacript) 
calls them Uwch Cuch and Is Cuch by mistake. 

Glyn Cuwch yn Emlyn. ( Tr. 36.) 

See Emlyn and Glyn Ouioch, 

CwcH (Castell). Emljm is Cwch. 

CwM, or CwMM, is a very ancient Celtic word signifying a 
valley or dingle. It is prefixed to the names of several places 
in Britain having that situation. 

CwM, a church and parish in Flintshire. 

CwM Amman, Carmarthenshire. 

CwM Blowty, a gentleman's seat. (/. R) 

CwM Cawlwtd, arglwyddiaeth. 

CwM Cenin, in liandeUo Fawr, Carmarthenshire. 

CwM Cethin. 

CwM Cyllau, in the parish of Gelli G^ir, Glamorganshire. 

CwM Deri Cyrn, in Llannon. 

Cw>i Ervin. 

[CwM Y Felin (n. 1.), in Glamorgan. Gvjyr Owm y Felin, a little 
ancient society thus nicknamed, supposed by the common people 



CELTIC REMAINS. 109 

to be deists^ atheists, or the Lord knows what ; but by their own 
account of themselves they are the immediate successors of the 
ancient bards and Druids ; and they still retain, or pretend to 
do so, the ancient opinions, discipline, maxims, poetic laws, etc., 
of the ancient British bards. They seldom admit any into their 
society but such as have a genius for poetry, and call themselves 
by no other name or style but Beirdd or Beirdd wrth Fraint a 
Defod Beirdd Ynya Prydain, and sometimes Prifeirdd, But ask 
the common people, especially the Methodists, what 6w^ Cwm 
y Felin are, and it is ten to one but a very curious (always care- 
ful of its being a bad) account of them : 

'Tis this and 'tis that, 
And they cannot tell what. 

They have always been a sensible and intelligent set of people 
and are now but very few in number. — /. M.] 

Cwm y Gro (n. 1.). D. ab Owilym, 

CwMiNOD, in Powys Land. 

Cwm Igu, a parish in Monmouthshire ; another in Hereford- 
shire. [One and the same parish ; part in one county, and part 
in the other, — ^a common thing in South Wales. — /. M.'] 

Cwm Llifon. Cilmin Droedtu o Gwm Llifon. Vid. Ghjn 
Llifon, 

Cwm Llwydrew, in Machyn, Glamorganshire. [Not in Mach- 
yn, but in Llanilltud Faerdref. — L if.] 

Cwmmein, a gentleman's seat ; perhaps Cwm Meini, or Cwm 
Main, a river. 

Cwmmwd, a commot, a subdivision of a cantref in Wales ; from 
cwm and 6orf, people living in the same valley : hence also cym^ 
mydog, a neighbour. Mr.Spelman says it should contain properly 
fifty villas, which is half a cantref; and that this is derived from 
cynn and lod, to coexist, to coinhabit ; and quotes the Statute 
of Ehuddlan, 12 Edward I, from a Latin copy which I have 
faithfully copied here from him. Whether his copy was bad, or 
(more likely) his want of knowledge of the language of the 
Britains, a Cambro-Britain will hardly forgive any man of any 
nation that takes the liberty of murdering his language as this 
author doth. " Statuimus quod vicecomes coronatores & ballivi 
coramotorum sint in Snowdon & terris nostris." And a little 



110 CELTIC R EMATNS. 

after: "Vicecomes de Kaernarvan sub quo cantreda de Arvan, 
cantreda de Artlentayth, commotum de Gonkyn, cantreda de 
AUen & commotum de Irmenichy Would you ever have thought 
these to be Arvan, Arllechwedd, Orevddyn, Lleyn, and Eivionydd i 
And yet these are the names in the British copy of that statute, 
of which I have a copy I took firom a MS. in Hengwrt; 
and all are known at this day. Since, then, the British names 
of places are so coiTupted in Latin books of no longer standing 
than Edward I's time, what sort of a guesswork must that be of 
an English antiquary who is utterly unacquainted with tlie 
British, when he would attempt to explain the British names in 
Ptolomy, Antoninus, the Notitia, or in Nennius ? 

CwM Nant, in Llannon, Carmarthenshire, 

CwM- Nant Ffyllon : see Ffylhn. 

CwM Symlog : see SyrrUog. 

CwM Teuddwr, near Rhaiadr Gwy, Eadnorshire, on the river 
Elain. 

CWNNWS (St.) Du. 

CwNODL, a gentleman's seat, — Wynne. {J, D,) 

CwsTENiN, or Constantin, the 87th King of Britain, This is 
Constantino the Great, Emperor of Eome. 

Mae ar y gweilcb main gwin 

Oes donniau plant Gystenin. — Guttyn Owain. 

TJangwstenin, a parish and chapel, part of Rhos deanery, St. 
Asaph, but in Caernarvonshire. 

CvvsTENYN of Armorica, the 93rd King of Britain. 

CwsTENYN of Cornwall, the 101st King of Britain. 

Cystenyn Gorneu (aZ. Gorveu)^ idem quod Constantino, Duke 
of Cornwall, 

CwYFAN (Sant) : hence Uangwyfan in M6n, and another in 
Denbighshire. Cwyfan yw sant y Ddiserth yn Nhegeingl, a'r 
Sul nesaf ar ol yr ail dydd o Fehefin y cadwent ei Gwyl Mab- 
sant. (E. Llwyd, Itinerary,) There is a stone in the parish of 
Whitford called Maen y Ghvpyfan, with curious knots of lines cut 
upon it, probably belonging to this Cwyfan. (See W. WiUiams* 
cut of this stone.) In our genealogical tables we find Cwyfen ap 
Brwyneu Hen. 

CwYLLOG (Sant). Llangwyllog Church in Anglesey. 



CELTIC REMAINS. Ill 

CwYRT (Y), a gentleman's seat in Anglesey. 

CwTTA Cyfakwydd (Y) Forganwg, an ancient MS. so called. 

Cybi Sant ap Selyf ap Geraint ; Lat. Kebius or Chebius, John 
of Tinmouth says he was son of Solomon, a nobleman of Corn- 
wall ; that he studied in Gaul under St. Hilary, where he was 
made bishop ; converted the Isle of Mona, and had his episcopal 
see at Caer Guby, where in Leland s time there remained a col- 
lege of canons, which he supposes to have been formerly the 
monastery of this saint. {Brit SancL, Nov. 8.) Leland says he 
taught in Gwynedd and Manaw, and went over to Mon, and fixt 
his see at Holyhead (Promontorium Sacrum), and there the 
Prince of the island gave him a castle, where he erected a monas- 
tery, which of his name is called Oastrum Ohebii (Caer Gybi). 
(Leland, Script Brit, c. xlviii.) 

Caer Gybi in Anglesey, North Wales ; Llangybi in Lleyn ; 
Ilangybi in Cardiganshire ; Llangybi in Monmouthshire. 

Cnan a daU enwd a welynt 
Gwisgi ar ffon Gybi gynt. 

P. LI. i*r Ffon gerfiedig. 

Cydewain, neu Cedi^wain (n. 1.). 

Cydweli (k qfd and gwdi), one of the three commots of Can- 
tref Eginoc in Caermarthenshire. (Price's Descript) Cydweli 
Castle built by Lord Bees, ad. 1190. See Nennius. 

Dwywlad a Chedweli wenn 

Dwyoes cwyned Is Cenneu. — Lewys Morganwg, 
See Cedweli. 

Cyfeddliw, qu. whether a river in the north of England ? 

Pell oddyman Aber Llyw 

Pellach an ddwy G^yfeddliw. — Uywarch Hen, 

Cyfeiliog, in the deanery [diocese] of St. Asaph ; part of 
Powys. (1), Machynllaeth ; (2), lianwrin ; (3), Cemmaes ; (4), 
Llan Bryn Mair; (5), Penegoes; and (6), Darywain, Chwe 
phlwy Cyfeiliog (from Cyfail, n. pr. v.). One of the commots of 
Castell Cynan. (Price's Descript) 

Cyfeiliog : see Ywain Cyfeiliog, 

XIJyfelach. Llangyfelach, Glamorgansliire. Fairs kept here. 
See Camalae, 

Cyferthwch (n. 1.). Rhiw Gyferthwch yn Eryri. (TV. 30.) 



112 CELTl C REMAINS. 

Cyflefyr ap Brychan. 

Cyfreithiau : see Dyfmoal Moelmut and Hywel Dda. 

Cyfylchl Y Ddywgyfylchi, or Ddugyfylchi, or Ddwygyfylclii, 
a pass over the mountains of Eryri, between Penmaen Bacli and 
Penmaen Mawr. Caer y Gyfylchi may possibly be Conway. 

Caraf i Gaer falchwaifch y Gyfylchi. — H. ajp 0. Owynedd. 

But see Penmaen Mawr fort, called Braich y Ddinas. A plan 
of this wanted. 

Cyffig and Cynffig (n. 1.) in Pembrokeshire. 

Cyffin. Caer GyflBn, Conwy. {1%. Williams,) 

Cyffin (n. pr. v.). 

Elphin gida Chyffin chwym. — Llewehjn ap Guttyn, 

Eglwys Gyflin near Conwy. Cynllaith y Cyffin, or probably Cyn- 
Uaeth, primum lac. 

Cyffog, an ancient British prophet. 

Gwn i Gyffog ddarogan 

O'r ffydd ar ryw ddydd ydd kr\\ 

B. LI. ap LI, ap Qruffydd^ of the Saxons. 

Cygurwen. Gwaun Cygurwen, Glamorganshire. 

Cyhelyn, the 24th King of Britain. Twr Cyhelyn, in Llan- 
erchmedd. 

Cyhillin ap Marwydd Goch ap Tryffbn. 

Cyhoret eil Cynan, and Cynhored eil Cynon. {Tr, M. 3, 9.) 

Cylch, in the ancient British Laws and the Extent of Wales, 
is a circuit or round, as, 1, Cylch Stalwyn or Stalon ; 2, Cylch 
Hebogyddion ; 3, Cylch Ehaglon or Rhaglot ; 4, Cylch Dourgon. 
These are services or taxes due to the Prince's ofl&cers : 1, to 
the Master of the Horse for the rose of a stonehorse for manner 
(sic) ; 2, attendance on the Prince's falconer ; 3, attendance on 
courts baron ; 4, attendance on the Prince's other hunters. 
Spelman owns he is ignorant of the root oi Kilck and Kylch 
Stalon, which he corruptly writes " Killyth Stallon." (Spelman, 
Glossary.) 

Cyliau Duon, Black Cowls or Hoods, an order of lay monks 
under a lay abbot in a monastery in Bardsey Island in the 
beginning of Christianity. It seems there were some of the same 



CELTIC REMAINS. 113 

order once at JJanbadam Vawr, near Aberystwyth. (See Giral- 
dus Cambrensis, Itin, of Wales, Dr. Powel's edition.) 

Our learned writers, who were unacquainted with the British 
tongue, have beat their brains to no purpose in deriving these 
Oolidean monks from the Latin. See also the blunder of an 
Irish Bishop (Nicolson) in his preface to his Irish Historical 
Library. 

Cylwch ap Cylydd ap Celyddon Wledig, or Cyllwch ap Cil- 
ydd ap Celyddon (n. pr. v.). 

Cylyddon Wledig, a northern Prince [who] gave the name to 
Coed Celyddon yn yr Alban. (D. /.) Caledonia was called so 
before the time of this Cylyddon ; so it is either a mistake of 
D. J., or it was another Celyddon Wledig. 

Cymaron. River, and Cymaron Castle in Maelienydd, Rad- 
norshire, built by Roger Mortimer, a.d. 1194; belonged to Hugh, 
Earl of Chester, 1142. 

Cymen. Madoc ap Hoel Gymen o Fon. [Gyrnen, an advocate 
in law courts in Dyfr Coch Asaph. — W, D!\ 

Cyminawc or Cyminawt. 

Amgylch Cyminawc cymynai Saeson. 

CyitdddWy i Gadwall. ap Madoc. 
Some place in Powys. 

Cymmeibch, one of the two commots of Tstrad, Denbighshire. 
See Cevnmeyrch, 

Cymmeb, near Caereneon. lljm y Cymmer, in the Severn, near 
Llanidloes. Pont y Cymmer, near Uantrisant, in Glamoigan- 
shire. ICymmerau, the joining of rivers; a place where the 
rivers Severn and Vemiew join in Shropshire. — W, D^ 

Cyhmeb Abbey, near Dolgelleu ; another in 

Cymmeb Deuddwr, mentioned in GorhofFedd Hywel ap Owain 
Gwynedd. It seems to be in Keri, for he immediately adds, 

Arglwydd nef . . . 

Mor bell o Geri Oaer Lliwelydd, 

[Dmddv^r, between Efymwy and Hafren, a tract of land com- 
prising the parishes of Uandysilio and Llandrinio, ending at 
Cymmerau, the junction of those two rivers. — W, B,] 
Cymmereu (n. L). ffoianau Myrddin. 

CymmereUy near Tal y Bont in Cardiganshire. 

15 



114 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Cymmereu, in Caermarthenshire. 

Cymmereu, in Badnorshire. 
It signifies a confluence of rivers, as some say. (E. Llwyd) 
CumaVj in Irish, is the meeting of two or more rivers. 

Cymminod, a place in Anglesey. Qu. Cwm Minod ? Men- 
tioned also in Hoiane Myrddin, Cvmiinod in Powysland, or Gym- 

inaivc. 

Amgylch Cyminawc cjmynai Saeson. — Gynddelw. 

A chad Cyminawd a chad Caer Lleon. — Hoiane Myrddin, 

Cymmytmaen, one of the three commots of Cantref Lleyn. 
(Price's Descript) 

Cymorth, Mynydd (n. L). 

Cymraeg, Wallica Unffua. 

Cymraes, Walla, a Welsh woman. 

Cymro {k cyn and bro), Wcdlus, a Welshman, an inhabitant of 
Cambria : pi. Cymru, See Gymry, 

Ai gwell Ffranc na fPrawddns Gymro ? 

Prydydd y Mochy i Lew. ap lorwerth. 

Cael Cymro a garo gwir, 

Cael flfynnu i Gymm gar. — L, O. Cothi. 

Bond da a f n i Gymm Hon, Gwent, etc. — L, G. Cothi, 
Therefore this is wrong of the same author : 

Ef a dry'r Cymry at wyr a'u car. 

L. O. Goihiy i Syr W. Herbert. 

Tri llu aeth o [oL, i] Grymm gynt 

Trwy Wynedd y trywenynt. — L. Glyn Cothi, 

Y dynion anadonair 

Felly drwy Gymry a gair. — D. Lhcyd ap LI, ap Gmffydd, 

O digiai Lloegr a'i dagiaid 

Cymry a dry yn dy raid. — L; O. Cothi, 

larll dy dad ... 

larll gemrydd ar oU Gymry, 

larll dy frawd ar ei lied fiy. — L, O. Cothi, 

The country : 

Eithafwy waed Mon mynna pob bonedd, 

Pwy piDfl^l holl Gymru. — T, Aled^ i Rys ap Thomas. 

Pen ar G^mm llu lias Lloegr affaitb, 
Llu Gruffydd ap I^iclas. — Tudur Aled, 



CELTIC B£MAINS. 115 

« 

Cymru (Y), the Welsh people of Cambria. The country should 
be wrote Cymry, and the people Cymru, q. d. Cynm>au. [This is 
wrong. Cymru, the country ; Cymry, the inhabitants. — W. D.] 

Cymry, Wallia or Cambria^ the country called Wales, and 
anciently Wallia or Gallia ; perhaps Gallia Minor, as Bretagne 
in France is now called Britannia lilinor. 

Cymryd, a place near Conway, where the great battle of Dial 
BhodriwQA fought between Anarawd and the Danes and Saxons, 
A.D. 880. The river in this place is fordable at low water^ spring 
tides. Probably derived from Cam ryd, a crooked ford. 

Cyn, river ; hence Abercyn. 

Cynan, one of the five cantrefe of Powys Wenwynwyn ; also 
one of the two commots of Cantref Cydewen, (Price's Descript.) 

Cynan (Caer), Norwich. (Th. Williama,) 

Cynan (n. pr. v.), Oonanvs; AngL Oonan. 

Cyfoeth Cynan, Owlad Meibion Cynan {Oirald. Cambrenaii) is 
Meirion. Cyfoeth Cynan is mentioned in the twelve battles of 
lly welyn ap lorwerth, 

Tri thrywan Oynan Gyfoeth 
Pedwar enwawg peithiawg poeth. 
See CyUh Llywdyn. 

Cynan y C^n. 

Cynan Garwyn, Prince of Powys, father of Selyf. (7V/65.) 

Cynan Meriadoc. A prince of this name settled with a large 
colony of insular Britains on the coast of Gaul in the time of 
Maximus the Tyrant, which was about the year S83 ; [and from 
these the Armoricans, who sent for wives from Britain, and 
11,000 sailed, and fell among barbarians. — W. D.] 

Cynan Nant Niver, a noble warrior, died a.d. 865. (Powel's 
Caradoc, p. 32.) 

Cynan Tindaethwy, a prince or King of Wales, son of Rhodri 
Molwynog. He began to reign a,d. 755. He had his surname 
from his place of birth, Dindaethwy, i.e., the fort of Daethwy, in 
Anglesey, the name of one of the six commots of that county. 
He was father of Esyllt, the mother of Rhodri Mawr. 

Cynan Veiniai). 

Cynan Wledig, the 102nd king ; Latinized Aurdiui Conanus 
by Gildas. 



116 CELTIC BBMAINS. 

Cynadaf, father of Brwyn, {Trioedd y Meirch, 7.) 

C YNAWC or Cynog (St.) , son of Brychan Biyclieimog. (Ach Oynog) 

Cyndeybn (n. pr. v.). 

Cyndbyrn ap Arthawg. 

Oyndeyrn Gabthwys (Latinized Kentigemiis), Archbishop of 
Ireland about the year 542, was son of Owen ap Urien Beget, 
King of Beget in North Britain in the time of King Arthur. His 
mother was Thamet (or, as some write, Thenis, Thenna, or 
Thenaw), daughter of Lewddyn Luyddog o Ddinas Eiddyn, i.e., 
Edenborough ; called also Loth, King of the Picts. He is said 
to have a cognomen given him on account of his virtues and 
innocence, Aftry?!^, i.e., kind and lovely. (Lives of Samts, Jaj:i, 13.) 
Leland calls him Ghentegemus, and says he was bom in Ireland 
by his mother happening to travel there, and studied there 
under Servanus ; that he came to Gwynedd and Bhos (Bosses) ; 
that the people were partly rude, partly infected with the Pela- 
gian heresy; that Morchenius [read Maelcun], King of Gwyn- 
edd, envied him, through the advice of Cathen ; that he went to 
Scotland, and erected the monastery of Glasgow. Catgallus, 
Eang of Bhos, gave him a place near £lwy and Glwyd to build 
a monastery. 

The JTriades say that he was Penesgyb in Penrhyn Bhionydd 
yn y Gogledd, i e., head of bishops at Edenborough in the 
north, when Arthur was chief King there, and Gwerthmwl 
Wledic chief elder, i e., prince or proprietor. See Dewi^ MaeU 
gum, and Caradoc, (Tr, 7.) 

After the death of Marken, Morchenius Lelandi (March ap 
Meirchion), or Morgan his friend, King of Cambria, his death 
was conspired by the royal family, and he withdrew to Wales, 
and built a church at GaerUion ar Wysc, and visited St. David ; 
then founded a monastery at Llanelwy, and also his episcopal 
see, and was both Abbot and Bishop. Maelgwn opposed 
him; but he was struck blind, and the saint cured him, and 
they were made Mends. He left his disciple, Asaph or Hasa, 
his successor. He saw in a vision the soul of St. David going 
to heaven. Ehydderch Hael succeeded the Prince that opposed 
him, who sent for him to his see at Glasgow ; and about the 
year 593 he went to Borne to visit Pope Gregory (as Usher says 



CELTIC REMAINS. 117 

from old records), which was his seventh journey to that city. 
St Gregory was charmed with him, and sent him home, where 
he died eight years afterwards, in the year 601, being 85 years 
old. (Brit. Sa7ict., p. 34, out of Capgrave, Leland, Usher, and 
Harpsfield.) 

Jocelin, in his life, says he had such a command over the 
clouds that neither rain nor snow ever fell on him or those in 
his company. Perhaps he had a coach. 

Cyndor, yn Sir Amwythig. 

Cyndrwyn, a nobleman of Powys (a.d. 603), father of Cyn- 
ddylan. {Llywareh Hen.) See Dynivennan and Ovnon. 

Cynddelig ap Ninio ap Cimet ap Envay. 

Cynddelw. 

Cynddyian ap Cyndrwyn, a noble warrior. His elegy was 
wrote by liy warch Hen, " Marwnad Cynddylan Powys." He 
was Prince of Powys in Maelgwn's time ; and he, or his father 
Cyndrwyn, entertained Llywareh Hen when the Saxons took his 
country from him. In this Marwnad there are several of Cyn- 
drwyn's children mentioned : Elvan Powys, Gwion, Cynwraidd, 
Moryal,Cynon,Gwyn; and daughters, Ffrevor, Heledd, Meddlan. 
[His mansion house was at Llys Dynwennan in Powysland, 
wherever that place is. — W. D.] 

Cynbddaf, Lat. Cunotamtis, (Ed. Uwyd, Notes on Camden.) 

Cyneiddian ap Ynyr Gwent. 

Cyneie (n. pr. v.). Meurig ap Cyneie. 

Cynfael (n. pr. v.), Lat. OunovaUus. (JE. Llwyd.) Huw Llwyd 
Cynfaelf a poet. 

Cynfael, a river in Meirionydd. Cynfael yn Ardudwy. Blaen 
Cjmfael. 

Cynfael, a castle of Cadwaladr ap GruflFydd ap Conan, in 
Meirion, taken by Howel ap Owen Gwynedd and brother by 
battery, &c., defended by the Abbot of Ty Gwyn. T^ Cynfael, 
called also Cynvel. 

Cynfar ap Tudwal ap Curmwr, alias Morfawr, ap Caden ap 
Bran ap Llyr Uediaith. 

Cynfarch, the 19th King of Britain. 

Cynfarch, the 27th King of Britain. 

Cynfarwy Sant. Llechgjrnfarwy, Anglesey, a chapel and 
parish. 



118 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Cynfawr Cad Cadwg ap Cynwyd Cynwydion, one of the Tri 
tharw cad." {Tr. 12.) 

Cynfedw, a slave, father of Cadafael, a Bang in North Wales. 
{Tr. 76.) 

Cynfel : see Oynfael, 

Cynfelyn (n. pr. v.), Lat Cunobdirms, a King of Britain, son 
of TeneuaiL Also Cappel Cynfelyn, and Sam Gynfelyn in Car- 
diganshire, take the name hence. His sons, Gwydyr and Gweir- 
ydd. Cynfelyn Drwsgl or Drwscyl, iin o'r tri phost cad. {Tr. 11.) 

Cynfrig and Cynrhig (n. pr. v.). Cynrhig Goch o Drefiiw. 
{Arch, Brit, p. 262.) Pentre Cynfrig, a gentleman's seat. {J. D.) 
Cynfrig Oer ap Meirchion Gul ap Grwst Ledlwm. 

Cynfyg Castle of the Fitzhaimons^ Glamorganshire. (Camden.) 

Cynfyl Sant. Uangynfyl, Lleyn, or Cynwyl ; hence Cynwyl 
Gaio and Cynwyl Elfed. 

Cynfyn. 

Cyngar Sant. His church at Llangefni, Anglesey. [Cyngar 
founded a monastery in Morganwg about the year 474. This 
Cyngar was also called Docuinus. The place is still called lian- 
dochwy and Llangyngar. There is a curious old cross with an 
inscription in the churchyard. — /. M.] 

Cyngar ap Arthawg. 

Cyngar ap Geraint. 

Cyngen ap Ysbwys ap Cadrod Calchfynydd ap Cynwyd Cyn- 
wydion. 

Cynglas, Lat. Cuneglassits, which see. 

Cynhaethwy ap Herbert ap Godwin larll Cemiw a Dyfhaint, 
i. e., Cornwall and Devon. See Daethwy, which seems to be of 
the same origin. 

Cynhaval or Cynhafael (Sant) ap Elgud : hence Uangyn- 
haval, Denbighshire. Cynhafal mab Argat, one of the Tri tharw 
unhen. {Tr. 13.) 

Cynhayarn Sant. Ynys Cynhayam Chapel, Eiddionydd. 

Cynhillin ap Gwaithfoed. See GenUlin. 

Cynin Sant ap Brychan. Llangynin yngwlad Ddyfed. Cynin 
Cof, Cunyn Cof. {Tr. 88.) 

Ni chawn ym Duw a Chynia 

Dy bach o*r Deau heb win. — J), ah leuan Du. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 119 

Cynio ot Cynyw Sant. Llangynio in the deaneiy of Pool [near 
Llanfair Caereinion. — W, D.] 

Cynlas Cot ap Ywain Danwyn. Qu. Cynog Las ? [Ystrad 
Gynlas.— JV. R] 

Ctollaeth, one of the three commots of Cantre'r Ehaiadr 
(Price's Descript.) ; oiCynllayth, part of Powys Vadog, and falsely 
CyrUleth. 

Cynllatth (Cynddelw), It seems the river Dyfi was origin- 
ally called Llaith. Carreg Tstum Ilaith (not Uaeth) is a bend- 
ing of it, and the commot of Cynllaith, from whence Machyn- 
Uaith town has its name. The old legend of Tydecho calls it 
Llaethj and says the saint turned it into milk. 

A heny w ceinllyw Cynllaith 

fonedd Gwynedd ai gwaith. — Ekys Ooch Eryri. 

Och nad byw ceinllyw Cynllaith 

Achaws fa Haws o'i laith. 

Cynddelw, i Ywain ap Madawc. 
See Canon, 

Cynllech (fl.) : hence Abercynllech. 

Cynllo or Cynllaw Sant. Uangynllo, Cardiganshire. 

Cynog Sant ap Brychan ap Cormur ap Eurbre WyddeL Cynog 
signifies chief or principal. Llangynog church and parish in the 
deanery of Pool. Llangynog church and parish, Carmarthenshire. 
See Ach Cynog, Anilech, and Brychan, 

Cynog Las. This Prince is mentioned by Gildas in his Excid. 
BrU., and the name is pretended to be explained there, and 
foolishly rendered into Latin, Lanio Fulve, i, e,, a Yellow Butcher, 
which is a plain mark of the want of skill in the writer, or of 
the forgery of the story, or of the later monks trimming it to 
their own purpose ; for Cynog Las signifies Cjmog the Blue, or 
rather Cynog the Pale, as Brut Darian Las is Brutus Blue-shield. 

There is a church in Montgomeryshire dedicated to Cynog, 
called Llangynog ; and the grave of Cynog Las is shewn at this 
day in the cathedral church of Bangor. 

Cynon. Cappel Cynon. Cynon mab Clydno Eiddyn. (Tr. 53, 
86.) Cynon ap Cyndrwyn. {Zlywarch Hen in Marwnad Oyn- 
ddylan,) 

Cynon, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) 



120 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Cynbhig (n. pr. v.), Lat Cingetorix (?). 

Cynstabl, a constable ; from cyn, a head or chief, and ystabl, a 
stable. See Spebnan's Glossary for his derivation of this word. 

Cyntwbch (n. pr. v.), Latinized Ountegorix, (Ed, Llwyd) 

Cynvor or Cynfawr, i. e., great head ; idem quod Owrgem, and 
Gwrgent, E, Llwyd, by transposing, — aU a whim. 

Cynvyn Hirdbef, who married Angharad, the widow of Llyw- 
elyn ap Seisyllt, Prince of Wales. {Oaradoc, p. 73.) 

Cynvyniait or Cynfynuid, the people or tribe of Cynfyn ; 
pi. of Cynfyn in -aid : hence the Latin termination of the names 
of people and places in Gaul and Britain -ates : Attrebates, 
Abrincatse, Adimciates, Agesinates, Basabocates, Bercoreates,Cade- 
tes, Caletes, Cocosates, etc. Some plurals end in -on, as Mer- 
viniawn, lorwerthion, Madogion, Edeymion ; but these are patro- 
nymics or clans' names ; and hence came those names in Gaul, 
etc., — ^names of places or people, from men, as Ambrones, Alen- 
conium, Bizeriones, Burgundiones, Caledonii, Centrones, Dum- 
nonii, etc. 

Cynwac Ehychwain, o Fodrychwain. 

Cynwal ap Ffr wdwr. 

Cynwlff ap Corvlwng ap Beblig. 

Cynwraidd or Cynfraidd (n. pr. v.), a brother of Cynddylan 
ap Cyndrwyn. (Llywarch Hen in Marumad Cynddylan.) 

Cynwyd Cynwydion, a man's name ; and Cynwydion was the 
name of the clan or land. 

Cynwyd, a place in Merionethshire where fairs are kept. 

Cynych (n. pr. v.). Llangynych, Caermarthenshire. Fairs 
kept here. 

Cynyr (n. pr. v.). Cynyr Ceinfarfawc, father of CaL {Tr, 26.) 

Cynyr Farfdrwch. 

Cynyw (n. pr. v.). Llangynyw. 

Cyranog (n. pr. v.). Llangyranog in Ccudiganshire. Fairs 
kept there. 

Cyrchynan, a place in TegengL {Caradoc, p. 261.) 

Cysgen. Bod ap Cysgen. Vid. Pasg^n, qu. an id. ? 

Cyttiau'r Gwyddelod, the Hut^ of the Lish, a name given to 
certain circular small entrenchments on Bhos Ligwy in Anglesey, 
and not in the woods (as Mr. E. Llwyd in his Notes on Camden) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 121 

They are on a plain, open common, where there are no stones ; 
and are only round ditches with a door into them, as if they had 
been tents. They are not called KittimW Gwyddelod, as he calls 
them, but Oyttieu, A survey of them wanted. 

Cytheinigg or Catheiniog (i. G. Cothi), one of the four com- 
mots of Cantref Mawr in Cardiganshire [Carmarthenshire], wrote 
by Sir John Price, in Description, Cethineoc. Qu., whether it 
has any affinity with Cathen, Llangathen, and with Caithness in 
Scotland It is also one of the commots of Caermarthenshire. 

Cywrennin (n. pr. v.). 

Marw Morgenen marw, Cywrennin 
Marw Morien mar trin. 

Cyfoed Myrddin a Owenddydd, 
See Tir Morien. 

Cywryd (n. pr. v.). Llywelyn Fardd ab y Cywryd, a poet, 
flor. A.D. 1280 {K Llwyd) ; but rather sooner. 

Cywryd ap Crydon, father of Gwen, un o'r tair gwenriain. 
(2V. 73.) 

CH. 

Chenin, a valley in Anglesey (in the Cambridge copy of 
Nepnius), where there was a wandering stone which always 
returned home by promise. Ciheinn, the same valley in the Cot- 
tonian copy of Nennius. Ohehennius, the same valley in the 
Oxford copy of Nennius. Chieninn, the same valley in Sir Sim. 
P'Ewes* copy of Nennius. 

There is a deep valley and a river called Cefni (anciently 
Cevenni) in Anglesey, which is the place meant in Nemiius, 
where this travelling stone was said to be. Some trick of the 
^onks, no doubt. There is a church ne^r that fiver c^ed Llan- 
gefpi. 

Chepstow, the Saxon name of Casgwent by CasteU Gweut. 
[Casgwent is the same as CasteU Gwent. — /. M,] 

Chikk, a parish and church and castle, part of Powys Vadog, 
Denbighshire ; in Welsh Y Waun, but called anciently CasteU 
C^rogQu. 

Chwaen (n. 1.). Several places in Anglesey of this name. 

16 



122 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Chwaen, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire (?). Hughes of 
Chwaen. 

Ohtvaen Bach, 

T Chwaen Ddu, . ^ 

Y Chwaen Goch, f ^^ ^ 

Y Chwaen Hen,- 

Y Ohwa>en Wen is called Chawen erroneously. 
Chwibleian, a Sibyl, quoted by Myrddin Wyllt ; q. d. Sihleian, 

wrote also Ohvrimbleia/n. 
Chwiler (fl.) : hence Aberchwiler. 
Chwitffordd, enw plwyf. 

Chwitmor, Dafydd Chwitmor ap Davydd person Cilken. 
Cmwith, left-handei Davydd Chwith ap Grufiydd ap Caradog. 

D. 
Da, good CiUin ap Maelog Dda. 
Dadu (fi.). Cwmdadu. 

Tabwrd dadwrdd Cwmdadu. — T. Prys. 

Daethwy, a man's name : hence Dindaethwy, some fort from 
whence the commot of Dindtiethwy in Anglesey took its name : 
hence also Forth Ddaethwy, the ferry over the Menai to Bangor. 
See Cynhaethwy and Cynan Tindaethvy. 

Daftdd or Davtdd, a man's name, common among the ancient 
Britains. This has a very natural derivation from the British 
tongue, from da, good, and h/dd, will be ; i. e., he will be good ; 
but as it is a name that seems to have been used but since 
Christianity came here, it may be the same with Damd, a Hebrew 
name signifying beloved, though by the Britains pronounced as 
if wrote in English DavUh, with a soft th, as in the English word 
with, 

Dafydd Ddu o Hiraddug, a poet who wrote about the year 
1340. He wrote a British grammar, which is extant Henry 
Salesbury says he was a noted mathematician, and Bobert 
Yaughan calls him Doctor of Divinity, and he had the honour of 
being called a conjuror and a magician by the ignorant of his 
age, who have handed down to us such surprising stories about 
him. This hath been the fate of another great man, his name- 
sake, Dr. John Dee, in Queen Elizabeth's time. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 123 

Dai ap Uywri ap Cynan CiIk6l£F. Dai Melyn. 

Dalaboan (h. pr. v.). A king of the Picts of tbis name killed 
in Gwaith M^adoc, a battle with the Britains^ A.D. 750. (Car- 
adoc) 

Dale, part of Powys Vadog. {Poml) 

Dalltaf (n. pr. v.). Dalltaf eil Cunyn Cof. {Tr. 88.) 

Dan, the 28th King of Britain. 

Dan y Castell, a house near Aberystwyth, where there are 
the remains of a castle, which I take to be that of Bichard de la 
Mare, mentioned in Powel's Oaradoc, p^ 189. 

Danes, the English name of the people of Denmark. It is 
remarkable that the British writers never call those people by 
this name, but always either Uychlynwyr or Nartmyn. We 
have no such word as Daniaid, and it seems Nartmyn was a 
general name among the Britons for all the northern nations ; 
and the names of Danes and Normans were promiscuously used, 
as appears by Eegino, Dudo, W. Malmsbury, Abbo, and Gemi- 
tensis. (Selden, Afare Olaumm, p. 249.) Tyssilio calls their 
country Denmarc. 

Daniel (Sant), the first Bishop of Bangor in North Wales, the 
cathedral of which is dedicated to his name ; and he instituted 
a college or monastery, says Bale, at Bangor in the year 516, 
where King Maelgwn afterwards built the city ; and the pletce, 
from its lofty choir, was called Ban-cor or Bangor. Here Daniel 
was ordained Bishop by Dubricius. Daniel was at the Synod of 
Brevi, and deputed by them to bring St. David thither. He 
died A.D. 545, and was buried in the isle of Bardsey. (See 
Usher's ArUiq,,!^. 274; Brit. Sand., Nov. 23.) 

Myrddin, the Pictish poet, mentions him in his Hoiane, in 

these words : 

Pan Borro Deinioel vab Danod Deinwyn, 

which shows he was the son of Dunod, probably the great Dunod 
Fyr ap Pabo Post Pryda-in. Deinioel had a son called Deiniel, 
who founded the church of Llanddeiniel Fab in Anglesey. Le- 
land says he erected a college in Arvon, in Gwynedd, near the 
passage to M6n, called Portua (Porthaethwy), which place is 
called, for its excellency, Banchor Vawr (Bangor Fawr yngwyn- 
edd). 



124 CELTIC REMAINS. 

D ANMONH. So the iRomans called the Britons inhabiting Corn- 
wall and Devon. The name was coined from the British name 
of Devon, which is Dyfrh Nainty i. e., deep valleys. 

Daon, a river. Aberdaon (Dr. Powel) for Aberthaw, Glamor- 
ganshire. It runs through Ystradowe, or some siich name : qu., 
and by Landogh or Llandogh ? 

[Lewis yn y coed ! — all merely conjectural. Dawon runs through 
Cowbridge, Ilandochwy, Llanfleiddan, lianfair, TreflSieniin, Uan- 
garfan, Ilandathan, etc., and falls into the Bristol Channel at 
Aberddawon. — /. M,"] 

Dar, a river, Glamorganshire. Aberd&r parish. 

Darog. . Llanddarog in Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here. 

Daron (fl.) : hence Aberdaron, a village and church in Lleyn 
{k dar and onn, oak and ash). 

Daronwy (n. pr. v., Tr. 81: qn. Dar Eonwy or Daron Wy ?), 
one of the three chief molesters of Anglesey that was bom in it, 
Un dair prif gormes Mon, etc. 

Darowain, a chui*ch and parish in the deanery of Cyfeiliog, 
dedicated to St. Tudur. {Br. Willis.) But I never heard of a 
saint of that name ; and this seems to be but the blundering gtiess 
of those who wonld have it a contraction of Tvdur Owain ; but 
there never was such a name among the Britains. It would have 
been Tudur ab Owain. Darowain is Owain's Oak, as Cil Owain 
is Owain's Retreat ; Tir Owain in Ireland, Owen's Land, etc. 

Dathel. Caer Dathel, qu. ? 

David, treasurer of Llandaf, a very ingenious, learned man, a 
great antiquary, a great natural philosopher, and a great poet. 
He wrote several things in prose and verse, and was cotempo- 
rary with Jo. Boss the historian, who mentions him. (Leland, 
Script. Brit, c. 573.) 

David's (St.), a bishop's see in Pembrokeshire, South Wales, 
founded by Dewi, or St. David, about the year 523, and was the 
metropolitan church of all Wales from that time to the year 
1103, when, after a long trial at Eome, it became subject to 
Canterbury. 

Davydd ap Gwilym, the Ovid of the Welsh nation, a most 
sweet poet, and a great master of the British tongue. He is said 
to have been bom at Bro Gynin, according to Taliesin's predic- 
tion, about 800 years before : 



CELTIC REMAINS. 125 

[Am Dafydd gelfjdd goelfin praff awdnr 
Propbwydawdd Taliesin] 
T genid ym Mro' G^in 
Brydydd a'i gywydd fal gwin. 

But wherever he was born, he says himself his country was Tir 
Pryderi in Bro GFadelL His uncle and tutor was Dywelyn ap 
Gwilym ap Gwrwared, one of the lords of Cardigan, whose seats 
were at Cryngae and DdSl Goch. 

This poet wrote avast deal I have of his works near 300 
poems. He is oftener quoted by Dr. Davies in his Dictionary 
and Grammar than any other poet. He flourished about a.d. 1400. 

Dau, Aberdau, mentioned in *' Gorhoffedd Gwalchmai/' sig- 
nifying the flail of two waters into ; and thence came the 

name of Deuddwr, and a surname of a family, Gruflfudd Deuddwr, 
etc., and a lordship and cwmmwd Deuddwr in Cantref Ystlyc 
in Powys Wenwynwyn. According to Gwalchmai, the two 
waters that gave it the name are Ogwann and Cegin; and a third 
falls into them, called Clywedog. Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd 
calls it Cymmer Deuddwr. (Gorhoffedd Hywel ap Owain.) 

[See Gwalchmai*s poem, "Gorhoffedd", whether his Aherdani 
has any reference to Ogwen and Cegin. However, Aberdau 
shoiQd not be confounded with Deuddwr, which has its cymmerau 
at the junction of the Vyrnwy and Havren, below Han Drinio. 

—w.d:\ 

Daubertheg (fl.). Aberdaub Ertheg. 

Daugleddeu, one of the eight cantrefs of Dyfed. (Price's 1>«- 

Daugleddyf (fl.). Alerdaugleddyf, Milford Haven, Portus 
Alaunicua, (/. Morganwg) 

Daun, corruptly for Dawn, which see. 

Dauei, Dauvri, see Davm, 

Dawn, a river in the West Eiding of Yorkshire, which falls 
into the Humber ; in English, the Don, Gaer Dawn in the Tri- 
odes, Gaer Daun in Nennius and Usher, is, no doubt, Doncaster 
in Yorkshire. 

Ddeheuros (Y), a place in Cardiganshire. (2>. ah Tman Dil) 

Ddreiniog (Y), in Anglesey (i drain, thorns). [Dreiniog, 
nomen loci in Glamorganshire. — L M,] 



1 26 CELTIO BEMAINS. 

Ddbtdwt (Y), the name of a river in Anglesey. Melin 7 
Ddiydwy. 

Ddwygyfylchi (T), or Ddngyfylchi, or Ddy Wgyfylchi : see 
Cyfylchi, 

Ddysgwylpa Fawb (Y) and Ddysgwylfa Face, two mountains 
in Cardiganshire, which by their names seem to have been the 
watch-mountains or beacons in ancient times. See Wylfa, [Sguil- 
ver Hillfl near Bishop's Castle. — W. Di] 

De, a foreigner : hence deol, to exile. 

Decca: vide Tecea. 

Dee. Camden (in Merionethshire), describing this river, says 
it runs unmixed through liyn Tegid. It is the English name 
for the river Dyfrdwy. (See also Peryddon and Aerfen.) He 
says some derive it from dwy, because it has two fountains. So 
have all rivers two or more fountains. Others contend, says he, 
that it took its name from Duw, God, as if a sacred river ; others, 
from du, black. There is another river Dee, which runs by Aber-^ 
deen in Scotland. 

Deheubabth, South Wales, including at present Cardiganshire, 
Badnorshire, Brecknockshire, Glamorganshire, Caermarthenshire, 
and Pembrokeshire, and also Monmouthshire, though called an 
English county. Dafydd Benfras calls Dafydd ap Gwilym £os 
Djjfed, and Hehog Dehmbarth. 

Dehewynt ap Ithel ap Dolflfyn ap Ilywelyn 0. 

Deicws ap Gronw ap Gruffydd Grach o'r Blaen. Nicolas ap 
Deicws o Ystrad Alun. 

Deifir, Durham coimtry {E. Llwyd), Deira. Ddfr, Durham 
men (2V. 16). It seems it extended to the river Tweed, for Goer 
Deifr is Barwick. See Brynaich and Brynych, and Gall. 

Deiftb, a hermit at Bodffari, who directed Gwen&ewi to Sad- 
wm, a hermit at Henllan. (Life of Winifred.) 

Deili, verch Syr Gruflfydd Llwyd, marchog. 

Deiniel (Sant). Llanddeiniel Fab, a chapel in Anglesey. This 
Deiniel or Daniel, they say, was son of Deinioel Sant, first erector 
of the see of Bangor, and first Bishop. See Daniel. 

Deinioel Sant, Daniel Sant. 

Doniog im' fed myn Deinioel 
Yn &rdd hil Llywelya Foel. — Deio ap leuan Du. 
See Daniel. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 127 

Deniolen Santes. lianddeiniolen. 
Deinis Lyth ap Cadwr. 
Deio, dim. of Dafydd. 

Tri henw ay ar y dyn 
Deio, Dafydd, Deipyn. 

Deio ap Dafydd ap Madog Ddu. 

Deio ap lorwerth o Ddinmeirphion. 

Deneio, a church near Pwllheli in Lleyn (qu. k din ?). 

Denmabe, mentioned in Tyssilio. The word is compounded, 
says Camden, of a Danish word and the German march, which 
signifies a bound or limit. (Camden in Names of Brit) 

Deon (qu.), foreigners, strangers. 

Dyniadon Deon dylyam ei ddwyn 
Dolnr cwyn ai cyffry. 

Einion Wan^ i Llyw. ap lorwerth. 

Nid ar a'n perchis a'n peiroh y weithon 

O'r Deon dihefeireh 

Tn y cyrcham oaroharfeirch. 

Cyndddifff i Birid Flaidd. 
See Dwywg. 

Deobath Wledig, father of Ehufawn Befr. 

Dekfedd, one of the three commots of Cantref Ffiniog, Caer- 
marthenshire. (Price's Description.) Whether Perfedd t 

Deri, a place in Anglesey. Tre Dderi (Jt dar, oak. So doth 
also Derry in Ireland, which Bede interprets Bdboreturn), 

Derllys, one of the present hundreds of Caermarthenshire ; 
now wrote also Derllysg. [A place of the same name in Mon- 
mouthshire. — I. M!\ 

Dervel (n. pr. v.). Lltrnddervel, a parish and church in Edeyr- 
nion deanery, diocese of St. Asaph, Powys, Merionethshire. 

Dervel Gadarn (n. pr. v.). There was a huge image of his 
in Llandderfel, carried to London to be burnt. 

Fal Derfel ynghamlan. — Tudur Aled. 

See Fox's MaHyrs, and also Lord Herbert's JUfe of Rewry VIIL 
Derwas, q. d. Gwas dewr (?). Gruffydd Derwas ap Howel 
Selyf ap Meurig Uwyd. Owen Derwas, Dafydd Derwas, etc. It 
is but modem, and now used as a Christian name. 



128 CELTIC R EM AINS. 

Derwen, a parish and church, Denbighshire. 

[FfynTum Ddenoen, a well greatly resorted to. — W. 2>.] 

Debwennydd, rivers in England, now called Derwent One 
is between the East and North Biding of Yorkshire, and falls 
into the Ouse. Antoninus names a city Derventio, on this river, 
seven miles from York The first of G-wrthefyr's battles with 
the Saxons was fought on a river of this name. It is called in 
Nennius, published by Dr. Gale, Derevent and Dergwent ; in my 
vellum MS, of Galfidd's translation of Tyssilio, Derwende ; in the 
French editions of Galfrid, 1508 and 1517, it is "super fluvium 
Derimend all which are corruptions of the ancient British name, 
according to the old orthography, Dervenyt, and in the modem 
orthography, Derwenivydd, probably from derwen, an oak. 

The Derwent or Darent, in Surrey, which falls into the Thames, 
is the river where Gwrthefyr fought the Saxons probably. An- 
other Derwent river rises in the Peak, and runs through the 
heart of Derbyshire, and falls into the Trent. 

A place called Derwen in Wales ; qu., whether a river of that 
name besides Daron in Lleyn. [ Vide my account of Darwent 
from Burlington. — W, 2>.] 

Derwydd, a Druid (anciently Dervid), Derwyddon and Drudion 
(Gynddelw), Druids, Druidce. These were princes and priests of 
Gaul and Britain, and so had their subjects' bodies and souls in 
their power \ and the king was the high priest. It seems to be 
owing to this Druidical government that the British monarchy 
lasted so long, viz.^ from the first plantation of the island to the 
time of Christ's birth, or thereabouts ; it being not only heredi- 
tary, but absolute and arbitrary. 

The help qf the Church and religion hath been always found 
necessary to govern mankind in all nations : oracles, auguries, 
prophets, seers, etc., were the great hinges of the state ; but here 
and in Gaul the crow^ and the Church were united in one per- 
son. This is the reason that religion is scarcely mentioned in 
our ancient British history, it being an article that no writer 
durst meddle with. 

The religion of the Druids prevailed in some parts of Ireland 
tUl the year 433, when St. Patrick converted the Irish. [Ogygia, 
p. 203.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 129 

Bar is an old oak tree ; derwen, a young oak ; derwyddon, 
oak-men. The singular must be denvydd, hence Tre Dder- 
wydd in Anglesey; Llan y Dderwyddon, a village near St. 
David's ; and the Indian Bervis, a priest, may be of the same 
origin. Cerrig y Drudion, a church and parish in the rural 
deaneiy of Ehos, Denbighshire. 

Dysgogan Derwyddon dewrwlad. 

Cynddelw, i Yw, Oyfeiliog. 
Dmdion a veirddion a fawl 
Neb dragon namyn draig ai dirper. 

Cynddelw, i Yw. Cyfeiliog. 

Derwyddveirdd, i. a., Druidical Bards. These were the poets 
of the Britains and Gauls in the time of paganism here. They 
kept an account of the descent of families, and made songs on 
the actions of great men, and consequently were the national 
historians. These songs they sang to the harp, and from them 
our ancient history hath been collected ; and not only ours, but 
[that of] all nations (except, perhaps, the Jews) was collected 
from the same kind of materials. See Derwydd. 

Derwyn, and Bryn Derwyn, where a fierce battle was fought 
by Lleweljm ap Gruflfudd and his brothers Owen and Davydd 
for the Principality of Wales, a.d. 1254, when Llewelyn got the 
day. It is called in the jErce Gambro-Britannicce, y Frwydr yn 
Nerwyn ; and in Llyfr Cock o Rergest, Bryn Derwyn. Caradoc 
[Hist, of Wales) doth not name the place. 

Devanog. Cappel Devanog in Eamsey Isle, near St. David's, 
in Pembrokeshire. 

Stinan a Devanog dan anwyl gymydog. 

(E. Llwyd, Notes on Camden in Pemhr.) 

Qu., whether it is not Tyvanog i 

Deusant. iJanddeusant, a parish and church in Anglesey ; 
a chapel dedicated to two saints. Llanddeusant in Caermarthen- 
shire. 

Deudraeth, y Traeth Mawr a'r Traeth Bychan, Ardudwy. 

Gwrdd y gwnaeth uch Deudraeth Dryfan. 

Prydydd y Moch, i Lew. ap lorwerth. 

Deulyn. Afon Deulyn, the name of the river composed of 

the waters of Llyn Crafnant and Llyn Geirionydd. 

17 



130 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Deuddwr or DuDDWR, Divodurum {E. Lhtryd), a commot in 
Cantref Ystlyc in Powys Wenwynwyn. Qu., two waters ? Hence 
Gruffudd Deuddwr ap Owain. 

Dewen Hen, father of Mabon: in ihelndex,Dov^ngan,{Tr.55.) 

Dewi Sant (i. e.j St. David), the patron saint of Wales, as 
St. George for England, St. Patrick for Ireland, and St. Andrew 
for Scotland. He was son of Xanthus {Oambro-Brit. Sand.), who 
had taken refuge in Armorica, and had married an Armorican 
Briton, and a relation of King Arthur, who was son of Ceredic 
ap Cunedda Wledig, Prince of Ceretica (Ceredigion), now called 
Cardiganshire, in South Wales. Dewi's mother's name was 
Nonn; and there are churches dedicated to her name: Uan- 
nonn, and a river near St. David's called Non, and a place called 
Abernon. She was called in Latin (the favourite language of 
those days) Nonna or Nonnita ; others call her Melaria, by mis- 
take, I suppose, for Eleri, daughter of Brychan, the mother of 
Xanthus. {Brit, Sand,) 

He was bom in South Wales in the 5th century, and was 
brought up at ffen Menew, or Old Menevia, in Pembrokeshire. 
[Cardiganshire, near Aberaeron. — JV, D,] {Brit, Sand,) See Dr. 
Davies' mistake in his Dictionary, Mynyw Hen, He was edu- 
cated at the famous school at the Isle of Wight, under Paulinus, 
a disciple of St. Germanus ; and there performed miracles by 
giving Paulinus his sight, with the sign of the cross, which he 
had lost with much weeping and old age. {Brit, Sand,) An angel 
admonished Paulinus to send Dewi among the Britains, where 
he founded twelve religious houses or monasteries, among which 
were Glastonbury, Bath, Leominster, Rhaglan in Gwent, Llan- 
gyvelach in Gower, and the chief in the Vale of Ross, near Mene- 
via, or Vallis Bosina (the Rosy Vale) ; in the Acts of the Irish 
Saints called Bosnat or Rosnant, {Brit, Sand., Mar. 1.) Theo- 
marchus and John of Tinmouth mention his Rules. 

He was sent for by Dubricius (Dyfrig), Archbishop of Caer- 
lleon ar Wysg, to the synod held at Uanddewi Brevi to suppress 
the Pelagian heresy that had revived after Garmon and Lupus 
had suppressed it about anno 430 ; and in his way there he 
raised a person from the dead ; and whilst he preached in the 
fields, the earth, by a miracle, raised under his feet, and became 



CELTIC REMAINS. 131 

a hill, on the top of which the church was afterwards built. 
(Brit. Sanct.) At the conclusion of the synod Dubricius desired to 
resign and retire to the monastery of EnUi, and that David might 
succeed him; which David approved of on condition that he 
might remove the metropolitan see to Menevia, the noise and 
hurry of Caerlleon, a populous city, being disagreeable to him. 
Dubricius, with most of the clergy that [were] convened on that 
occasion, went to the Isle of Bardsey, and entered themselves in 
the monastery there for the rest of their lives. (Llwyd, Notes on 
Camden, out of Mr. E. Vaughan's MSS.) But what could induce 
the other clergy to do this, though Dubricius might take a pen- 
sion for his archbishoprick, unless they [were] opposed in that 
synod, or that the Armorican party were the most powerful ? 
Uthur Bendragon having brought over many relations who must 
be provided for, and Dewi among the rest. [L. Morris is at a 
loss here. — W. 2?.] 

It was in anno 522 that Dewi was made Archbishop of Caer- 
lleon ar Wysg, in King Arthur's time, when he kept his court 
there. (Tr. 7.) But take notice that the Triades call him 
Penescvh, i. e,, head of bishops, and not archbisliop (archesgob), 
Dewi held another synod afterwards, to confirm the former, and 
called it the Synod of Victory. {Gir, Camhrensis,) 

Leland calls his parents Xanthus and Noninta, He says he 
went to the Isle of Wight, and studied there under Paulinus ; 
thence to Ceredigion ; thence to Pebidiauc, which is in the Vale 
of Eos, where Patrick once lived a solitary life. There a little 
well, called Pistyll Ddewi, afforded him his drink ; and for his 
abstinence and hard living he was called Dewi Ddyffnor, i, e., 
David Aqnaticus, His fame spread abroad all over Wales, and 
Teilo (called also Eliud), and Madoc of Towyn Meirionydd (called 
also Aidan), and Ismael of Ehos, came to visit him. There he 
was troubled by one Boias, a prince, who had two castles in lihos. 

Dyfrig and Deinioel, bishops, and others, having met at Llan- 
ddewi Brevi (i. e., " Locus Davidis mugientis", Leland, from hrcvu, 
to talk loud, — ^a very poor derivation), David, with much ado, was 
persuaded to join them out of his great modesty; and in Leland's 
memory there were canons, vulgarly called prebendaries, at Han- 
ddewi. 



132 CELTIC REMAINS. 

In the Triades (43) he is called one of the three happy guests 
of the Isle of Britain, because he was a foreigner. St. Padarn 
and St. Teilaw were the other two happy guests. He died at 
Menevij^ 147 years of age, and was succeeded by Chinotus, 
Bishop of Llaubadarn Vawr. (Leland, Script, Brit., c. 34.) St. 
Kentigem, in a vision, saw his soul going to heaven, conducted 
by angels, and there crowned by our Lord. {Brit. Sanct, Mar.l.) 

Dewma (n. 1.). Leitns Glyn Cothi. 

Dial Kodri, a battle fought by the Britains on the river Con- 
way, A.D. 880, against the Danes and English, where the Welsh 
had the victory, in revenge of Eodri's death. (Gwaith Cymryd 
Conwy.) 

DiAMS verch Eoger Vychan o Frodorddyn. 

Diana (n. f.), the name of a Celtic princess, afterwards deified. 
In the British the word signifies without blemish (di-anav). 

DiER ap Arwystl Gloff. 

DiFWG (n. pr. v.). Difwg, mab Alban, was a commodore of a 
fleet of pirates. (TV. 72.) 

DiFFEDEL, mab Dysgyfedawc, one of the three chief heads of 
Deira and Bernicia about the time of the Saxon conquest. He 
killed Gwrgi GarwlwyA {Tr, 16.) See Gall. 

DiGAiN ap Cwstenyn Gomeu {at, Gernyw). 

DiGANWY or Dyganwy (Dictum. Notitia), Gannoc (if. Paris), 
a town on the east side of the river Conwy, burnt with light- 
ning. Here Maelgwn Gwynedd kept his royal palace. There 
are still the ruins of an old fort called Castell y Faerdref. Thus 
far Henry III, King of England, came against Llewelyn ap 
GrufPydd with the power of all England ; but could proceed no 
further, retiring with great loss. See Teganvjy. 

DiGOLL. Mynydd DigoU, the Long Mountain in Shropshire, 
mentioned by Llywarch Hen in Marvmad CadwaUaiim. 

Owaith Digoll, a battle fought there between CadwaUawn, 
King of the Britains, and Edwin, King of the Saxons, till the 
river Severn was red with blood. (TV. 75.) Neither this battle 
nor that of Bryn Ceneu*n Ehos, between Cadwallon and Edwin, 
is mentioned in Tyssilio, nor in Galfrid's translation ; nor the 
battle of Meigeii. See Triades, 49. 

Lluest Gadwallon glodrjdd 



CELTIC REMAINS. 133 

YDgwarthaf Digoll Fynydd, 

Saithmis a saithgad beunydd. — Llywarch Hen. 
See Belyn, 

DiGWYDD (Y), reversio, 

A'r digwydd o draean i fam. 

DiHEWYD, a parish in Cardiganshire. 

DiLYN : hence Aberdilyn. 

DiLLUS Fakfawc (n. pr. v.). Tstori Kil ap Kilydd. 

DiMBECH or DiMBYCH, Angl. BeiMgh. Dinas Bychod, city of 
bucks. 

DiMEiRCHiON, enw lie ; q. d. Dinmeirchion. 

DiMETiE, a name given by the Eomans to the inhabitants of 
what is now called part of Caermarthenshire, Pembrokeshire, 
and part of Cardiganshire ; by the Britains called Dyfed ovDyvet, 
q. d. Dehau/ed, or the South Country ; part of what is now called 
South Wales. Camden makes them a different people from the 
Silures [and that very rightly. — /. if.]. 

DiMiLWY or DiNMiLWY, the name of some fort in Cantref 
Gwaelod drowned by the sea. 

Ardal dwfu hoewal Dinmilwy 
Eissyddyn gwylain rhiain yn rhwy. 

Prydydd y Moch, i Llew. ap lorwerth. 
See Dinfyddwy, 

Dm (fl.): hence Aberdeen in Scotland, Lat. Aberdonia, a 
bishop's seat and University ; anciently Devana {AiTtsworth). 
Aberdeen lies between the rivers Dee and Don ; two cities, New 
and Old Aberdeen. 

Din is a most ancient Celtic word used in the composition of 
the names of places, signifying a fortress or stronghold, and is 
not the same as diTias, as Dr. Davies advances. Out of it was 
formed Dinas, when a city or a society of people was added to 
the fort so as to make it a garrison or fortified town. Dindryfal ; 
Dinefwr; Dinbych; Dinsol; Dinorweg; Dinteirw; Dineithon; 
Dinsilyw; Dindaethwy; Dinalclud; Dinerth; Dinmor; Din- 
geraint; Dinmael; Dinbrain; Dinmeirchion. 

In Scotland : Dunbar ; Dunbarton ; Dundee ; Dungon ; Dum- 
fries; Dunfermlin; Dimkeld; Dunstafnag; Dunvegan; Dun- 
tulm ; Dum'obin ; Dunnet Head ; Dingwel ; Dunsbay Head 
Dunblain ; Dunsterc ; Dunglass ; Dunrossness. 



134 CELTIC REMAINS. 

In the Irish, dun and duna signifies a fort, and hence came the 
Latin terminations of the names of some places in dmium : Gam- 
elodunum, Uxelodunum, etc., etc. [Melodunum, Moeldun. — W. DJ] 

DiNALCLUD : see Alclud, 

DiNAM, qiL ? Llanddinam, Montgomeryshire, dedicated to St. 
ULoniaw. 

Dm ANT, a place in Britanny lately called DzTiham, from whence 
the surnames of some families in England. (Camden.) DunarUr 
in the Welsh, is black valley. See Dmam. 

DiNAS is an old Celtic word signifying what the Latins called 
civitas and urbs; Ir. diian, "City" is the English word that 
comes nighest it. It is prefixed to the names of several towns, 
as well as din, from which it is formed ; din signifying only a 
fortified place, but dlnas an inhabited town fortified, which 
answers to the notion of a city, according to Cowell, who says it 
should be civitas, oppidum, and urbs: dvitas, because of the 
magistracy ; oppidum, for the great number of inhabitants ; urbs, 
because of the walls. Sir Edward Coke calls Cambridge a city» 
though it never had a bishop. Westminster, by 27 Elizabeth, 
c. 5, is called a city. Crompton, in his Jurisdict, leaveth out 
Ely in his catalogue of cities, though it hath a bishop and cathe- 
dral ; and Landaff, St. David's, Bangor, and St. Asaph, are na 
cities, though they have cathedrals and bishops. 

DiNAS, an old fort near Aberystwyth ; and several others^ 
Dinas, near Carnarvon. 

DiNAS Bassin, an abbey near Holywell in Flintshire ; Basing^ 
werk. Tomas, Arglwydd Abad Dinas Bassin. 

Dinas Beli, London. 

Dinas Bran : see Bran. 

Dinas Bwch, enw Ue. Arglwydd Dinas Bwch. 

DiNAB DiNLLE, Caernarvonshire. [Caer Dinlle, now Kinners- 
ley.— W. D.'\ 

Dinas Emeys, in Caernarvonshire ; enw Dinas Ffaran ar ol 
dadguddio'r dreigiau. {Tr. 45.) Another of the same name in 
Lloegria ; Latinized Anibrosii Vicus, Ambresbury. (Camden.) 

A Dinas Bmrys amrygant 
Amrygyr Newenhyr naw cant 
A Chaer yn Arvon. 

Frydi/dd u Moch, i Lew. ap lorwerth. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 135 

DiNAS Ffakaon or Ffaran, He dadcuddiodd Gwrtheym y 
dreigiau. (2V. 45.) This was some fort on Snowdon hills, per- 
haps the same with Dinas Emrys, which see, and Ffaraon and 
Coed FfarcLon, (Bhys Goch Eryri,) 

Dinas Gawb. 

Dinas Melin y Wyg, a British oppidum, such as is described 
by CsBsar (Comm,, 1, v). It lies in the mountains of Denbigh- 
shire. 

Dinas y Mowddwy, a town in Meirionydd. 

Ddinas Newydd (Y). Gwaith y Ddinas Newydd, a battle 
fought at Brecknock with Elfled, Duchess of Mercia, ad. 919. 
(Powel, Carad., p. 47.) 

Dinas Powys, a manor in Morganwg. See Ynys Pawys. 

DiNAU (Llwdlo), or Dinan, or Dunant, qu. ? 

DiNAWALy a lordship in Cardiganshire. 

Pob rhjrw wr pybyr eirian 

Ddinawal a d&l dan. 

Beio op leuan Du, 

DiNAWAL, neu Dinawl, neu Dinafawl : qu., whether the same 
as Dinefawl, tad Bran, tad Uowarch (15 Zlwyth). 

DlNBKAIN. 

hydr riain 

O'r wenliys gar Dinbrain 

Ami yw gwawd gynnevawd gain, etc. 

Hytoel ap Eignion^ i Fefanwy Fechan o Gkistell Dinas Bran. 

DiNBRAN, the name of a lordship near liangoUen, where Cas- 
teU Dinas Bran is. See Castdl Diiias Bran. 
DiNBRiTHON, Dunbritton in Scotland. 
Dinbyrn (a pr.). 

Eirf drabludd ang^dd angerth Dinbyrn. 

Em. ap Gwcdchmaiy i Lew. ap lorwerth. 

Nid ail Dinbryn. — 2>. ap Gwil/ym^ i Rys Meigen. 

DiNBYCH and Dinbech, q. d. Dinas Bychod, a town and castle 
in North Wales; in English, Denbigh: hence Denbighshire. 
Church dedicated to St. MarcheU. See Dinas Stock 

DiNBYCH Y Pysgod, Tenby, and the hundred of Denbigh in 
Essex. 



136 CELTIC REMAINS. 

DiNCADVAEL, an old fort on the top of a high hill in Han 
Nefydd parish in Denbighshire, capable of holding a large army, 
strengthened with three fosses on the side next the east, the 
other side very steep ; not mentioned in Camden. There is also 
a gentleman's seat called Dincadfeiel^ in the hundred of IsalecL 
(J. D) 

DiNDAETHWY, One of the six commots of Anglesey, from a fort 
of that name. 

DiNDRYFAL, the ruins of a fort in Anglesey ; lit, a triangled 
town or fort. 

DiNEFWR, a part of South Wales, once a principality. Talaith 
Dinefwr. Castell Dinefwr, near Llandeilo Fawr. Here a terrible 
battle was fought, a.d. 1254, between Llewelyn ap Gruffudd and 
Henry Ill's army, who had besieged this castle with a strong 
power landed at Caermarthen. The King's men were put to 
flight, and [he] lost 2,000 soldiers. {Camd, in Llewelyn) 

Llawn Uef Talaith Dinefwr 

Llefain mal llif Noe am wr. — Lewys Mbrganwg. 

Dm EiTHON, a castle on the river Eithon in Maelienydd, from 
which some part of that country takes its name. Bro Din Eithon. 

Prif arglwydd brolwydd Bro Dineithon. 

Cynddelw^ i Cad. ap Madawg. 

DiNERTH (n. pr. v.). Howel ap Dinerth. (Powel, Car ad., p. 
178.) Hence Castell Dinerth. 

Dinerth in South Wales, at St. David's, where a battle was 
fought, AD. 911, between the Welsh and Uther and Rahald, the 
Danes, who came there with a great navy, where Mayloc ap 
Peredur Gam was slain. {Garad, in Anar,, p. 451.) 

Dinerth Castle and Caerwedros Castle rased by Owen Gwyn- 
edd, etc., A.D. 1136, and all the Normans and Flemings drove out 
of Cardiganshire. {Carad. in Gruff, ap Gynan,) He had this year 
an army of 6,000 foot and 2,000 horse well armed, and near the 
river Teivi fought all the power of the Normans, Flemings, and 
English ; killed 3,000 in the field, and several were drowned in 
the flight, and several carried away captives. (Garadoc.) 

DiNFYDDWY. Some fort, in Caledonia, perhaps. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 137 

Gwyn ei byd hi'r fedwen 

Yngwarthaf Dinfyddwy 

A wybydd psin fo y g&d yn Ardudwy. — Myrddtn WyUK 

DiNGAD Sant. 

Nid Dingad ddoniad ddinodi gwlad Goel 
Deinioel a Seirioel rhag ea sorri. — Hywd Dafydd^ 

DmGAD ap Nedd Had. 

DiNQAD ap Brychan Brycheiniog. 

DiNLLAEN. 

Oes le rhydd was osier hen 

Ond yn Ll^ neu Dinllaen. — lolo Ooch^ i'r Gwyddelyn. 

DiNLLAES: vid. Tinllaes. 

DmiiLE. Dinas Dinlle. 

DiNMAEL, in Powys Vadog. (Powd.) See LUmgwm Dinmael, 
Denbighshire. 

DiNMAWR or DiNMOR, viilg6 Dingmor. 

DiNOGAN (n. pr, v.). Dinogan mab Cynan Garwyn. 

DiNORWEG, Caernarvonshire. Syr Gruffydd Ilwyd o Wynedd, 
Arglwydd Dinorweg. 

DiNOTHTJS {Dinotvs by Leland, who says in Scr. Brit,, c. 44, 
he was first a monk of Bangor is y Coed, and then abbot), a 
learned man. He and other abbots and seven British bishops 
met Augustine at the Claudian Synod, when sent by Pope 
Gregory, but could not agree with him. He is also mentioned 
by Bede, 1. i, c. 1. In the ancient orthography this name was 
wrote Dinot or Dinanjt ; in the modem, Dwnod or Dunawd. Dun- 
awd Fyr was son of Pabo Post Prydain. See also Oaer Ddunod 
and Deinid. [Dunawd Ffur, i, e., Dunawd the Wise. — W. 2?.] 

DiNSOL, some town anciently in the north of England. 

DiNTAGOL or TiNTAGOL, a village in ComwalL It is turned 
into a man by Buchanan. 

DiNTARN. Mynachleg Dintam ym Mynwy gynt. 

DrNTEiRW, a castle in ...... 

Trais ar ysgwyd rhag ysgor Dinteirw 
A gwyr meirw rhag mar cor. 

Cyndddw^ i Twain Gyfeiliog. 

DiocHLEisiON (n. pr. v.), Dioclesian the Emperor. See Cffmedlau 

DoethUm Ehufain [printed in the BrythonI]. 

18 



138 CELTIC REMAINS. 

DiBiE, the Furies Tisiphone, Megsera, and Alecto ; from the 
Celtic dfr, necessity. T Duwiau Dir. 

Snccessum Dea dira negat. — Virgil. 

Ddiseeth (Y), a parish church in Tegeingl, whose patron saint 
is Gwyfan {K Llwyd) ; Disart {CwmderC), There has been, says 
E. Uwyd, in Descript. Diserth, a castle at Trecastell, which some 
say was called CasteU Ffailon, alias Dincolyn, alias Gastell Geri ; 
for in the same township there is a field called Biyn Dincolyn. 
There are some pieces of wall still remaining. {E, Llwyd) 

DiSEBTH parish, Eadnorshire. There is a Dysert in Scotland 

DisiLWY, or DiNSiLYW, or Diksilwy, Mon. 

DiSMAS : see Esmas. 

DiSTAiN. Einion Distain ftp lerwerth ; i. e,, steward. 

DiFANCOLL (T), Total Loss, a battle fought in North Britain, 
where it seems not one man escaped. It is mentioned in Tr, 34 : 
" Teulu Gafran mab Aeddan, pan fu y DifancoU, a aethant i'r 
mor tros eu harglwydd." Bede says it was fought between 
Ethelfrid, Eang of Northumbria, and Edan, King of the Scots 
that inhabit North Britain, who had an immense army, and that 
they were almost all slain. The Saxon Chronicle places it in ad. 
606, but Bede in 603. See Bede, L i, c. 34 

Divi Gawb. Gaer Divi Gawr yw Gaer Ddyffn, says Thomas 
Williams {Oatalogue of Cities), 

DivoDOG or Dyfodog : see Tyfodog, 

DiWLAS (fl.), Montgomeryshire. 

DiWKiG, father of larddur. 

DoBUNi, a name which the Bomans gave to the people of 
Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, or thereabouts. 

DocvAN ap Brychan, oZ. Doevan. 

DocHTWY o Lydaw. 

DoDiEN, King of Gomwall. See Dyfimai, 

DoFB, Dover. 

T ddelw a'i wayw'n ei ddwylaw 

A fu ar draeth yn Nofr draw. — L. Morganwg. 

Gwerthefyr, King of Britain, whose statue was set up at Dover 
harbour to frighten the Saxon invaders. {Marvmad Syr B. af 
Sion,) 



CELTIC BJEBMAIN8. 139 

DoGOED. Uanddoged, a parish and charch in the deanery of 
Ehos, Denbighshire. 

DOGMAEL ap Cunedda Wledig. {Ach Cynog a Chattwg.) 

DoGYAEL Sant (in English, Dogmael)^ a British abbot. An 
ancient church dedicated to him in the land of Kernes in Pem- 
brokeshire, given after the Conquest to a priory of monks, by 
the name of St. Dogmael's. (Dugdale's Monasiieon.) Uanddyg- 
weL {Brit, Sanct., June 13.) 

DoGVEiLYN, one of the commots of Cantref Dyfifryn Clwyd, 
Denbighshire ; so named from Dogvael ap Cunedda Wledig. 

DdL or Dole, the name of a city and bishop's see in Little Britain 
and of a city in Fraruihe Comte, The meaning of the word in 
British is avale or dale, much the same with y8trad,dyffn/n. Agreat 
many places in Wales so situated have their names formed from 
ddl, as Dol Gadfan ; Dol y Calettwr ; Dolau Gwyn ; Dol y Cothi ; 
Dolfan, Caermarthenshii'e ; y Dolau ; Dol Benmaen ; Dol y Cors- 
Iwyn ; Dol Arddun (see Arddun) ; Dolgelleu ; Dolgiog (see dog) ; 
Dolobran ; Dol Bodfta ; y Ddol Goch ; Dol y Garrog ; Dolwyddelen. 

In Scotland those places that have this situation are called 
Dale or Strat; and Stratclwyd in Scotland, where the Strat- 
clwyd Britains were formerly, is now called Clydesdale ; and so 
our Ystrad Clwyd in Wales is called Dyffryn Clwyd. They 
have also in Scotland, Teviots Dale, Liddis Dale, Annan Dale, 
Tweed Dale, Lauderdale, Eskdale, Dalewhinie, Nithsdale, Knap- 
dale, Dalkeith, etc. 

DoLANOG, a gentleman's seat {J. B). Williams. 

DoLBEN (n. pr. v.). 

DoLBENMAEN, a chapel in Caermarthenshire [Caernarvonshire]. 

DoLEUBACHOG, a gentleman's seat. Wynne. 

DoLEUGWTN, a gentleman's seat in Meirion. 

DoLGABFAN (nomen loci). 

Dolgelleu, a town in Meirionyddshire, near the river Maw. 
Mr. Camden places it on the river Avon, but there is no such 
river. Mr. Edward Llwyd says the name is derived from kdleu, 
which he says is ceUi, a grove of hazles ; but qu. whether the 
river that runs through the town is not called Gelleu, as most 
Ddles have their name from the rivers that run through them ? 
The great sessions are kept here and at Bala alternately. It is 
called DolgeUef by Syr Owain ap Gwilym to Lewis Owen. 



140 CELTIC REMAINS. 

DOLGIOG, a gentleman's seat, Montgomeryshire. 

DoL Y Glesyn, a gentleman's seat {J. B,). Wynne's. 

DoL Y FoNDDU, a gentleman's seat (/. D,), Pugh. 

DoL Haidd, a gentleman's seat, Pembrokeshire, qu. ? [Carmar- 
thenshire]. 

DoL Y Melynllyn, a gentleman's seat in Meirionydd. 

DoL Y MocH, a gentleman's seat. (/. D.) 

DoLOBRAN, a gentleman's seat in Powys. 

Dolor (n. pr. v.). Dolor Deifr a Bryneich, father of Pryder, 
one of the three strong crooks or strong cripples. (Tr. 21.) 

DoLPHYN ap Terwerth ap Llewelyn Anrdorchog. Hence Prys 
Dolphyn and Treddolphyn in Anglesey. [Ooed Olphyn (n. 1.), 
Davies' Heraldry, p. 33.— JT. D.] 

DoL Y Sere, a gentleman's seat in Meirionydd. 

DoLWEK : see Llwyndolwen. 

DOLWYDDELEN Castle, near Uyn Dolwyddelen in Caernarvon- 
shire ; q. d. Dol-wydd-Elen, i. e., the Valley of Elen's Wood. 

Dolling ap GrufiTudd ap Cynan, a learned priest, A.D. 1137. 
{Garadoc) 

Don (n. pr. v.). Don, lord of Arfon, was father of Gwydion 
or Gwdion, an eminent Cambrian philosopher and astronomer. 
Tir mab Don, i, e., Arfon, the land of Gwdion ap Don. 

Pan aeth Caswallon hir i dir mab Don. — Taliesin, 
Hence Oaer Daun in Nennius ; in the British, perhaps Caerdon ; 
whence the Danum in Anton. Itinerary, which, perhaps, is Don- 
caster. See lor. ap Beli i Esgob Bangor, and also -4rcA. Brit,, p. 
259, and Gwdion, 

Don. lankyn Don. Ddn Gwenonwy. 

Dona Santes. Llanddona, a church in Anglesey. 

DoNCASTER : see Davm, 

DoNN, a river, runs by Aberdeen in Scotland. 

DoNET ap Tudwal ap Ednyfed, 

DoRABEL, a castle near Abertemys, — the mouth of the Thames 
(Tyssilio) ; probably at Deal or Dover. J. Caesar having landed 
at Abertemys, Caswallawn secured the Castle of Dorabel. In 
Galfrid's Latin it is DorabeUum oppidum, and not a castle. See 
Pvryth Meinlas. 

Doris, a sea-nymph. (Ovid. Met. i, 11.) This was a Celtic 



CELTIC REMAINS. 141 

princess. Duwies y Dvrr, the Goddess of Water, or Water God- 
dess, — Dwres or Dyfres. 

DoBTi (n. pr. f.), Dorothea. 

DovEiLiNG, enw He. Gwehelyth Doveiling (qu. Dogfeiling ?). 
Vid. Dogvael. 

Dour or Dwr (fl.) : hence Aberdour of Fife in Scotland. Lat. 
Aberdara or Dura, 

DouRGUY, wrote anciently for Dourdwy. {K Llvryd) 
' DoWROR or Dyfrwr, Llanddyfrwr, a parish and church, Caer- 
marthenshire. 

Dows, verch Sicard ap Hoel. AngL and Lat Duldbella, 

Draethon. Caer Draethon. (Usher's Oataloffue.) 

Dragon. I take it to be an old Celtic term in the military 
art ; perhaps a standard. Some say it signified only a lord or 
commander. Uther, the father of Arthur, was sumamed Pen- 
dragon ; that is, head or chief dragon. Perhaps a dragon was 
with the Britains what the eagle was with the Eomans, their 
standard. Gwen Ben Dragon is also mentioned in the Triades, 
50. Qu. whether the word dragon is derived from thence ? 

GwyddbwU Dragon gosbarth Brython. — Taliesin, i Eidol. 

Dran (n. pr. v.). Triad 24. 

Dref Wen (Y), a town mentioned by Llywarch Hen in Mar- 
wnad Cynddykn, where Mr. E. ULwyd supposes he was killed. 
It lay near a wood, between the river Tren and Trodwydd, and 
Tren and Traval. Y Drewen {£. 6, Oothi), Whitington. 

Y Dref wen ymron y coed. — Llywarch Hen, 

Dremrost. Daniel Dremrost, a king of Armorica. (Sunburnt. 
— Br. Davies,) 

Dreflys (Y), one of the three commots of Cantref Buallt. 
(Price's Descript.) 

Droichau. Caer Droichau. (Nennius,) Qu. whether Caer 
Draethon of Usher ? 

Dronwy or Daronwy, a place in Mon. See Palttc and Edwin. 

Drudwas or Drutwas (n. pr. v.). This I found in an old 
MS. : " Drutwas ap Tryphin a gafas gau ei wraig dri ederyn 
Uwch gwin, y rhai a wnaent beth bynnag", etc. ; i, e., Dnitwas, 
son of Tryphin, had of his wife three Llwch givia birds which 



1 42 CELTIC BEMAINS. 

would do whatever their master commanded them. There was 
a duel to be fought between Arthur and Drutwas, but no body 
was to be suffered to come into the field but themselves. Drut- 
was sent the birds into the place of appointment with orders to 
kill the first man that came. A sister of Drutwas, who was 
Arthur's concubine, came to know this, and out of regard to 
them both stopped Arthur from going. At last Drutwas came 
into the field imagining that the birds had killed Arthur in his 
armour, and the birds snatched him up, and killed him instead' 
of Arthur ; and when they were high up in the air, they knew 
who he was, and came down with the most pitiful complaints 
for killing Drutwas their master ; and upon this that famous 
piece of music called "Adar Uwch 6 win" was composed, and 
then Llywarch Hen had the subject to sing as follows : 

Drutwas ap Tryphin mewn (gwnae) trin anianawl 
Ar drallawd ac orddin 
Adwy a wnaeth gysefin 
Adar a'i lladdodd Uwch gwin. — Llywarch Hen, 

The meaning of this fiction of the poets is this : Some Arthur 
(not the King) and Drutwas (who is mentioned in the Triades as 
a noted orator in King Arthur's court) had a duel to fight. Drut- 
was sent three ruflBans to the place appointed, to kill the first 
that came. Adar Uwch gtoin are vultures, and vultures is a pro- 
per term enough for ruffians. The tune, or piece of music, after- 
wards composed on this subject was of a grave and melancholy 
kind ; and perhaps Llywarch Hen's Englyn, misunderstood, gave 
the first rise to this story. 

Drutwas mab Tryphin was one of the three golden-tongued 
knights in King Arthur s court. {Tr: 82.) His oratory dropt 
as pleasing as gold from his tongue. 

Drum: see Trum, 

Drum Benawc ap Tryphin o Frecheiniog ap Drem ap Cu ap 
Gweneu. 

Drws, an ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of places, 
signifying in our days a door or entrance into a house, anciently 
signified any opening or passage between mountains, etc., or a 
pass. Drws Ardudwy, Meirion ; Drws y Coed ; Drws y Nant. 
[Bwlch Oerddrws.— W^. Z^.] 



CELTIC REMAINS. 143 

Drych (n. pr. v.). Drych eil Cibddar, un o*r tri phrif Uedrith- 
awc. {Tr, 33.) 

Dryge. Tudur (a laddodd y Dryge) ap Gronw. I suppose y 
Dreigiau. 

Dryll y Pobydd, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) 

Dryslwyn (n. 1.), in Ilangathan, Caennarthenshire. Fair 
kept here. 

Drystan ap Tallwch {Tr. 24), un o'r tri galofydd. See Trys- 
tan. Un o'r tri gwrddfeichiad* {Tr, 30.) 

Drysyaes, Lat. iM^^ma^ru«. {E.Llwyd) Qu., whether Dyrys- 
faes, as Dyryslwyn, etc. 

Drywarth. 

Qorddyar adar ar y Drywarth. — Uywarch Hen. 

Drywon (n. pr. v.). Drywon mab Nudd yn Rhodwydd Arder- 
ydd. {Tr. 36.) A battle fought ad. 557. This Drywon had a 
gorsgordd adwy then ; i. «., a guard of a pass, as I understand it. 
{Tr. 36.) See Owenddolau. 

Du, black. Llewelyn Ddu. 

Due, a duke. A degree of nobility among the ancient Britains ; 
originally a general or leader of an army, as the British word 
signifies to lead; and in that sense IN'ennius says of King Arthur 
that he was dtus of all the petty kings of the Britains against 
the Saxons. But some unwilling persons will not see that this 
is the sense of that passage : "Arthur pugnabat contra Ulos in 
illis diebus videlicet Saxones cum regibus Britonum sed ipse 
DtuK erat bellorum et in omnibus bellis victor extitit." (Nennius, 
c. bdL) Can anything be plainer than that Arthur was the 
chief of the British kings, and generalissimo or leader of all the 
British forces ? With which account agree Tyssilio and the 
Triades. 

DuDLYSTON. LlwythDudlystonynyTraean. [Dudleston, near 
Ellesmere, Shropshire. — W. D.] 

DuLAS (fl.). There are abundance of rivers of this name in 
Wales ; and the river Douglas in Scotland {i. e., Duglas), and 
also Douglas in the Isle of Man, are of the same original. It 
signifies black and blue water, or bluish black. See Zlanddulas 
and AberdtUas. 

DuLYN and Duflyn, i. e., Dublin in Ireland ; k du and Uyn, 



144 CELTIC REMAINS. 

i. e,, black lake or black pool ; and so in Irish. So Dafydd Ep- 
pynt is wrong to write Dulun, 

Mae enw Wiliam yn Nulun 
Kt finan gwyr fwy nag un. — D. Eppynt^ 
See JEdnyfed Vychan. 

DuNAWD ap Cunedda Wledig. 

DuNAWT, DuNAWD, or Dynod (n. pr.). Dunawd Fjrr, son of 

Pabo Post Prydain, mentioned by Tyssilio to have been one of 

the noblemen that attended Arthur in his great feasts, etc. The 

Triades call him " un o dri phost cad Ynys Prydain"; meaning, 

I suppose, in the time of Arthur (TV. 11), for his father was also 

called " Post Prydain"; so that " Tarw Cad", " Post Cad", « Cad- 

farchog", and " Taleithog Cad", seem to be some particular station 

in the army. Uywarch Hen, in Urien Reged's elegy, mentions 

him : 

Dynod fab Pabo ni thech. 

St. Dinoth Church, at Worthenbury, Flintshire. See Pabo. 

DUNOD Deinwyn, father of Deiniol Sant. (Raianau Myrddin) 

DuNODiG. Cantref Dunodig, anciently one of the four cantrefs 
of Caernarvonshire, containing the commots of Ardudwy and 
Efionydd : so called from Dunod ap Cunedda Wledig. (Price's 
Descr) 

DuNSETTAN, a name given by the Saxons to the mountain 
Welsh of Monmouthshire or Gwent Land, called also Wentset 
{Gamden) 

DuNWALLON, lord of Dyfed, ad. 948. {Caradoc, p. 60.) 

DuBOTRiGES, Loegrian Britains inhabiting Dorsetshire; so 
called by the Eomans. The British name was JDwrdrigMoyr, men 
inhabiting the water-side. They were of the Belgse that inha- 
bited the water-side about the Ehine, and were called also Mar- 
inwyr (Lat. Morini), See Morini and Morinwyr, 

DwGAN (n. pr. f,). Y Ddwgan Ddu o Harlech. {AraUh lolo 
Goch.) 

DwNWALLON, lord of Dyfed, ad. 948. 

DwB. Caer Ddwrg3mt, sef yw Caergybi, yn Saesneg IToly* 
head, (Th. Williams, Catal) Qu., whether not Caer y Tvrr, from 
Mynydd y Twr. 

DwRGWENT, Darby ; from the river Derwent. See Derwen- 
nydd. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 1 45 

DWY, qu. ? Danddwy (n. 1.). 

Meibion myr Uenwjr Llanddwy, 

Meddiant teg mae iddjnt hwj. — Bedo Pkdip Bach. 

DwYFACH and Dwyfawr, two rivers near PwUlieli ; i e., the 
greater and lesser Buioy : hence, perhaps, Djrfrdwy, the Dee, or 
the water of Du, or Black- water. Probably it was at first called 
Dwfr Dtty as Dublin, Dulyn, black pool. 

DwYFAEN, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) Llwyd. 

DwYGYFYLCHBU, a parish. {E. Llwyd.) Dygjrfylchi, Dygyfylchi, 

or Dywgyfylchi The church is dedicated to St. Gwining. {Br. 

WiUis) 

Carafi gaer falchwaith o'r Gyfylchi. 

Qu., whether Conwy Castle ? See OyfyUM. 

DwYWANEDD verch Amlawd Wledig. 

DwYNWE, merch Gwallawc ap Llienawc. 

DwYNWEN, Santes y Cariad ; daughter of Brychan Brycheiniog. 
Her church, at lianddwyn in Anglesey, was repaired to in all 
love affairs, as Yenus' Temple was among the Bomans. (2>. Jones) 
Dafydd ap Gwilym^s poem or petition to her is curious as a 
specimen of it. 

DwYEYD, a river, Meirion. 

DwYBYW (fl.), in Ilywarch Hen's Marwnad Cynddylan Powys. 

DwYVAEL ap Piyderi neu Pryder ap Dolor Deivr. Vid. Pry- 
deri, 

DwYWE, Santes Ilanddwywe, Meirion. 

DwYWELYTH ap Tegawc. 

DwYWG (n. pr. v.). See Difwg, 

Dygn gofion deon am dwg 
Difa dewrblant da Bwywg. 

CynddekOf ym Marwnad Meibion Dwywg ap lorwerth. 

Dyddgan Sant. Capel Dyddgan or Dyddgen, in the parish 
of Llangyndeyrn in Caermarthenshire. 

Dyddgi (vel Dyddgu) verch Cynfrig ap Uywarch. See D. ap 
Gwilym. 

Dyddgu, wife of Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd ap Cynan. (J. D.) 

Dyf. Caerdyf : qu. whether a river called Tyf falls into the 
Taf at Caerdyf? [No river there called Tyf.—/. M.] 

19 



146 CJBLTIO REMAINS. 

Morgannwg mawr yw gennyf 
I gwyr a'i dwr hyd Qaer Dyf. 

Bhys Ooch Olytidyfrdwy. 

But the great river is called T&f. T Ty Gwyn ar Dftf. 

Dtfed, the coimtiy called in Latin Demetia or Dynetia (rectum 
Dyvetia), Penbrokeshire, t. e., Penbro Dyfed; part of South 
Wales contaimng 8 cantrefe and 23 commots ; derived^ I sup- 
pose, from dehau, south, q. d. Dehaufed, as all South Wales is 
called from the same word Deheubarth. In the MS. Book of 
the Church of Landaf it is said that ** Septem domus episcopales 
sunt in Dyued : (1), Menevia, que est sedes principalis in Cam- 
bria; (2), Ecclesia Ismael ; (3), Ecclesia Degeman ; (4)^£cclesia 
Yssel ; (5), Ecclesia Teilau ; (6), Ecclesia Teulydavc ; (7), Ecclesia 
KenexL Abbates Teilau et Teulydavc et Ismael et Degeman tenen- 
tur clerici esse et ordinari. Ebediu cujuslibet istorum Domino 
Byued erunt sc. 12 lib. vel qui ilUs successerint reddant. Mene- 
via ab omnia debito libera manet et soluta. Ecclesia Eeneu et 
Ecclesia Yssil ab illo debito liberse erunt quia terris carent" 

This JSbediu was paid to the Prince; and the abbots of Eeneu 
and Yssil were probably lay abbots or seculars. What these 
" domus episcopales" were is hard to find out. They were not 
bishops' sees, as Mr. Spelman imagines them to be ; but probably 
they might have been originally bishops' seats in the infancy of 
Christianity, when the Loegrian bishops were drove into Wales. 
Secular abbots could not be bishops. 

Bhag unig bari£fwyn gwehun Dyfed. — Boiana/u Myrddin, 

Dyfed (Qwarthaf), the north part of Dyfed. (Pawd, p. 274.) 

Dyfnaint ap Iddon ap Iddic. 

Dyfnaint or Dyfneint, the ancient name of Devon and Corn- 
wall {k dyfn, and wmi), i, e,, deep valleys ; by. Eoman writers, 
Bamruyrda. A colony of Britains went from thence in early times 
to Ireland, which they called Fir Domnan, i. e., in British, Gw^r 
Dyfnant, or men of Dyfhant. (Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 14.) 

Ddyfnaint o Naint o Nanbeudwy. 

See Damrumii. 
Dyfnan ap Brychan Brycheiniog. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 147 

Dttnan^ Sant IlanddyfhaQ, a parish church in Anglesey. 
Na bo ... Fab Br&n ap Djfnan heb dir. — D. Eppynt. 

Dyfnog Sant. {Br. Willis,) 

Dyfnwal Moel Mut ap Dodien, King of Cornwall (Lat Dun^ 
wcUlus Molmutiiis), the 21st King of Britain, was father of Bell 
a Bran (Belinns and Brennos), and the first King that wore a 
gold crown. He reduced the pentarchy into a monarchy, and 
probably was the Prydain ap Aedd Mawr mentioned in the 
Triades to have conquered the island, and to have called it after 
his name, Piydain ; for our tables of genealogies place that Pry- 
dain about this distance of time, and is made to come from 
Cornwall ; and Tyssilio, in his Brut y Brenhinaedd, makes this 
Dyfnwal the first that wore a golden crown, and gave the 
islanders wholesome laws. Mr. Leland, in Script Brit., c. 7, 
praises him greatly for his great learning and making laws for 
his country, which were called after his name, the Modmviian 
Laws ; that they were translated by Gildas into Latin on the 
decline of the Eoman empire, and afterwards taken into the 
Saxon and Norman laws ; that he made four public ways through 
the Isle of Britain, a deed worthy of so great a prince. The 
Saxon writers have endeavoured to deprive this monarch of the 
honour of beginning these roads, and would fain have it that 
they were made by the Bomans ; but none of them ever could 
fix what Boman it was that made them. See Banulph Higden, 
monk of Chester. But Dyfnwal only began these roads, and 
gave them privileges. His son Beli prescribed the bounds of 
them, and perfected them. [TyssUio) 

And the Laws of Dyfnwal have retained his name to the time 
the British power over the whole island was overturned by the 
Saxons. The Saxons being illiterate when they first came, had 
no written laws. The first written laws they had were those of 
King Ethelbert of Kent, who reigned from 561 to 617 ; and 
these were short and rude. {Spelman) The next were of 
Ina, King of the West Saxons, between A.D. 712 and 729 ; the 
next were of OflFa, King of Mercia, about the year 758 ; then 
came those of King Alfred, King of the West Saxons, about the 
year 900, who collected all the Saxon laws, and translated the 
Laws of Dyfnwal into Saxon, as Tyssilio says. There is a great 



148 CELTIC REMAINS. 

probability in this, as [his] tutor, Asserius, was a Britain, who, 
no doubt, assisted him in it ; they being before translated by 
Gildas- into Latin. {TyssUio.) Therefore the argument of the im- 
probability of his translating of his enemies' laws is answered. 
About this time Howel Dda revised the Cambro-British Laws. 

Dyfr (n. f.). Dyfr Wallt Eurait, one of the ladies of Arthur's 
court. (JV. 78.) 

Dyfrdonwy (fl.), the same with Dyfrdwy. {Dr.Davies, but qu.) 

Nid cywiw a llwfr dwfr Dyfrdonwy. 

Prydydd y Mochy i Lew. ap lorwerth. 
See Trydonwy and Onwy. 

Dyfrdwy, the river Dee, q. d. Dwfr Du, or black water. This 
river had other names in ancient times, as Feryddon, Aerfen. 
Dyfrdwy, qu. Dowrdwy, from dwrdd, loud water (E, Llwyd) ; but 
it is not louder than others. It is mentioned by Einion ap 
Gwalchmai (1200) : 

Eil gwelais i drais dros ganol Dyfrdwy 

Yn y trai tramwy, etc. 

Dyvrig (by Latin writers called Duhricius), Archbishop at 
Caerllion ar Wysg. King Arthur was crowned by him ; and in 
his old age he turned hermit, as some say, and was succeeded 
by Dewi (St. David), who was uncle to King Arthur; but the 
truth is, he finished his days in the Monastery of Enlli ; and 
had, no doubt, a pension, to make room for the King's relation. 

Bennet of Gloucester, Capgrave, and John Tinmouth, have 
wrote his acts ; and Brit. Sanct picks out of them that he was 
a native of South Wales, and opened a famous school near the 
banks of the river Wy, at his college of Henllan, and among 
the scholars or disciples were Sampson, a bishop, and Teilo, who 
succeeded him Bishop of Uandaf. He was the first Bishop of 
the see of Llandaf, consecrated thereto by St. German on his 
second coming into Britain to oppose the Pelagian heresy, for 
which he is supposed to have been afterwards translated to the 
archbishoprick of Caerllion. Our British historians say he set the 
crown on King Arthur's head, and was with him at the battle of 
Mons Badon. At the synod of Brevi he resigned his archbishop- 
rick to St. David, and retired into the solitude of Enlli (the Isle 
of Bardsey), called the Isle of 20,000 saints, where he died in 



CELTIC BEMAINS. 149 

the sixth centtuy, and was buried there, but his relics were since 
translated to Llandaf. (BrU. Scmd.) See Dewi. Uanddyfrig. 

Dyfynnog, vie. Breckn. 

Dtfynnyn Diabchae {Cyfoesi Myrddin a Gwmddydd), or 
Dtfyn Diabcheb (n. pr. v.), a Prince who I find in an old MS. 
reigned in North Wales after Cynan Dindaethwy. He is there 
called Byfn IHarchar Penhyn ; perhaps penhyTieify or chief elder. 
He was nephew to Alaethaw ap Cadvan, and Mdn was his inhe- 
ritance ; at the same time that fourscore chiefs (jpeviaeihau) dis- 
puted their right to North Wales ; at last it fell to him. (Dr. 
Thomas Williams' MS.) 

Dyffrtn, an ancient Celtic word signifying a vale (& dy and 
tryTt), is prefixed to the names of many places in Wales : as Dyf- 
fryn Clwyd ; y Dyffryn Gwyn ; Dyf&yn Ardudwy ; DyfiBryn liar ; 
Dyfifiryn Paith ; Dyffryn Meissir ; Dyffryn Ceiriog ; Dyffryn Gol- 
uch ; DyfiBryn Hownant, Cardiganshire. 

Dtffbtn Clwtd, one of the five cantre& of Berfeddwlad, 
containing the commots of Coleigion, Llannerch, and Dog- 
feilyn. 

Dyffryn Goluch, in Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here. 

Dyffryk Iglydd. {Hyivel ai Chvain Owynedd,) 

Dyffryn Meisir, a place in Powys, wrote in Myfr Goch Eer^ 
gestf DyfSynt Meisir. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan.) 

Dyffryn Tefeidiat. The Teme (Shropshire, Eadnorsbire, and 
Herefordshire) ; a country near the marches of Wales about 
Knighton, thence to Ludlow. It is one of the three commots of 
Gantref y Clawdd. Through it nms Teveidiat river. (Price's 
De8cript) 

Dygbn or Tygent, a river near Craig Freiddin in Powys. 

Gorlas rydian dyfr Dygen Freiddin. — Oorhoffedd Owalchmai, 

Dygen Dyfnant. 

EQ gad trom y tremynasant 
Udd adian uch Dygen Dy&ant 

Ailagwrdd 

Bron yr Erw y galwant. 

Prydydd Mochj i Low. ap lorwerth. 

[Qa. Dyfnant in Meifod ?— W. 2).] 

Dygynnelw, son of Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, A.D. 1160. 



150 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Dygynklw (n. pr. v.), Owen ap Urien's poet ; one of the Tri 
gweywrudd beirdd, i. e., red speared poets. (2V. 17.) 

Dylan ail Ton (n. pr. v.). Marwnad Dylan ail Ton. 

Dtlooau, a place in Cwm Ystwyth, Cardiganshire. 

Dtltgion. Eithaf Dylygion, one of the two commots of Gwent 
Llwg in Monmouthshira Qo., Dy Iwg or Dwy Iwg ? Perhaps 
rivers of that name. 

Dtmmoc, Dymock. Thomas Dimock. 

Dyndaethwt, recti Dindaethwy. Vid. Tyndaetkwy, 

Dtnbvowb: BQQiHnefwr, 

Dtngad, a church in Herefordshire. (PatoeL) 

Dyngbeant (n. L). (Powel, Caradoe, p. 169.) It shonld have 
been wrote Dingeraint ; i. e,, the Castle of Geraint, it being bnilt 
at a place called Cilgeraint in Dyfed, on the bank of the river 
Teifi. See CUgeraini. 

Dynod. Caer Ddynod, or Caer y Ddynod, in the parish of 
Uanvihangel, close by the river Alwen. (j^. Llwyd,) See also 
Oder Forwyn^ which is just by this, on the other side of the river, 
probably Caer Forudd. Caer Ddynod should probably be wrote 
Caer Ddunawd. Dunawd Fyr was son of Pabo Post Piydain, 
a powerful Prince in King Arthur's time, whose caer this might 
be. It answers the description of Caractacus' camp in Tacitus, 
when he engaged Ostorius Scapula somewhere in this country of 
the Ordovices. See Ihmawt. 

Dynwennain, or DinwenruLin, joi Mhowys, llys meibion Cyn- 
drwyn. {E. Zlwyd.) See Cynddylan, 

Dynwil Hib, the camp of Reynold Earl of Bristol, near Oaer- 
marthen, a.d. 1159 or 60. 

Dyknog or Dypnog Gawr, a Cambrian Prince in the time of 
the Romans in Britain. Pair Dyfnog Oawr was one of the thir- 
teen rarities of Britain. In this pot or boiler, if the meat of a 
coward was put, it would never boil ; but the meat of a man of 
courage would boil immediately. {MS) 

Clwch Dymog in Anglesey ; perhaps Tyrnog. 

Dyrnwyn, the name of Rhydderch Haers sword, one of the 
thirteen rare things or curiosities of the Isle of Britain. Un o'r 
tri thlws ar ddeg. Upon taking it out of the scabbard it woidd 
flame like fire. Qu., whether they knew the use of phosphorus 
then ? 



CELTIC REMAINS. 151 

Dtbtsqlwtn or Tbtsqlwyn, a gentleinan's seat in Anglesey. 
— Lewis, Esq. 

Dtsgl a Gren Bhydderch, one of the thirteen rarities of 
Britain. See Elumed. 

Dysgugbttawk (n- pr. v.), Dysgugettawr, perchen y Wen 
Ynys. Taliesin apud B. Yaughan. 

Dysgwylfa (n. L), [a calcareous mountain between Nant y 
Glo and aydach.— W. D.] 

Dysgypedawg (n. pr. v.), a poet, father of Gall {Tt. 16) and of 
Diflfedel and of Tsgafnell {Tr. 37). In Mr. liwyd's book 2>wsy- 
vyndod, 

Dysynni, a river. Aberdysynni in Meirion. 

Oadr ei dy oedwis ger Dissynni 

Gadredd a llariedd a Uary roddi. — Llywelyn Vardd. 

Dyvib. Caer Ddyvir, al. Deifr, Berwick. {Th, Williams,) 

Eastyn, a church and parish in Flintshire dedicated to St. 
Cynfar. Qu. whether St. lestyn ? 

Ebber Cubnig, a monastery on the sea-side, near the borders 
of Scotland {Bede,h iv, c. 16) ; probably Abercymig or Abercora. 

Ebhbawc : see Sfroc. 

Ebrain ach Eurog Gadam. 

Eblud. Sc. 

Ebrancus, falsely for Ebraucm. 

Ebbaucus : see Efroc 

Ebroauc {NmnivSy Gott. lib., Ox.) : see Efroc 

Ector ap Eurog Gadaxn. 

ECHEIFIANT (nomen loci). 

EcHEL FoRDDWYTWLL, father of Goronwy. {Tr. 15.) 

EcHNi, falsely for Enlli island, in Gapgrave's Life of St. Oadoe, 

Echyrnwg. 8cr. 

Edeirnion, one of the three commots of Gantre'r Barwn in 
Powys Vadog ; as if you would say, the lands of Edeym ap 
Cunedda. 

Edelfled Fflesawc {NenmuSy c. 65),Eadlfred, son of Ealdric or 
Eadlfered. He was killed by Ysgafnell ab Dysgyfedawg. {Tr. 37.) 



152 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Nennius calls the Pictish king whom Ea^&ed fought Briiei^ 
perhaps Aeddan Fiadog. See Bede. 

Edbnawc (n. pr. v.). Qraffydd ap Gwrgeneu. 

Edeybk (n. pr. v.). Edeym ap Cunedda Wledig : hence Edeyrn- 
ion, a country, a commot of Cantre'r Barwn in Powys. 

Edetbn, a parish in Caernarvonshire. 

Edetrn Dafod Aub, a grammarian [orator, and poet of the 
13th century.— W. J9.] 

Edbyrniawn, the people of Edeym, or his clan, or tribe, or 
land. 

Edetbnion, a deaneiy of St. Asaph ; seven parishes. 

Edgab, a King of England. Mr. Camden (in Britannia in 
Cheshire) tells us of a triumph this King had at Chester over 
the British Princes. These are his words, speaking of the city 
of Chester : "And soon after saw King Edgar gloriously triumph- 
ing over the British Princes ; for being seated in a triumphal 
barge, at the foredeck, Kennadius, King of Scotland ; Malcolm, 
King of Cumberland ; Macon, King of Man and of the Islands ; 
with aU the Princes of Wales, hronght to do him homage, like barge- 
men rowed him up the river Dee, to the great joy of the specta- 
tors"; and in the margin, "circ. an. 960". This story seems to me 
to be very lame, and to want confirmation. First, Caradoc, in his 
History of Wales, hath not a word of his triumph ; nor Dr. Powel 
in his Notes, who only mentions this tribute of the wolves agreed 
upon about this time. Whoever worded this story did not know 
the names of the Princes of Wales that reigned then, nor how 
many there were of them, and only says " all the Princes of 
Wales". Caradoc, in the space between the years 958 and 961, 
tells us, " In those days laco and leuaf (two brothers) by force 
and strength ruled all Wales as they thought good." Then all 
the Princes of Wales were but tvH), which with the three other 
Princes before mentioned made five. They should have had six 
Princes to make it a six-oar barge. But how came Princes to 
understand handling the oar so well as to row against the stream 
lip the river Dee ? Kings and Princes are very little used to row- 
ing ; and I believe if the experiment was tried upon even five 
country esquires to row a barge up the river Dee, they would be 
more apt to go down the river than up. Again, how happened it to 



CELTIC REMAINS. 153 

the great joy of the spectators ? All the spectators were not 
Saxons. If there were British princes there, they had a great 
many attendants that were all spectators; but it was not to 
" their great joy". Therefore the story should be gilt to make it 
more easily swallowed. 

Edlin, the heir to the crown. Edlin braint neu e7ii, an heir 
by privilege, or born. Spelman's Glossary by mistake writes this 
Breint eric, from an old Latin MS. of the Laws of Howel Dda : 
where he also writes Vrchrichiad for gvrrthrycMad, an heir. See 
Spelman's Glossary in Adeliir^us, 

Edmund, Earl of Richmond. See Owen Tudur, 

Edni. lian Edni. 

Owain ydyw o Llan Edni. — I&iian Deulwyn. 

Ednob, the lordship of Edenhope, near Bishop's Castle in 

Shropshire. 

Yu amwyn Ednob ednaint ar gnes 

Yn lladd esgarant pan esgores. 
Cynddelw, in Marwnad Cadwallawn ap Madawg. 

The Castle of Edenhope, besieged by the Bomans and defended 
by Cadwallawn. 

Ednyted, an old British name of men. 

Ednyfed Vychan, Baron of Bryn Ffenigl, was a man of great 

power in Wales about the year 1200. He was of the privy 

council to Llewelyn ap lorwerth ; and his wife was Gwenllian, 

daughter to Ehys ap Gruffudd, Prince of South Wales. (Powel, 

Car., p. 249.) He had a son called Gruffudd, who was obliged 

to flee his country on a suspicion of an amour with the Princess 

; and we have extant his father's advice to him in excellent 

poetry : 

Bydd ddilesg, Gruffudd, bydd dilech 

Ag na ddilyn eiddilwch 

ddolnr bydd eiddilach 

O Ddulyn oni ddelych. — Edn. Vycluin a'i dint. 

[See G. 0. Harry's Pedigrees, whether Llewelyn ap lorwerth had 
a daughter. — W, 2>.] 

Ednyfed Awo or Ednyfedog (n. pr. v.). 

Ednywain Bendew ap Eginir ap Gollwyn, lord of Englefield, 

20 



154 CELTIC RBMAIKS. 

one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, bore argent^ a chevron 
sdbU between three boars' heads of the second. 

Ednywain ap Bradwen, of Ilys Bradwen near Dolgelleu, one 
of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, lived about a.d. 1194 
Bore giiles^ three serpents enowed argent, 

Edryd Wallthir, a name given by the Britains to Eadred 
Duke of Mercia, who fought the Britains at Gwaith Cymryd 
Conwy, A.D. 880. 

Edryd ap Nethan [Tref Edryd near Mathraval. — W. J9.]. 

EDRYWi(n. pr. v.). Traeth Edry wi Carreg Edrywi is in New- 
port, Pembrokeshire. 

Edvedd ap Sedd Gyfedd o Frecheiniog. 

Edw (fl.) : hence Aberedw. 

Edwal ap Grufifudd ap Cynan, abbot of Fenmon. (Garadoc in 
Gruff, ap Cynan.) 

Edwal Foel, made Prince of Wales, a.d. 916, son of Anarawd. 
{Caradoc.) 

Edwin ap Gronwy (called King of Englefield), one of the 
Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, ap Owen ap Hywel Dda ap Cad- 
ell ap Khodri Mawr, lived at Uys Llaneurgain, an. 1040. Bore 
argent, a cross flory engrailed sable between four Cornish choughs. 

Edwin, son of Howel Dda. {Garadoc, p. 58.) 

Edwin or Edwyn (n. pr. v.), a British name. A King of the 
Saxons of this name, bom and brought up in Cadvan's court in 
Anglesey, with Cadwallon, his father Edelfled having turned off 
his mother, who took refuge, and was brought to bed in Cad- 
van's court. Edwin and Cadval were sent by Cadvan to 

King of Armorica, to' be brought up in feats of arms. (BrtU 

TyssUio) The Triades call Edwin " un o dair gormes Mon a 
fagwyd ynddi" {Tr. 81), i, e., one of the tliree molesters of 
Anglesey that were born in it. It is a British name. 

North dnid Gasswallon wrth drin 
Nan Edwin a wnae adwy. 
See Edwin ap Gronwy, 

Edwy river falls into the Machawy river at Aberedwy, Breck- 
nockshire (q. d. Ehedwy, from eJipd, to fly). {E, Llwyd) See 
Aedwy, 

Edwyn, Kmg of the Picts,' died a.d. 736. (Powel, Garadoc, 
p. 15.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 155 

Edyrn, vel Edeym, qu. ? 

Efelffre, one of the three commots of cantref Daugleddeu 
in Pembrokeshire. Qrt, whether Y Velffri is from hence ; or 
Y VSl Vre, the honey-mount ? [Qu., Ufelfre, the fiery moun- 
tain ?—>r.i>.] 

Efell, Angl., a twin, Cynfrig Efell. 

Efyrnwy or Efernwy (fl.) or Y Fumwy, or Furnwy, falls into 
the Severn. 

Efiliau (n. pr. f.). Eftliau, wife of Wydyr Drwm, noted for 
a chaste wife. (IV. 55.) 

Efionydd, a part of Caernarvonshire^ or Eiddionydd ; also 
EJionudd, but not right. 

Och fyned nwch Efionndd 

Ceirw da 'ngh6r Cowrda 'nghndd. — Hywel BeinallL 

Ni chawn odid ddawn hyd Eiddionydd. — Ttulur Aled. 

Efnudd neu Eunudd ap Alan ap Alser. 

Efnydd (n. pr. v.). Efnydd ap Clydawc died a.d. 936. {Car- 
ad,, p. 51.) 

Efnydd ap Morrier, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales. 
In another book thus : Efnydd ap Gwerngwy in Dyffryn Clwyd, 
and lord thereof, lived in the time of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, of 
whom he had this coat for his services in the wai^s with the Sax- 
ons : azure, a lion rampant or. One Efnydd, a prince, I suppose, 
was slain in Arwystli, a.d, 900. (Powel, Oarad,, p. 43.) 

Efrawc : see JSfrog. 

Efrei, Gw^ Efrei, Jews, Hebrews. 

Efroc, Efrog, Ebhrawc, Evrawc, and Evravc (n. pr. v.) ; Lat., 
EbraticTia. 

Efroc Gaparn, the fifth King of Britain. He had twenty 
sons and thirty daughters. Built Caer Efh)c, now York, and 
made some conquests in Gaul. Beigned thirty-nine years. 
(Usher's Cai., Efrog ; Triades, Catalogue of Cities, Caer Efrawc.) 

Egbert, King of the West Saxons, who in the ninth century 
(A.D, 827) brought the Saxon heptarchy under one crown, and 
called them by the name of English, and their country England. 
About 100 years afterwards the Danes conquered the English, 
and kept the crown for some time. About 100 years after that 



156 CELTIC REMAINS. 

the Normans conquered England, and demolished most of the 
English nobility, so that what remains of great families in 
Britain are either ancient Britains or Normans. 

Eginib ap GoUwyn. 

Eginoc, one of the four cantrefs of Caermarthenshire. 

Eglwys Wen (Yr), i, e., Whitchurch, Candida Gam, built by 
Nynias, the Britain, in the country of the Bemicians, or Southern 
Picts. (Bede, 1. iii, c. 14.) 

Egri (n. pr. v.). Egri o Dalybolion ym M6n, A.D. 550 {Arch. 
BriL, 257) : hence Bodegri, Anglesey. 

Egryn (n. pr. v.). Egryn ap Gwrydr Drwm. lianegiyn, 
Meirion. See Llwyn Egryn, 

Eg WAD Sant. Llanegwad, Carmarthenshire. Wiliam Egwad, 
the poet, had his cognomen from hence ; lived a.d. 1480. 

Egwest or Egwestl. Camden calls it a small monastery of 
Llan Egwest. Llanegwest, in Latin Valle Grttcis, an abbey near 
Llangollen, Denbighshire, built a.d. 1200. John Llwyd, arglwydd 
abad. 

Ehedog. Moel Ehedog, a high mountain in Caernarvonshire. 

EiDAL, Eydal, Italy, Italia. 

EiDOL or Eidiol ap Evrog Gadarn. 

EiDOL ap Arthfael, the 63rd King of Britain ; Latinized Aido^ 
Ins. 

EiDRUL, Hteturia [Hetruria or Etniria ?]. 

EiDYN (n. pr. v.). Eidyn, mab Einygan, a laddodd Aneurin. 
(TV. 38.) 

EiDDiLic CoRR, one of the three noted philosophers {Tr. 31) ; 
in another place, Qwyddyl Goi^, Perhaps Eiddilic should have 
been Gwyddelig, i, e., Irish. 

EiDDiONYDD {E. Llwyd), a country or commot commonly called 
Eifionydd, in Caernarvonshire. 

Ni chawn odid ddawn hyd Eiddionydd. — Tudur AM, 
See Eifionydd. 

EiDDON ap Idnerth; in another place, Iddo ap Idnerth ap 
Edryd. 

EiDDUN. Cad Eiddun. Cledr cedeym cad Eiddun. {Cyndddw) 

EiDDYN, Dinas Eiddyn, Edenborough. See Penrhyn Rhionedd. 

ElFFT, for Aijphf, Egypt. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 157 

EiFiON (n. pr. V. ?). See Neifion. 

Nofiad a wnaefch hen Eifion 

O Droia fawr draw i Fon. — Dafydd ap Gwihjm. 

EiFiONYDD (wrote also Eiddionydd and Efionydd, and pro- 
nounced YJionydd), one of the two commots of Dunodic in Caer- 
narvonshire ; the other, in old times, being Ardudwy. 

Ni chawn odid ddawn hyd Eiddionydd. — Ttidur Aled. 
See Eifion, 

EiFL (Yr), wrote also Yr Eifyl or Yr Eiffyl, a high mountain 
on the sea-coast of Caernarvonshire. On the top of one of its 
three heads is a surprising fort of vast stones. I read in an old 
MS. that the Princes of Scotland, upon the defeat and death of 
their countryman, Elidir Mwynfawr, killed by Shun ap Mael- 
gwn, landed their forces, and burnt the country from the Eifl to 
Hergyn [Erging, Urchenfield. — W. DJ], 

EiGBAD Sant. Ilaneigrad, a church in Anglesey. 

EiGYR and Eigr, verch Amlawdd Wledig ap Cynwal. 

EiGYK, the mother of Arthur, King of Britain. 

Ejlon ap Dogvael Dogveiling. 

EiLLiON. Caer Billion in Powys. {Qweylgorddau Potvys.) 

EiLLT. Cynddelw a gant y 3 Englyn hyn i Fab Eillt o Lan- 
sadwrn a'i enw Pyll. (MS,) 

EiNiAWN, or Eneon, Einion, Eingion, and Engan, or, as Cam- 
den writes it, Enion, is a British proper name of men, which he 
says the British Glossary translateth Justiis ; but there is no 
such glossary. It is true that uniawn in the British tongue sig- 
nifies straight or just, though not enion. But the name Einiavm, 
as it is pronounced Eingion, seems to have the signification of 
the word eingion, that is, a smith's anvil, — a name not improper 
in an age of war, to a man able to bear strokes. Einion fab Bed 
Brenhin Cernyw. (TV. 75.) 

EiNiAWN ap Arthal ap Morudd was the name of the 40th 
King of Britain, which was about 200 years before the birth of 
Christ. 

Einion ap Maelgwn Gwynedd. 

Einion ap Gwalchmai. 

Einion ap Morgan ap Arthel, King of Britain, the 13th after 
Brutus. 



158 CELTIC REMAINS. 

EiNiON Sais ap Ehys ap Howel. Scr. 

EiNiON Yrth, lord of Caereinion, one of the eight sons of 
Cunedda Wledig who were drove out of the country by the Scots, 
A.D. 440. Llanelngion Frenin yn Lleyn. Annianus ? 

EiNON ap Owen ap Howel Dda. 

EiNUDD or Efnydd ap G wemgwy. See Ffnydd. Hunudd verch 
Einudd. 

EiNWS ap leuan Llwyd. 

EiRA Mawr a barhaodd o ddydd Enwaediad hyd Wyl Badrig, 
yn amser Gruff, ap Llewelyn. {MS,) 

EiRCH or Erch, a river in Caernarvonshire. Abereirch, vulgo 
Berach. St. Cawrda ? 

[Bwriais naid hyd Abererch, 

Llan yw hon ar afon Ercb. — Oro, Owadn, W. D.] 

EiRiF (n. pr. v.), father of Llawr, and is probably a Norman 
name. (IV. 72.) 

EiRiOEW. Scr. 

EiRYRi or EiRYRiw, Snowdown Mountains in North Wales. 
Humphrey Llwyd writes it Eiryri^ and explains it Niyiferos ; 
but why did not Camden own where he had this derivation ? 
See Eryreu, (See Brit. Descr. Com., p. 82). Llywarch Brydydd 
y Moch seems to derive the name of the mountain from eryron 
(eagles) : 

Dadeni haelion 
O hil Eryron o Eryri. —P. M. 

ElTTUN, enw lie. Gwenllys Eittun. (fir. Dafydd ah Tudur.) 
[Eytyn o Eytyn ; Eyton of Eyton, near Rhiwabon. Sion ab Elis 
Eytyn, the Bosworth soldier. He lived at Rhiwabon, afterwards 
Watstay, and now called Wynnstay. — W. J?.] 

EiTHA CoTHWYR, it secms, was the British name of the inha- 
bitants of the Hebrides, which signifies extreme old inhabitants, 
who might be part of the first planters of Britain. They are 
called in Eumenius' panegyric to Constantius Atta Cotti. See 
BrU. Dcacr.y p. 59. 

EiTHON (Din Eithon ?), a river. See Ithon and leithon. [Caer 
wythochrog ar Ian Eithawn. — W. 2?.] 

EiTHRAS o Lydaw. Sc. 

Elaeth Frenhin ap Meuric. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 159 

Elaeth, a poet of the fifth or sixth century. Mr. Edward 
Ilwyd says he is author of Englynion y Beddau (he wrote near 
the time of Llywarch Hen) ; but in p. 258, Englynion y Beddau 
are given to Taliesin by William Maurice. 

Elays, a river, qu. ? Penrhyn ar Elays, one of three commots 
of Arberth in Dyfed. (Price's DescripL) 

Elbeth. Wiliam arglwydd Elbeth o Normandi. 

Elbodus (Elfod). Leland says that he quashed the Arian 
and Pelagian heresies, settled the time of Easter, and was Bishop 
of Gwynedd (Venetorum) ; that he was acquainted with those 
two learned men, Nennius and SamueL This was probably the 
Elvodugus whom Nennius mentions as his patron. 

Eleias Ledwyr Lydaw. 

Elemon. Caer Elemon {Nennius), See Selemion, 

Elen, a river that runs into the Gwy. Pont ar Elen ; Cwm 
Elen. [JElain (a doe), swift or rapid. Pont ar Elain ; Cwm 
Elain, near Ehaiadr Gwy.-r- W, D.] 

Elen (n. pr. f.), Helena. 

Elen verch Eudaf, Helen, the daughter of Octavius, who was 
married to Macsen Wledig, Emperor of Rome. She was sur- 
named £len Lueddog, or the Warlike, on account of the vast army 
sent over to Armorica in her time, under the command of Cynan 
Meriadoc. The British copy of Tyssilio mentions her by name ; 
but the Latin of Galfrid doth not, the two Helens, I suppose, 
having confounded him. This last Helen is called in the Triades 
Helen Zueddog, and not Luryddog, as some ignorant writei'S would 
have it. See Eleriy daughter of Coel. 

Elen, the daughter of Coel, King of Britain, who was married 
to Constantius Chlorus, and was the mother of Constantinus 
Magnus, the Emperor. This Elen was called Elen Lwyddog, or 
the Prosperous, because it is said she found the cross of Christ. 
She was also called Elen Fannog, i. e., the Famous or Noted. 
She is by some confounded with Elen Lueddog. She was bom 
about the year 250, at York, or London, or Colchester ; which 
latter was called after Coel, her father, a British king. Constan- 
tius took her to wife, and Constantino the Great, her son, was 
born A.D. 274. Theodoret says {Hist. Eccl, 1. i, c. 14) that she 
brought her son up in Christian piety ; but Eusebius (1. i, c 47) 



1 60 CELTIC REMAINS. 

seems to say she was not hei*self a Christian till her son was 
converted by the sight of a cross in the heavens when he marched 
against the tjrrant Maxentius. She went to visit the Holy Land 
by divine instinct, and found the cross of Christ. {Brit Sand.) 
Constantine called her to his court, and declared her Augusta 
or Empress. Eufinus (1. x, c. 7) says she was a most fervent 
Christian. St. Gregory the Great says (L ix, Epist,, c. 9) she 
was incomparable for religion and goodness. She was buried at 
Borne about A.D. 328. 

Elenis (n. L). 

Elerch, a river in Geneu'r Glyn, Cardigansliire, falls into 
Eleri. 

Eleki (St.), daughter of Brychan, wife of Caredig Ceredigion, 
and mother of Sant, father of Dewi (Ach Cynog.) 

Eleri (fl.), vulg6 Leri. Glan Leri. Aber Leri, Cardiganshire. 

Elerius (St), brought up at Uanelwy, and founded a monas- 
tery at Gwytherin in Dyffryn Clwyd, of which he was abbot. 
He wrote the Life of St. Winifred, whose first name was Brewa 
{Brit, Sanct.)y recti Gwenfrewi ; and Leland calls her Guenvreda 
{Script, Brit, c. 49). Brought up by Beuno. 

Qu. whether liar (Ilanilar) be this Elerius, or perhaps Geler ? 
Dr. Fleetwood denies that Elerius wrote her Life. 

Elestron ap Don (n. pr. v.). 

Eleth Santes. Cappel Eleth in the parish of Amlwch, Anglesy. 

Elfael, a castle in Maelienydd, belonging to Cadwallon ap 

Madog ap Idnerth, whose sons were drove out of that country 

by Balph Mortimer, a.d. 1194, when he built the castle of Cym- 

aron. 

Yn amwyn Elfael pan wnaeth Elfed 

Elfydden grealawn elfydd greuled. 

Cynddelwy in Marwnad Cad. ap Madog. 
See Elfed, 

Elfael. leuan ap Rhys ap Ivor o Elvael. 

Elfan Powys, brother of Cynddylan. {Llytoarch Hen in Cyn- 
ddylan.) 

Elfed (n. L), qu. a jiwqtI {Llywarch Hen in Cadwallon's Elegy.) 
Cynwyl Elfed, Carmarthenshire. See Elfael. 

Elfyw (n. pr. v.). Cwmmwd mab Elfyw, one of the four com- 
inots of Cantref Mawr, in Caermarthenshire. (Price's Descript) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 161 

Elgan Wefl Hwcli ap Cynan Archeuad. In another place, 

Elgan Wefl Ffloch ap Arthnael. 

Elgno (n. pr. v.). 

Pwjlles i pan las Elgno. 

Llywarch Hen^ Marwnad Urien Beged. 

Elgud ap Cadfarch o L^n» 

Elgwy (fl.), wrote anciently for Elwj/. {E. Llwy^,) 

Eli, enw Ue ym Mhowys. 

Eryr Eli, echeidw myr. 

Llywarch HeUy in Marwnad Cynddylan. 
Eryr Pengarn. — Llywarch Hen, 
Eryr EH ban i lief. 

Llywarch Hen, in Marwnad Cynddylan. 

Eli, a river (Camden in Olamorgan) ; in Morden's Map, Elay \ 
Elay, mentioned in the Hist Land, (Camden,) 

Eli. Ynys Eli, the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire ; so called, 
as Bede says, from the plenty of eels there. But query whether 
a British name, Elwy or Aelwy ? See Eli in Marwnad Cyn^ 
ddylan by Llywarch Hen. 

Elian (St.). In our old genealogies he is called Elian Ceim^ 
iad ap Alldud Eedegawg ap Carcludwys. Qu. whether his father 
is the same with St. EUtyd, who was the famous Iltutus that 
erected a college in Morganwg, and preserved the religion and 
learning of the Britons from ruin upon the Saxons first coming 
and conquering Lloegria ; and was the instructor of St. David, 
St. Paul de Leon, St. Sampson, St. Teilo, Gildas. 

The Legend of St. Elian says that he and his family and effects 

came by sea from Rome, and landed in Anglesey at Perth yr 

Ychen, and hard by there built his church. Tliis is said to be 

in the time of Caswallon Law Hir, the father of Maelgwn 

Gwynedd. 

Elian a berai wjlo 

O lid am ei fuwch a*i lo 

Fe wnaeth yn ddall Gaswallon 

Arglwydd mawr ar ogledd Mon. 

See Rowlands' Mona A niijua. 

By oral tradition, Elian had a young doe which he brought up 

tame, and the lord of that country gave him as much land to his 

church as the doe would compass in a day. The tradition doth not 

21 



162 CELTIC REMAINS. 

say how the doe was drove to compass the ground ; but it hap- 
pened in her marking out her lord's ground that the greyhound of 
some rich man of the neighbourhood disturbed or killed the doe, 
upon which St Elian in great wrath pronounced it a judgment 
on the inhabitants of that parish, that none of them should keep 
a greyhound to the end of the world ; and his sentence is come 
to pass, for none of the parishioners are able to keep a grey- 
hound, — ^they are so very poor, the ground is so very rocky. 

The marks of the feet of St Elian's oxen are shewn in the 
rocks where he landed, and the history of the doe is still pre- 
served in painted glass on one of the windows of the church. 

How this Elian came to be called Hilary I cannot telL There 
is a small promontory near the church called by seamen Hilary's 
Point, but by the natives it is called Trwyn y Balog or Balawg, 
which is an ancient name (I don't doubt) older than Elian. But 
they have also among their coasters a bastard English name given 
it when the island was in the possession of the English, which 
is Pwynt yr Leinws, i. e,, -^Elianus' Point ; and this shews that 
Hilary hath no claim at all to this place. There is a place in 
the same parish called Ehos Manach, i. e., the Monk's Boss, which 
shews that there was a cell of monks at Llan Elian ; a bog also, 
called Cors Mian, retains its name to this day. 

There is in the church (which is a grand piece of building) au 
appartment which to this day is called myvyr., which is an anti- 
quated word for a library : from hence comes myfyrdod, study ; 
myfyrio, to study. 

I have a copy of a grant of lands and privileges said to have 
been made by Caswallon Law Hir to St. Hilarius. It is said to 
have been confirmed by Edward IV, A.D. 1465. 

Elian seems to have been his first Welsh name, and Hilary or 
Hilarius his ecclesiastical name given by the Pope on preferring 
him to some high post in the Church ; and the addition, or sur- 
name, C&imiad, for his being a traveller (k cammv) \ so Beuno 

Geimiad. 

Gymorth gan Elian Geimiad. 

There are several churches dedicated to him : Uanelian yn Rhos, 
a parish and church, Denbighshire ; Llanelian, Anglesey, formerly 
a monastery or college ; Mynydd Elian, hard by; and Perth Elian. 



CELTIC REMAINS, 163 

Elidan (St). Llanelidan, DeDbighshire. 

Elidir, the 32nd King of Britain, called Elidir Waty the mild. 

Elidir Lydanwyn ap Meirchion, father of LlTwarch Hen. 
(TV. 14) 

Elidir Mwynfawr, a North Briton that claimed the govern- 
ment of Wales from Shun ap Maelgwn, and entered upon his 
land in Caernarvonshire, and was killed at Abemefydd. Hence 
Oamedd Elidir, a mountain near Ilanberis, took its name, (if /S. 
and Tr.) 

EuDiR Sais^ a native of Anglesey, a sound poet of the 18th 

century. 

Da Elidir gwir gwarant, fto. 

Owr o ddoethion Mob, mynwes eigiawn. 

Eliter Gosgorddfawr {Tr. Mdrch, 1), t. «., Elifer with the 
great guard [clan — W, Z>.] ; wrote also Eliffer and Oliver {Tr. y 
Meirch, 1), but by Dr. Davies (Grram., p. 161), Elider Gosgorfawr. 
He married Eurddul, sister of Urien Reged, and daughter of 
Cynfarch Hen, (TV. 52.) Gwrgi, Peredur, and Ceindi^ch Pen- 
asgell, were three children of his at one birth, (TV. 52.) But 
somebody told Camden it was Heliodor, the great Jiousekeeper, 
and he turns it to Cosoorvaur, — which hath no meaning at all. 
Thus it is when authors pretend to explain a language unknown 
to them, or take those explanations from an ignorant native 
who may know as much of the grounds and foundations of his 
language as his horse does. See Oliver. 

EuFFRi (n. pr. v.). 

Cknt cant ei moh'ant mal Eliffri. 

Eign, ap Gwalchmai^ to Nest. 

Elis, a modern name, and also a surname, wrote Ellis. 

Elise (n. pr. v.), a common name among the Britains ; but 
qu. whether from Ellis (which Camden says is corrupted from 
Elias, Heb., Lord God) or from Elijah ; or perhaps of British 
original, as Elmur, Elidir, Elgno, &c. It is pronounced El-i-se, 
in three syllables. 

Elisseu, qu. an idem quod Elisha vel Eliseus (Heb.) ? 

Eliwlod (n. pr. v.). Eliwlod, mab Madog ap Uthur, a nephew 
of King Arthur, and for his oratory called the Golden-tongued 
Knight (TV. 82.) There is a poem extant, a dialogue between 



164 CELTIC REMAINS. 

him and Arthur, where the poet feigns this Eliwlod to be in the 
shape of an eagle, appearing to the King after his death. '' Ym- 
ddiddan rhwng Arthur a'r Eryr." 

Eliwys ap Owain Cyfeiliog. 

Ellemenig (n. pr. v.). {Tr. y Meirch, 7.) See Llemenig. 

Elli. Llanelli, Caermarthenshire, a village. Fairs kept here. 

Elliw or EvELLiw (n. pr. f.), daughter of Cadivor ap Collwyn. 
{CaradoCf p* 182.) 

Elliw, verch Owain ap Dafydd. 

Ellmyn, Lat. Alemanni, Germans. Dr. Davies derives it from 
ully Lat. alivs. The Ellmyn were those Gennans that inhabited 
from the Ehine to the Danube and Main. See Allmyn. 

Elltyd Sant, i. e., St. Iltutus, Abbot. Qu., whether Alltud 
Eedegwg ? Llanelltyd Church is near Dolgelleu. He had a 
monastery in Glamorganshire. His acts are in Capgrave. See 
Usher's Antiq,, p. 252. He was son of Bicanus, a knight, by his 
wife Riemguilida, daughter to a King of Armorica ; served in 
the wars under his kinsman, King Arthur ; then going to the 
court of the King of Glamorgan, married a lady of quality ; and 
by the persuasion of St. Cadoc, Abbot of Llangarvan, parted with 
his wife, and accepted of the tonsure of St. Dubricius, and resided 
on the sea-coast at Llan Iltud, now called Lantwit, where he 
founded a monastery and opened a school. His scholars were 
Samson, Maglorius, St. Paul de Leon, Gildas, and St. David. 
Left his school to a disciple, Isam ; retired to a cave, thence to 
Armorica, and died at Dole. {Brit Sand., Nov. 6.) 

Ellyll Ednyuedawc Drythyll (ZV. 70), un o'r tri Gwydd 
Ellyll. Qu, what this Ellyll was ? Gwydd Ellyll may be one 
of the spirits of the wood, in the nature of the Dryades, or per- 
haps a wood-rover. 

Elmur, mab Cadeir, one of the three Tarw Unben. {Tr, 13.) 

Elnoc Sant o Gaergybi. Qu. whether Elvot ? 

Elphin ap Gwyddno Goronir, lord of Cantre Gwaelod, was the 
patron of the poet Taliesin. 

Ac yn armes Taliesin 
Drad yn Llys Faelgwn fu'r drin 
Pan olljngawdd medrawdd mwy 
Blphin o eurin aerwy. — LI, M, y Paidrl, 
See Elphm in LI. H. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 165 

Elphin ap Urien ap Cynfarch. 

Elisabeth and Elsbeth (and so they pronounce in the north 
of England), id. quod Angl. Elizabeth. 

Eluned (Sant) verch Brychan yngorsebawl, neu Crug gors- 
eddawL 

Eluned, cariad Ywein ap Urien. Modrioy Eluned was one of 
the 13 tlws Ynys Prydain. The stone in it had the virtues of 
Gyges' ring. It would conceal the man that would conceal it ; 
meaning secresy in love affairs. 

Eluther, the name of a Pope said to be at Eome when Lies 
ap Coel, King of Britain, sent to him for preachers to propagate 
the Christian faith. This was before the year 156, as the British 
copy of Tyssilio has it. Latin writers call him Elutherius or 
Elutherus. See Usher's PHmordia, p. 34. 

Elved, name of a place. Cynwyl Elved, a place in Caermar- 
thenshire. See the quotation of Cynddelw in Elfaeh Llywarch 
Hen, in Marwnad Cadwallon, mentiona a place of this name. 
Nennius says (c. 65) that Edguin reigned seventeen years, occu- 
pied Elmet, and turned out Certec, King of that country. See 
Tyssilio, in Braint's speech to Cadwallon. Gale, in his notes on 
Nennius, says that Elmet is in Yorkshire, near Leeds, and that 
Bede mentions it. Bede, in 1. xv, c. 14, at the end, mentions a 
monastery in Elmcie Wood, which Dr. Smith says was a large 
forest including Berwic and a great part of Yorkshire ; and the 
English annotator says it took its name from elms abounding 
there, which wants proof. For the Britains, drove by Edwin 
from the country called Elfed, north of the Humber, carried that 
name with them, and gave it to places in Wales ; and according 
to Nennius it was called Elmet before Edwin conquered it and 
turned out King Certec, who must have been a Briton. See 
Tyssilio, who calls him Ceredic in Braint's speech to Cadwallon. 
The transcribers of Nennius have made Ceredic and Elved into 
one word through ignorance, Gerdicselmet, 

Elyel or Elvael, a cantref between Wy and Severn, belong* 
ing formerly to Powys, in which are the commots of Uwch 
Mynydd, Is Mynydd, and Llechddyfnog. They were the lands 
of Ralph Mortimer in Powys r. Elfael. See Tralhong Elfael. 

Elfod, Elbiiod, and Elbod (n. pr. v.) ; Lat. Elbottis, Elhodus, 



1 66 CELTIC REMAINS. 

or Elvodugus as Nennius has it, and Dr. Davies (Pref. Gram.) 
Elbodius, was Archbishop of Wales, and died a.d. 809. (Powel, 
Caradoc, p. 21.) He changed the time of Easter about the year 
755. (Powel, Oar., p. 17.) But Caradoc makes him Archbishop 
oi North Wales (p. 211), which I suppose is a mistake, for that 
he was bom at Caergybi in Anglesey. (Achau'r Saint.) App. 
MS. TyssUio calls him Elvod Esgob Gwynedd (Bishop of North 
Wales, wliich probably means chief Bishop), and tliat he died 
A.D. 811. In the margin of Gildas Nennius (c. 65), Eeuchidus 
and Elbodus, Bishops, are mentioned. Nennius, the historian, 
says that he was the disciple of St. Elbotus (or Elbodugus as he 
names him in another place) ; and in the sixty-third chapter he 
calls one Beulanus, a presbyter, his master, — perhaps Saml. 
Beulan his interpolator. 

Elvyw. 

Elwy, river : hence Llanelv?y, St. Asaph. 

Elwtdden or Elwyddan, Elwyddyn or Elwyden (fl.). Tom 
Elwyddan mentioned in Ilywarch Hen's Marwnad Cyndylan, 
and in Englynion y Beddau. 

Elysmer, Elesmere in Shropshire, 

Llys Elysmer bei flfer bu ffwyr gno 

Llwyr llosged ei tbudwed ai tho. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i L. ap lorwerth. 
Elystan (n. pr. v.). 

Elystan Glodrydd, larll Henflfordd, one of the Five Eoyal 
Tribes of Wales (un o Bum Brenhinllwyth Cymru). 

Em, a woman's name. 

Emerchret (n. pr. f.). Emerchret, gwraig Fabon ap Dewen 
Hen, noted for a chaste wifa (Tr. 55.) 

Emlyn, nomen loci in Pembrokeshire ; one of the eight can- 

trefs of Dyfed. Y Castell Newydd yn Emlyn, got by fihys, 1215. 

Glyn Cuwch yn Emlyn {Tr. 30), the country of Pendaran 

Dyfed. 

Ifor deg yw ei frawd ynn 

I roi'n ami aur yn Emlyn. — O, ap leuan Hen. 

Emral, a gentleman's seat in [Flintshire]. 
Emreis. Cantref Emreis, mentioned by Cynddelw, where 
Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd fought a battla 



CELTIC REMAINS. 167 

Embus and Emreis {Tr. 90 and 91), in the present orthography 
Emrys (n. pr. v.) ; Latinized Ambrositis, 

Emrys Wledig, the 98th King of Britain, son of Constantine, 
an Armorican Britain, called Cwstenin Fendigaid (Tr. 90), bro- 
ther to Aldwr, King of Armorica. This Constantine had three 
sons : Constans or Cwstenin Vychan (Tr, 90), Emrys, and Uthur 
Bendragon. They burnt Gwrtheym's castle in Wales about a.d. 
480. See Dinas Emrys. 

Emtr is a very common name of men in Armorica ; and Emyr 
Llydaw was the name of the Prince that reigned there in Uthur 
Bendragon's time, and whose son Hywel was cotemporary with 
King Arthur, as appears by the Triades, No. 83. 

Eneas, a Trojan Prince, son of Venus and Anchises, married 
Lavinia, daughter of King Latiniis. In the British, Eneon or 
Einion (and not Evan, as Ainsworth, for Evan is but a very 
modem name). 

Eneirchawc (n. L). Gwyr Eneirchawc (Rai. Myrddin), some 
of the northern pirates. 

Pan dy£fon dros vop gwyr Eneirchawc. 

Enerys (n. faem.) {H. ap Owain Owynedd) 

Enethan ap Cadrod Calchfynydd. (Rhys Goch Eryri.) 

Enethan ap Siap : qu. ap Carwed ap Marchudd ? 

Eneuddon (n. pr. f.). (Dr. Davies.) 

Enddwyn Sant. Uanenddwyn, 

Enfael (n. pr. v.). (Tr. 24.; 

Enfail, ferch Brychan. 

Enid (n. pr. f.). 

Enid, verch Yniwl larll Dyfnaint, cariad Geraint ap Erbin, 
un o'r tair rhiain ardderchog. (Tr. 78.) 

Enid, verch lamys Arglwydd Awdle. 

Enlli (Tnsulam Entili sive Berdseyam), the Isle of Bardsey 
on the headland of Caernarvonshire, called Ueyn. Mr. Leland, 
for want of better acquaintance with our ancient British writers, 
hath committed a slip in endeavouring to explain this name ; 
but these slips are less common in him than any other English 
writer. He writes the name of this island (where Dubricius 
retired from the archbishoprick of Caerllion ar Wysg) Enis 



168 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Enthle, which he takes to be a corruption of EnisViin, because it 
lies against a country called Llin in Venetia (Gwyuedd), which 
others write Venedotia. All this is wrong. The island is not called 
by the natives Enis Entlile,but has been always called Tnys JSnlli; 
and the II has a sound which no English letters can express ; 
therefore it is impossible for an Englishman to guess at the deriva- 
tion of the word I know that Latin writers have turned it into 
Insulam JEntili, which was to show that they could do something, 
but really nothing to the purpose, and they might as well have 
wrote it with any other letters of the alphabet : Enbili, Encili, 
Endili, EnflSli, etc., etc. Myrddin Wyllt, the Caledonian Pictish 
poet about twelve hundred years ago, wrote it YTilli ; for in his 
Hoiane, wrote after the battle of Arderydd, between Ehydderch 
Hael of Aelclwyd (Dunbritton), Prince of the Cumbrian Britons, 
and Aeddan Vradog, one of the Princes of the Southern Picts, 
he has these words : 

Er gwaith Arderydd mi nim dorbi 
Gyn syrthiai awyr i lawr Llyr Ynlli, 

And the poet& from that time to this, and the natives at this 

day all over Wales, pronounce it Enlli 

The famous satirical Cywydd, wrote anciently on an abbot of 

that monastery, part of which is in everybody's mouth to this 

day, though, perhaps, not to be found in writing, is abo a proof 

of this : 

AbadEnUi 

• « « • 

« « « « 

Abad ffwt flFat lygatgoch 

Abad ni fyn roi bwyd i*w foch. 

This passage alone proves the pronunciation of both Enlli and 
Lleyn as to the sound II, and also tells us a piece of secret his- 
tory, that either the abbot had a wife, called here dbades (abbess), 

or that there was a nunnery on the island but he was a 

lay abbot See Cyliau Ihwri, 

Dr. Davies, author of the British-Latin Dictionary, about one 
hundred and twenty years ago published a handsome reward for 
anybody that could bring him a perfect copy of this poem ; but 
it was not to be found. It was at first so well known that it 



CELTIC REMAINS. 169 

was neglected to be wrote, and perhaps it was not safe to commit 

it to paper in the time when abbots had a power here. 

Lewis Glyn Cothi in one place writes it JEnUif, which induces 

me to think that it had its name &om being situated in the 

middle of strong tides, as they certainly are there as strong as 

any about Britain ; q. d. Yn y llif, i. e., in the stream. But Zleyn, 

the name of the headland or promontory, is plainly of another 

original. 

Llawer hyd yn nhir Lleyn 

Llwyn hesg yn llawen o hyn. — Perri's Rhetoric^ 

In the legend of St. Cynhaval there is mention of a fabulous 
giant called Enlli Qatar, who gave name to this island ; but 
that fiction took its rise from Benlli Gawr, the tyrant mentioned 
in Nennius, who was no giant though called Catvr, but a Prince 
oflal. 

This Enlli is probably one of the four islands which Ptolomy 
in his account of Ireland mentions to be on the east of Ireland, 
which, if he had been well acquainted with the place, he would 
have left to his account of Albion. The four islands are: — 
1, Monaida, Brit. Manaw, i. e., the Isle of Man ; 2, Mona, Brit. 
Mon, i, e., Anglesey ; 3, Edron, Brit. Ynys Adar probably ; 
4, Limnon, Brit. Ynys Enlli. He says these are both heremos 
(ifyqfioL — W, D), i, e., deserted or uninhabited. Limnon might 
have been originally in the book before Edron ; then there would 
have been no doubt but that Limnon was Enlli, and Edron pro- 
bably Bamsey on St. David's Head ; but as it is, Eamsey isle 
has a better claim to the name Limnon, as the adjoining country 
is also called Menew (Lat. Menevia), and Edron may be inter- 
preted Ynys Adar, or Bird's Island, from whence it might take 
the Saxon name Birdsey (corruptly, Bardsey). But as there is no 
great dependence on Ptolomy's geography of those countries, we 
cannot build much upon it ; and therefore on such uncertain 
grounds we cannot say that Enlli was in Ptolomy's time called 
Ynys Adar, though it is probable it might. As this Claud. 
Ptolomy wrote about the year of Christ 230, and that we find 
a Christian monastery there about two hundred years afterwards, 
we must look for some other sense to his heremos than what is 

generally given of it. 

22 



170 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Edron deserta est. 
Idmni deserta est. 

The island of Enlli is two miles long, and is at this day held 
by four families who are farmers there, and raise com and breed 
cattle there, and hath a very safe harbour in it for small vessels, 
and the people in it are about forty in number. It is very 
improbable such a fruitful island, so near the mainland, should 
be a desert, uninhabited; therefore his ifyqfio^ must certainly 
mean that it was a place for recluse men or hermits. 

St. Dubricius, the Archbishop of Wales, when he resigned the 
metropolitan see to St. David, would not have gone into a desert 
island with a great number of his clergy, as is plain he did by 
Taliesin's (Aneurin's) account, who says that most of the synod 
of Brevi accompanied him to that island. This was about the 
year 5. . ., as Usher places it. 

In Caerllion ar Wysg there was a museum of rarities in King 
Arthur's time, which Myrddin ap Morfran, the Caledonian, upon 
the destruction of that place, carried with him to the house of 

glass in the Isle of Enlli or Bardsey. {MS) 

» 

Myrddin aeth mawr ddawn ei wedd 

Mewn gwydr er mwyn ei gjdwedd. — l&iuin Byfi, 

Y 13 tlws aethant gida Myrddin ir Ty Gwydr. {Came MS) 
This house of glass, it seems, was the museum where they kept 
their curiosities to be seen by everybody, but not handled ; and 
it is probable Myrddin, who is said to live in it, was the keeper 
of their museum at that time. For these 13 rarities, or 13 tlws, 
or admirable things, brought by Myrddin there, see — 1, Lien 
Arthur ; 2, Dymwen ; 3, Com Bran Galed ; 4, Cadair Morgan ; 
5, Mwys Gwyddno ; 6, Hogalen Tudno ; 7, Pais Padarn ; 8, Pair 
Dymog ; 9, Dysgl ; 10, Towlbwrdd ; 11, Mantell ; 12, Modrwy ; 
13, Cyllell Llawfrodedd. 

There was a college of Lay Monks in Bardsey in those days, 
which some have ignorantly called Colideans, for Cyliau Ihwn, 
black cowls. Here Mjo^ddin studied, and here he ended his 
days, and was buried. See Cadvan, 

Ennaint Baddon, hot waters of Bath ; literally Bath ointment. 

Ennarawd. Caer Ennarawd. {Tr) Qu. whether this is Caer 



CELTIC KEMAINS. 171 

Anrhod, said to have been swallowed by the sea near Caernarvon 
Bay? 

Envey ap Uychwael. 

En WIG and Anwig (n. 1.). 

Entny, enw gwr. Tewdric ap Enyny. 

Eon, qu. ? Bodeon, enw Ue, qu. ? 

Eppa, a monk that poisoned King Ambrosius Aui'elius, first 
called Eopa. 

Eppi, Elizabeth, now Betty. 

Erbin ap Cwstenyn Cemyw. 

Erbin, father of Geraint the admiral. (Tr. 20.) 

Erbistock, church and parish in Denbighshire, deanery of 
Bromfield. 

Ercal, a man [nomen loci — TF". D.] mentioned by Ilywarch 
Hen in Marwnad Gynddylan. 

Tywarchen Ercal ar erdywal wyr 

etifedd Morial 
A gwedy Bhys maerjsonal. — Llytoarch Hen, 

Qu. whether this be Aircol Lawir [a person — W. D.] mentioned 
in the genealogies in " Llyfr Ilywarch Oflfeiriad" (MS., Jesus 
Coll., Oxon.). He was the father of one Erbin, and was a de- 
scendant, in the tenth degree, of Macsen Wledig. 

Ercwlff, Hercules ; perhaps from erchyll, horrid ; or this 
Erchyll was Hercules, the son of Jupiter. 

Erch, Orcades, or the Islands of Orkney : hence, probably the 
Ersh language in the Highlands. 

Erch or Eirch (fl.) : hence Abererch, vulgo Y Berach, near 
Pwllheli in Ileyn : hence also Nannerch, quasi Nant Erch. 

Erch a Heledd, in one copy of the Triades, for Arllechwedd 

in mine. 

As dne Daw yn ei dangnevedd 

A ddnc trais tros Erch a Heledd. 

OynddeLw, i Owain Gwynedd. 

Erddig, a gentleman's seat, (/. D) [The seat of Philip Yorke, 
Esq., near Wrexham, Denbighshire. — W. !>.] 
Erddlys (n. 1.). llwyth Erddlys. 
Erddyled, mam Llewelyn ap Hwlkyn. 
Ereinwc. This was the country about Hereford, to which 



1 72 CELTIC REMAINS. 

the Loegrian Britains were drove by the Saxons over the Severn ; 
and these people had princes of their own, as appears by the 
manner of electing Maelgwn Gwynedd, chief king. (See Traeth 
Maelgwn) In one MS. it is called Ehieinwg, The inhabitants 
were called Ereinwyr {H, Llvyyd), and the country Ereimoch 
{H, Llwyd), See Urging. Camden derives it from Ariconium, 
and also Arcenf eld [Urchenfield — W, D,], and Hariford, as he 
writes it. Ariconium he supposes to be at Kenchester, just by 
Hereford. (Camden in Herefordshire.) 

ERnN (fl.) — ^hence Cwm Ervin, Blaen Cwm Ervin, Cardigan- 
shire — falls into Clarach. 

Ergengl, the same with Erging, a part of Herefordshire, called 
Urchenfeld or Irchenfield ; called anciently Ereinwc. (H, Lhvyd,) 

Erging (n. 1.), qu. Ergyn? now Irchenfield; in Doomsday, 
Archenfeld, in Herefordshire. (Oamden.) Erging ac Ewyas was 
one of the commots of Cantref Iscoed in Gwent, but is now in 
Herefordshire. (Price's Descr.) Gwrtheyrn GwTtheneu, larll oedd 
hwnnw ar Went, Erging, ac Euas. (Tyssilio.) Cwstenyn, larll 
Erging ac Euas. See Unas, Evryas. 

Ergyr, a river, Cardiganshire (Cwm Ergyr), falls into Castell 
river. 

EuiVED, a gentleman's seat. {J, D) Troverth Foulkes of 
Erived. 

Erlleon (n. pr. v.). Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Urien Beged. 

Llawer ci geilig a bebog awyrenig 

A lithiwyd ar y Uawr 

Cyn bu Erlleon Lyweddrawr. — Llywarch Hen, 

Erlyn, a place in Gaul. Qu. whether Arlon in the Austrian 

Netherlands ? 

Lie w ffyrfder 

Wyd o Erlyn hyd Orliawns. — Hytoel Swrdwal. 

Erof Greulon (n. pr. v.), qu. Her9d ? 

Erot, the ancient way of writing the name of Herod. 

Seren heblaw llys Erot 
A roddes gyfarwyddyt. 

Ersu, the language of the Highlands of Scotland, as it is called 
by the English, from Erch, the old Celtic name of the Orcades. 
See Erch 



CELTIC REMAINS. 173 

Eryn, in Tr. 40, for Geraint, a King of Britain about 300 years 
before Christ. 

Eeyreu, Eryri, Eiryriw, or Eiryri, or Yryri. Creigiau Eryreu. 
Camden (in Caernarvonshire) calls them in English Snowdon, 
and says the British name signifies snowy mountains, as the 
Niphates in Armenia were called, from snow. If this had been 
the derivation, should not they have been called Creigiau 'r 
Eiry ? But see Eryri. Nennius calls them Heriri {E, Zlivyd), 
having a view probably to the Hebrew word Harerei. See 
Wyddfa, 

Erw or Erow, vulg. Wrw. Eglwys Erw in Cemmaes, Pem- 
brokeshire. 

EsABEL, Angl. Isabel. 

Esc, a river in Devonshire ; another Esc in Scotland, and the 
vale about it called Esk Dale. Oaer Esc, in the Triades, is Exe- 
ter. (E. Llwyd,) See Wysg. 

EsGAiR, river (Aberesgair or Aberisker), falls into the Wysg. 

EsGAiR is an ancient Celtic woYd prefixed to the names of 
mountains in Britain and Ireland, and signifies a ridge of 
mountains like a shin-bone; whence esgair in Wales is also a leg. 
Esgair Oerfel, yn y Werddon ; Esgair Galed ; Esgair Gwyngu ; 
Esgair Weddar, a gentleman's seat, Meirion, — ^Pryse ; Esgair Hir ; 
Esgair Milwyn ; Esgair Goch, in Llanvair y Bryn, Carmarthen- 
shire ; Esgair Angell, a gentleman's seat, — ^Pugh. {J, D) [Esgair 
Ivan, in Uanbrynmair. — W, i>.] 

EsGOTTLOND, used in the British copy of Tyssilio for Scotland, 
See Ysgwydiaid and Ysgodogion. 

EsGUD AuR or EsGUDAWR ap Owain Aurdorchog. 

EsMAS and Dismas, according to the British tradition, were 
the names of the two thieves that were crucified with Christ. 

Bhoed ar groes o wydd Moesen 

Bhwng Dismas ag Esmas hen. — Hywd Bafydd. 

EssiDLO, nomen loci. 

EsTEROLEF, One of the three commots of Arberth, in Pembroke- 
shire. (Price's Descript) 

EsTYLL. Pentre Estyll, Glamorganshire.- 

ESYLLT, daughter of Cynan Dindaethwy ap Idwal Iwrch ap 



1 74 CELTIC REMAIKS. 

Gadwaladr frenin, wife of Merfyn Frych, and mother to Rodri 

Mawr. (Price's Descript) 

EsYLLT Fyngwen, gwraig March Amheirchion, merch Culfyn- 

awyt Prydain ; aniweirwraig (TV. 56), a gordderch Trystan ap 

Tallwch, yn amser Arthur. Clustiau march i Farch Amheirchion 

a ganai pibau am dano. (D, /.) See March, 

Ethlyn. 

Pan bebyllo Lloegr yn tir Ethlyn 

A gwnenthnr Diganwy dinas dygyn. — ffoiane Myrddin, 

Ethni Wyddeles, gwraig Gwynawg ap Clydawc. 

EcTARTH^ a gentleman's seat. 

Ettas ap Morgan Hir ap lestin ap Gwrgi. 

Eqas (n. 1.) in Hereford and Gloucestershire ; Latinized by 
some, Geuisda ; and this caused Jo. Major (Hist, Scot, lib. ii, 
c. 3) to say that Vortigem was Comes de West Sex, The British 
History by Tyssilio says plainly that Gwrtheyrn (Vortigem) was 
a South Wales man. " larll oedd hwnnw ar Went, ac Erging, 
ac Euas"; i, e., he was Earl of Gwent (Monmouth), and Erging 
(Urchenfield), and Euas; which last is now vulgarly called 
Ewyas, Ewyas Lacy, etc. See Ewyas, 

EUBUL, secretary to Gronw Ddugu. 

EuDAF (n. pr. v.), Lat. Octamus, father of Elen Lueddog, wife 
of MaximuB. 

EUDAF, the 49th King of Britain. 

EuDAP, the 88th King of Britain. 

EuDAF (Caer), Caer yn Arfon. (Th. Williams* Catalogue) 

EuDHA ap Cariadawc ap Bran Galed ; wrote also Evdhaf, 

EUDHYN. 

EuLO or Eflo, in Flintshire. Qu. whether Coleshill? At 
Coed Eulo, Dafydd and C3man, sons of Owain Gwynedd, put 
part of King Henry TI's army to flight, slew a great number, 
and pursued the rest to the King's camp on Saltney Marsh, near 
West Chester {i, e., Morfa Caer) ; from thence Owain retreated 
to a place called to this day Cil Owain, t. c, Owain's Retreat 
[Ogof Owen, or Cil Owen, where Owen Glyndwr was fed during 
his exile. — W, D.] 

EuGAN. Bod Eugan, qu. ? 

EuNANT (n. 1.), in Llanwddyn. Sc. Wynne o Eunant 



CELTIC REMAINS. 175 

EUNANWY. Scr. 

EuNEDD ap Bledred, 890. 

EuNEDD ap Clydawg died 936. 

EuNTDD GwERNGWY, of DyflFryn Clwyd, 1135. 

EuRBKAWST, un daii gwraig Brychan Brycheiniog. 

EuBBEE Wyddel : see Cormur, 

EuRDDYL, daughter of Cynfarch Hen {Tr, 52), and sister to 
Urien Beged (Llywarch Hen.) 

EuRFRON HoEDLiw (n. pr. f.). Powel, p. 183. Qu. the same 
with Huron : see Tegau, 

EuRFYL Santes. Ilanenrfyl in the deanery of PooL 

EuRFYL, verch Cynferch Oer, gwraig Oliver Gosgorddfawr. 

EuRGAiN, daughter to Maelgwn Gwynedd, married to Elidir 
Mwynfawr, priodawr o'r Gogledd, i, e,, a proprietor or prince in 
the North, who claimed the crown from Rhun ap Maelgwn, who 
was but a base son ; and Elidir came with a fleet from North 
Britain, and landed in Anglesey about the year 580, but was 
repulsed ; and Rhun carried the war to Scotland, which lasted 
several years. (Tr. and MSS. al) In one MS. she is said to 
have married Ethelfred, brenin Northhumberland. 

Eurgain verch Maelgwn Gwynedd a roes y ganwyll wrth yr 
adar gwylltion i ddangos y fifordd i'w chariad. (2>. J,, MS) 

Llaneurgain, in English Northop, a church and town in Flint- 
shire. 

Eurgain a gaed yn Argoed 

O'r un cyff goreu 'n y coed. — Huw Gae Llwyd, 

EURGRAWN. Scr. 

EuRLLiw (nom. fem.). 

EuROG Gadarn, King of Britain ; Eboracus, 3969. G. 

EuRON (n. f.). This is Euron Galon Galed (hard-hearted 
Euron), mentioned by Myrddin. See Aeron. 

EuROPA, Europe. 

EusTus Cruer. {ff, C, p. 151.) 

EuTAWD (n. pr. v.), father of Gwyl, a concubine of King Arthur. 

EUTUN. Davydd Eutun. Canys brawd un fam un dad i For- 
gan ap Llewelyn oedd Davydd Eutun. 

[Eyton, seat of a family of that name in Flintshire. — W, 2>.] 

Evan, a modern nom. propr. of men, from letiaf, which see. 



1 76 CELTIC REMAINS. 

EvELL, a cognomen ; as Einion EvelL [A twin. — W. i?.] 
EvELLiw or Elhiw, nom. fern. (PoTvel, p. 183.) 
EvENECHTYD, a parish in Denbighshire. 
EvERWic, Eborcuyus, York. (Dr. Davies) 
EvEAUC, EvRAWC : See Efroc, 

EvREAM Faen Gwynedd ; id. quod Abraham. [Dr. Barnes.) 
Madog ap Evream. 

EvYRDYL. {Llywarch Hen.) Eurdyl, merch Orth. EurddyL 

Handid Evyrdyl aflawen. — Llywarch JSen, Mar. Urien. 

EVIONYDD or ElVIONYDD (n. 1.). 

EwEiN, for Ywain or Owain. 

EwERDDON, Ireland^ Hibemia, Invema, Ivemia, lerna. 

EwERDDONiG, Irish. See Iwerddon and Ywerddan^ q. d. y 
Werdd Ynys, the Green Island. 

EwERYDD. Forth Ewerydd yn y Gogledd, where Bhun ap 
Maelgwn fought the relations of Elidir Mwynfawr; said by some 
to be Lancaster ; others, Carlisle ; but see Morwerydd. 

EwERYDD, verch Cynfyn ap Gwerystan ap Gwaithvoed, a 
briodes Edwin ap Goronwy frenin Tegengl, a sister of Bleddyn 
ap Cynfyn. 

EwRYD (n. pr., qu. ?). Bodewryd church in Anglesey. 

EwYAS (n. L) in Herefordshire and Gloucestershire. Salter^ 
ennes in Ewyas Land (Powel, pp. 142, 148) ; lands of Hugh 
Lacie ; rect& Euas. 

Is Qwent ag Euas a Gwy. — QwUym Tew. 

Eydyn (Tr. 36). Mynyddawc Eydyn, probably Eyddyn, i. e., 
Edenborough or Eiddjm. 

V. 

Each (Y), an ancient Celtic word used in the names of places, 
signifying a hook or nook ; as y Each Ddeiliog ; y Ty 'n y Each; 
Bachegraig, i. e., Bach y Graig. 

Faenol (Y), a gentleman's seat near Caernarvon. 

Faenor (Y), the Manor. Maenor Byrr ; Maenor Deifi. 

Fann (Y). Cefn y Fann, a gentleman's seat in Caernarvonshire. 
Bwlch y Fann ; Pen y Fann ; y Fenni. 

Faustus, a pious, godly son of Vortigem out of his own 



CELTIC REMAINS. 177 

daughter, who, as Nennius saith, built a monastery on the river 
Ehymni, where he and other devout men daily prayed for 
his father's amendment, etc., and that God would not punish 
him for his father's faults, and free the country from the Saxon 
war. (Camden in Glamorgan.) See Gale's Nennivs, 

Fedwen Deg (Y),'a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. (J, D.) 
Felenrhyd (Y), a river near Traeth Mawr, Meirion. 
Fel Ynys (Y), one of the old names of Britain ; i. e., the Honey 
Island. (Triades.) 

Ef a lanwai'r Vel Ynys 

O arian rhodd wyrion Rhys. — Hywel Dafydd. 

Rhys o*r Fel Ynys flaenawr. 

Fenis, Venice. Caerfenis. (I. JT. Cae Llvryd,) 

Fens. Caerfens, qu. ? (/. JT. Cae Llwyd.) 

Fenws: see Venus. 

Ferwic (Y), a church and parish in Cardiganshire. Qu. whe- 
ther Y Faer Wig ? See also Berimg, Aberwig, and Caerferwig, 

Festa, Lat. Vesta, the goddess of fire (Cicero, Be Leg., ii, 12), 
wife of Coelus and mother of Saturn, a Celtic princess. Qu,, 
whether from oes, life, and taUy fire ? q. d. Oestan. 

FoDL Foel (Y), Anglesey. 

FoELAS (Y), q. d. y Foel Las, a place in Denbighshire, where 
there are small pillars with strange letters, supposed Druidical. 

{Ganfiden.) 

A Dinbych wrthddrych orthoriant ar fil 
Ar Foelas a Oronant. 

' Prydydd y Moch^ i Llyw. ap lorwerth. 

Foel Ynys (Y), Ceretica. 

Ford or Fford : hence Aberford, a town of Yorkshire, the 
Roman Calcaria. {Ainsworth.) 

FoRWYN (Y). Caer Forw3m, which lies on the top of a high 
hill in Llanvihangel, near the river Alwen [E. Llwyd) ; probably 
Caer Forwydd or Forudd. 

Y mae eryr fal Morndd. — /. B, Hir, 
See Monidd. 

Frenni Fawr (Y), a mountain in Pembrokeshire. 

Fronig (Y), St. Veronica. 

Frutan (Y), a river at Beaumaris. 

23 



178 CELTl C REMAINS. 

FuDDAi and Fuddei. Caer Fuddei, in the Triades, one of the 
twenty-eight cities ; another copy, Caer J^i^z; in Thos. Williams' 
Catalogue, Caer Fuddau ; Englished Chichester ; the capital of 
Sussex. Caer Fuddai signifies the merchant's town or city of 
lucre, from hvdd. See Bvddai, 

FuRNWY (Y), or Fyrnwy, a river in Montgomeryshire. Cantref 
y Fumwy, one of the five Cantrefs of Powys Wenwynwyn, con- 
taining the commots of Mochnant uwch Ehaiadr, Mechain is 
Coed, and Uannerch HudoL Burn Water, in Scotland ; Hoburn 
or Holburn, a brook near London. See Efyrmvy. 

FF. 

Ffabiali, un o feibion Brychan Brycheiniog o'r Ysbaenes. Y 
rhai hyn aethant yn ben rheithiau (i. «., chief judges) yn Ysbaen. 
Vid. Neffel 

Ffagan a DwYFAN, two preachers said to have been sent by 
a Pope called Eluther to convert the Britains in the time and at 
the request of King Lies ap Coel, about the year 160 ; by Latin 
writers called Fayanus and Duuianus or Deruuianus. In the 
British copy of the History of Tyssilio they are called Ffagan a 
Dwy wan ; but not a word in the British MS. of the Flamines 
and Archflamines, which they turned into bishops and arch- 
bishops, as Galfrid hath interpolated in his translation, who hath 
been since followed by all our historians. 

[Llansantffagan, a parish and large village on Llai river in Gla- 
morgan ; a good church dedicated to St. Ffagan ; and at a little 
distance from it, Capel Ffagan in ruins. See Dyfan, — /. Jf.] 

Ffakaon, probably kings, from Pharaoh. 

Mor gadarn i fiwjr a fiaraon Ffrainc 
Ac ar ffrawdd o wystlon. 

Cynddelwj i H. ap 0. Gwynedd. 

[Or from Pharamond, first "King of France. — W. JP.] 
Ffaraon and Ffaran (n. 1.). 

Ynghoed Ffaraon yngbadd. — Rhys Goch Eryri, 

The Triadea has it Dimas Ffaran, where the dreigiau were hid 
by Lludd ap Beli. {Tr, 45.) Gwrtheym a ddatguddiodd y dreig- 
iau Ddinas Ffaran, yr hon a elwid wedi hynny Dinas Emrys. 
(Tr. 45.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 1 79 

Ffarbras (n. pr. v.). Ffarbras Gawr. 

Ffon yt trom a phen tramawr, 
Fferf a braisg ail Ffarbras Gawr, 

Ehya NanmoTy i Sir R. Herbert. 

Ffari or Ffarri. BodfFarri. This is [supposed] by Mr. Cam- 
den [to be] the Varia of Antoninus, a small city of the Eomans, 
or perhaps a fort only. There are ruins on a hill hard by, called 
Moel y Gaer. Mr. Camden guesses Varia to signify in British 
a pass, but we know of no such a word in the language. 

Ffawydd. Caer Ffawydd (TV.), Hereford East. {Th. Williams,) 
See Trefawyth, 

Ffenidwydd. Caer Ffenidwydd, Hwlffordd {Th, Williams), 

Fferlex, the lands between Severn and Wye. [Elystan, 
arglwydd of Fferlex ; i. e., Athelstan, lord of Fferlex ; that is, all 
the lands between Severn and Wye. — W, D.] 

Ffestiniog, church and parish in Meirion. 

Ffichti, which should be wrote Phichti (n. pr.). They are 
also called Ffichtiaid, the Picts and Poictons, but rightly Phicht- 
iaid. Y Gwyddyl Phichti, i, e., the Irish Picts, are mentioned 
in the Triades (N"o. 41) to be one of the molesters of Britain 
that came into the island and never returned. These are the 
Scots that came over from Ireland to Argyleshire about the 
year 440 after Christ, and there mixt with the Picts, driving the 
princes of the land to South Britain for refuge. By the name 
given them in the Triades, of Irish Picts, it is probable they were 
painted men as well as the Pictish northern Britains. See also 
Vertot for Swedenland, etc. 

Ffili, a man's name. Caerffili, a village and castle in Gla- 
morganshire ; the noblest piece of ruins in Britain, beyond all 
history. (E. liwyd, Notes on Camden,) Caer Ffili Gawr gynt oedd 
un o'r prif gaerau, canys nid allai 'r hollfyd ei hynnill tra bae 
fwyd ynddi. (T. Williams, Catalogue of Cities,) Camden says 
he doth not deny but it might have been a Boman garrison, but 
doth not know under what name. But what need is there to 
think it a Eoman garrison ? Might it not be a British ? Was it 
impossible for the Britains, after the Romans left them, to build 
a castle after the manner of the Eomans? The very name. 



180 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Caer Phili Gawr, shews it was built by a Briton. No Roman 
coins, etc., found here. (E. Llwyd's Notes.) See Caer VwL 

Ffilin. Bryn Ffilin, in Llanfigel, Anglesey. 

Ffinan Sant. Uanfifinan Chapel in Anglesey. He succeeded 
St. Aidan as apostle of the Northumbrians ; died a.d. 661. {Brit. 
Sanct, Feb. 10.) 

Ffinant, a gentleman^s seat [at Llansantfifraid, Montgomery- 
shire ; q. d. Nant y Ffin, the boundary brook. — W. D.] 

Ffiniog. Cantref Ffiniog, one of the four cantrefs of Caer- 
marthenshire. 

Ffivion ap leuan. 

Fflamddwyn, the name of the Saxon general that fought with 

Urien Reged at the battle of Argoed Llwyfein, and was defeated. 

Qu. whether this be the same that was married to Bun, daughter 

to Culfynawyd Prydain, sister to Penarwen, wife of Owen ap 

Urien. (Triades, 56.) He probably was, for in Marwnad Urien 

it is said, 

Pan laddawd Owain Fflamddwyn 

Nid oedd fwy nog ef cysgeid. — Taliesin, 

Fflandrysiaid, people of Flanders. 

Ffleidur Fflam, map Godo, one of the tri unben Uys Arthur. 

Fflemings. Castell Fflemings, not far from Tregaron, in Car- 
diganshire. The Fflemings, a nation from the Low Countries 
about Flanders, were settled about Milford Haven by Henry 1st 
to curb the Welsh. Camden says they came to England because 
their lands were drowned in the Low Countries ; but William 
of Malmsbury says that they came over because of their relation 
to Henry I's mother by the father's side, and to get rid of them 
he thrust into Ross as into a common shore, and to curb his 
enemies the Welsh. See FJlemysiaid, 

Fflemis (r. Price), Flemings. 

Fflemysiaid, Flemings. 

Pan wnaeth balch odrndd bylchu Fflemysiaid 
Ffleimiaid graid gryd lofrndd. 

Cynddelw, i H. ap O. Qwynedd. 

Fflewyn Sant. Llanfflewyn Chai)el, Anglesey. 
Fflint (Y). Caer y Fflint, Flint town. 

Print Caer y Fflint corph y wlad. — Tudur Aled. 



CELTIC REMAINS, 181 

Vixcont y Fflint, a Dyflfryn Clwyd, a Maelor Saisnig, a'r Hobeu, 
a Thref Euddlan, a'r Castell, ac a berthyn wrthai. {8tat. Bhudd- 
Ian,) 

Fflint, Flintshire, one of the counties of North Wales. The 
town of Flint was called by the Britains Caer OalUstr, (T. Wil- 
liams, Catalogue) Mr. Camden has not attempted to give any 
etymology of it. Callestr signifies a flint stone. 

Ffluk, river in Cardiganshire : hence Ystrad Ffiur, which is 
Latinized Strata Florida, which see. Here was the principal 
monastery of South Wales, where their noblemen and princes 
were buried, and here they recorded the acts and successions of 
their princes. (Garadoc.) 

It appears the Britons had an ancient custom of giving the 
names of some famous persons to rivers, in order to perpetuate 
them, as the ancient Celtse gave them to stars and planets, as 
Saturn, Venus, etc. 

Fflur was the name of Caswallon's queen, after whom he went 
as far as Eome. (Triades.) See Gaswallon. Severn (i. e., Haf- 
ren) had its name from the beautiful daughter of Lloegrin. The 
famous Bran {i. e., Brennus) gave a river in Denbighshire a name; 
others in Caermarthenshire. Meurig, a river in Ceretica, took 
its name from Meurig, son of Eodri Mawr, drowned there : so 
Braint in Anglesey ; so Afon Einion. 

Fflur, daughter of Fugnach Gorr, cariad Caswallon ap Beli. 
(Tr, 53.) She either was a Eoman, or carried to Eome captive. 
I suppose the last. 

Ffordun, Forden church and parish, near the Severn, west of 
the Long Mountain. 

Drudlwyr i draffwryr i ar draffun 
Feirch oi drafferth rhag Ffordun, 

CynddelWf i Yw. Cyfeiliog. 

Ffordtn, tight or thick furred ; or perhaps Forden in Shrop- 
shire. GruflTydd Ffordyn ap Dafydd Vychan. See Ffordun. 

Ffos, a word used in the ancient names of places, as Ffos y 
Bleiddiau ; Treffos ; Ffos Las in Trelech, Carmarthenshire ; y 
Ffos Ddu. 

Ffos Golmon, a deep and long entrenchment of that name, 
thrown up, it seems, by some Irish general of the name of Col- 



1 82 CELTIC REMAINS. 

man. It lies between Bodavon Mountain and Tre Wynn in 
Anglesey, and is near the ruins of a town called now YCarMddi, 
where some treasures have been formerly dug up ; and on Bod- 
avon Mountain adjoining, a solid piece of gold was found about 
fifty years ago, as big as a man's foot. 

Ffosod (n. 1.). Llyvjarch Hen in 

Ffraid or Ffred Santes. This was an Irish lady and a famous 
nun, to whom several churches in Wales are dedicated. She 
died A.D. 523. Her name is Latinized Brigida. (See Flaherty, 
Ogygia, p. 422.) Llansanffraid and Ilansanffred. She was bom 
in the village of Fochart, in the diocese of Armach, in Ireland. 
Her English name is Brigid or St. Bride, and called the Virgin 
of Kildare. Her father was Diptacus (Dubtach), a nobleman 
{lorwerth Fynglwyd), and her mother Brocessa or Brotseach. 
Her life is wrote by Cogitosus, etc. {Brit Sanct, Feb., p. 91.) 
Her British legend is wrote by lorwerth Fynglwyd. See San- 
ffred. 

Ffrainc, the kingdom of France, whose ancient Latin name 
was Gallia, and by the Britains Oalvlad, in the present ortho- 
graphy Gallwlad, i, e., the country of the Galls or Gauls, and 
more anciently Ceiliait and Geiliiaid, i, e., Celtae. So the Irish 
call a Frenchman GalUa, It had the name o{ Ffrainc given it 
about the time the Saxons came to Britain, when Clovis, King 
of the Franks (a German nation), conquered Gaul, or most part 
of it, t. e., about the year 500. 

It is remarkable that the British copy of Tyssilio calls it 
Ffreiiic before its conquest by the Francks, which is a mark of 
its being since ihat conquest compiled or translated from the 
Latin ; and thus some author inaptly calls Britain England in 
the time of the fiomans. [Do not insert this to invalidate all 
British history. — W, 2?.] 

Pezron's account of a people called Franks, living about the 
Seine, who were Gauls, before ever the present French came 
from Germany, gives a reason why our British writers call Gaul 
by the name of Ffraingc before the time of Clovis. See Ffranc. 

Ffrainc Ddwyreiniol, Franconia. 

Ffranc or Ffrangc, a Frenchman (pi. -od), and sometimes a 
Saxon ; any enemy from the coast of Gaul or the North called 



CELTIC REMAINS. 183 

by the Britons Ffranc, FfraTic, in the Gaulish, is free : hence 
the name of Franks or French. 

Ai gwell Ffranc na ffrawddns Gymro 

Prydydd y lUoch, i Ly w. ap lorwerth. 

Ffranc ar ffo fibrdd no ofyn. — Myrddin, 

Ffranc, a servant. 

Mi am ffranc day am callawr. 

Ffranciscinius, a saint mentioned in the Extent of Anglesey, 
in Hen Eglwys, com. of Malldraeth. The inhabitants say the 
church of Hen Eglwys bears the name of Saint Ilwydion, t. e., 
the Grey Saints ; and in the Extent it is said that the lands of 
that township are held of the Saints Franciscinius and Bacelli- 
nus. Who these are I cannot tell, unless the first be Francis, 
the founder of the Franciscan order about A.D. 1208 ; and the 
other St. Baglan, from whom Uanfaglan in Caernarvonshire took 
its name. Whosoever they were, the inhabitants of this town- 
ship had surprising privileges under them. See Hen Eglwys. 

Ffkanco or Ffrancon. Nant Ffranco, a brook in a valley of 
that name in Eryri, falling, perhaps, into. Ogwen or Ogfaen 
[which runs by Bangor. — W, i?.] 

Ffrangeg, lingua Gallica, 

Ffraw (fl.) : hence AberflFraw, a church and town in Anglesey 
on that river, once the seat of the Princes of Northmen [North 
Wales]; Lat. Gadiva. {Ain,sworth,) 

Ac am ddv^ylan Ffraw ffrowyll. — Llywarch Hen, 

Ffrawns {Ehys Nanmor and Hyioel SwrdwaV), 

Ffred Lei an (St.), daughter of Cadwtheg Wyddel. {MS,) See 
Sanffred and Ffraid, 

Ffrever, a sister of Cyndylan. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad 
Cyndylan.) 

Ffridyswtdd. {MS) A gwyl Ffridyswydd y bu farw a.d. 1400. 

Ffrwdwr ap Gwrfawr ap Cadien. 

Ffrydlan river falls into Dyfi. 

Ffuchdan, vulg6 BicMan, nomen loci in Flintshire; Angl. 
Beighton, 

Ffwg neu Ff^c ; Angl Ffoulkes or Fulk. 

Ffwyddog, in Cwm lou, Herefordshire. [F/aivyddog, heechy, 



184 CELTIC REMAINS. 

from ffor-wydd, bean-bearing wood. See Survey of Sovih Wales 
by W. D.— JT. JD.] 

Ffyllon. Cwm Nant Ffyllon, in Powys Land. («/. D.) 

Ffynnon and Ffynhon, a spring properly, though used for a 
well. The first springs or lakes from which rivers have their 
beginning, are sometimes called /ynTum; as Ffynnon Vrech, 
Ffjoinon Las, and Ffynnon Velen, which are lakes ; Ff3mnon Ber- 
than, Anglesey ; Ffynnon Fedwjrr [Llywarch Hen) ; Treffynnon 
(i. e., the Well Town) ; Forth y Ffjmnon, Fountain Gate ; y Ffyn- 
non Wen ; Pant y Ffynnon. 

Ffynnon Fedwyr, in Llywarch Hen, Marvmad Cadwcdlavm. 
[St Peter's Well, Cardiganshire. Ffynnon y Llyffaint in Snow- 
don.— W, D.] 

Ffynnon Las, a lake under the highest peak of Snowdon, 
which Mr. Edw. Llwyd Englishes the Green Fountain, and ob- 
serves that the water of some lakes on the Alps inclines to that 
colour. {Notes on Oamden,) 

Ffynnon Lugwy, or Llyn Llugwy, is about a mile from Nant 
Ffranco. See Ffranco, 

Ffynnonogion, a gentleman's seat. («/". D.) Price. 

G. 

Gabriel, one of the seven archangels; according to the British 
tradition, the chief keeper ; Mihangel, defender of the faith ; 
Raffel, carrier of prayers ; Uriel hath the charge of fire ; Sariel 
hath the charge of waters ; Eheiniel looks after animals ; Pen- 
achiel hath the care of the fruits of the earth, (ff. Dafydd ap 
leuan.) Perhaps a Druidical notion. [It is more likely a Popish 
notion, as the Druids had no notion of angelical names before 
the use of Scripture. — W. D.] 

Gadles, in Aberdar parish, Glamorgan. [Y Gadlas. — /. 3f. 
Y Gadlys, a seat in Glamorgan, parish of Llangynwyd. — I. M.]. 

Gadlys or Gadles (Y), or, as some will, Y (Jauadlys, a place 
in Anglesey, said to be the seat of Maelgwn (ap Owain Gwyn- 
edd, I suppose). See Cadlys, 

Gadwy, mab Geraint. {Tr, 89.) 

Gafenni, Avenna (fl.). 

Gafran or Gavran, mab Aeddan. (TV. 34.) This name is 



CELTIC REMAINS. 1 85 

Latinized Gabranus. Teulu Gafran mab Aeddan, pan fu'r ddif- 
ancoll, a aethant i'r mdr tros eu harglwydd. This difancoU seems 
to have been that great battle where the Picts were so utterly 
defeated that it is said they lost their very name. (TV. 34.) Bede 
mentions a battle fought a.d. 603, between Ethelfrid and Edan, 
whom he calls "King of Scots. In the Saxon Chronicle he is 
called JE^\fBii, i. e.,iEgthan ; in the Latin of Bede, Aedanus. This 
was Aeddan Vradwg mentioned in Tr. 46, who had the civil 
war with Rhydderch Hael ; and was no Scot, but a British Pict. 
His son Gafran fought under him in this battle. 

Gafran or Gavran, King of Scots ; Mac Domangard {Ogygia, 
p. 472) succeeded his brother Gongall, A.D. 558. 

Gainor (n. pr. f.). 

Gair (n. pr. v.). Geyr mab Geiryoet (TV. 50.), un o'r tri gor- 
uchel garcharor. 

Galabes. Llyn Galabes ; Ffynnon Galabes. 

Aber i'm grndd heb rym gwres 

Yw gwlaw o wjbr Galabes. — Leunjs Morganwg. 
See Galadea. 

Galades. Ffynnon Galades, yngwlad Ewias (or Evias), a 
fountain or well frequented by Myrddin, where he was found by 
Emrys's messengers when he wanted his assistance to build a 
tomb for the slaughtered Britains in Salisbury Plain. {Tyssilio.) 
Oalabes in the Latin of Galfrid. 

Galath (a pr. v.) YOreal apud Tr. 61. 

Galedlom (Y), a gentleman's seat {J. D.) ; q.d. hard and bare. 

Galfridus Arthurius or Monemuthensis, Bishop of St. 
Asaph, translator of Tyssilio's History of the Britons, called Bnit 
yBrenhinoedd. Camden (in Monmouthshire) says that he was born 
in Monmouth, and corrupted the British history, and was well 
skilled in antiquities, but not of antique credit, having inserted 
ridiculous fables in that work, and was censured by the Church 
of Bome. This is pretty modestly said by Mr. Camden, and not 
of the same stamp with the character he gives Galfrid and the 
British History in other parts of his Britannia, to make room 
for his own plan. It is observable that one of the heavy charges 
exhibited or put by Mr. Camden in the mouths of his learned 
men against Tyssilio's British History translated by Galfrid, viz., 

24 



186 CELTIC REMAINS 

that it (together with his Merlin) stood condemned, among other 
prohibited books, by the Clmrch of Borne, hath actually happened 
to himself as a just judgment for that invidious remark ; for we 
read in his life, in Gibson's edition (1695), that his zeal against 
Popery lost him a fellowship in Oxford, brought most of his 
works under the censure of the Church of Bome, and exposed 
him to the lash of Parsons, Possevisius [Possevinus ?] and others. 
Why, then, is the British History to be worse looked upon 
because Galfrid's translation stood condemned by the Church of 
Eome ? 

Leland says Galfrid was a learned man in prose and verse, as 
learning then went; and that there was hardly any learning 
then but among the monks, and that he believed he was a faith- 
ful translator, and that he translated also into Latin the pro- 
phecies of Myrddin Emrys ; that he divided the History into 
eight books ; that in some copies there are but four ; but that 
the British History contained nine books. Mr. Leland was mis- 
informed ; for the original British History hath no divisions of 
chapters or books at all, which is a proof of its antiquity. 

Leland says he also saw Merlinus Caledonius' Life in verse, 
wrote by Galfrid, etc., etc. ; and besides the British History, he 
translated out of the British into Latin a book of the £xile of 
the British Clergy. 

The native Welsh know nothing of either the names of Jeffrey 
or Galfrid, and never heard that a person of such a name ever 
meddled with their history, so little has been the repute of his 
Latin translation among them who have the original British 
History under the title of BnU y Brenhinoedd, wrote by Tyssilio 
ap Brychfael Ysgithrog. On the contrary, among the English, 
French, and other nations, the history is known by no other 
name but Galfridus Monemuthensis, or Jeffrey or Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, or Geoffrey ap Arthur, or the Monk of Monmouth ; 
or sometimes, when it is quoted by a moderate man without 
abuse, it is called the British History, or the Britan History. 
Infinite pains has been taken to depreciate it, and its defenders 
but few, which shews the strength of the building at first. 

See Wynne's Preface to his edition of Caradoc's Chronicle ; see 
also Thompson's Preface to his English translation of Galfrid 's 



CELTIC REMAINS. 187 

Latin translation of the British History ; and Sir John Pryse's 
Defence of the British History ; and Dr. PoweL Bishop of St. 
Asaph, 1151 ; died, 1165. (MS.) 

Galgagus, a King of the North Britons, mentioned by Tacitus. 
His British name was OwdUawc or Gwallog, See Camden's 
blander in Caledonia. There is a place called Gwallog near 
Aberystwjrth in Ceredigion ; and a bank in the sea there called 
Sam Wallogy i. e., Gwallog's Causeway. See Qwalhg. 

Galon, Oalli. 

Gals, an island in the Grecian sea, where Urp Luyddog and 
his British auxiliaries settled after destroying Macedon and 
Greece and the Temple of Apollo at Delphos. This was Brennus' 
and Belgius' expedition. {Tr, 40.) See Avencu 

Gall or Gwall (n. pr. v.). Gall, mab Dysgyfedawc, one of 
the three iinben Deifr a Brynych, t. e,, chief hetuls of Deira and 
Bemicia. (2V. 16.) He killed Gwenddolau's two birds, which 
were yoked together by a gold chain, and devoured two bodies 
of the Cymru for their dinners, and two for their suppers. Un 
o'r tair mad gyflafan. (?V. 37.) What the meaning of this story 
is is'hard to determine, unless this Gweuddolau gave the bodies 
of the Cambrians killed in battle to feed vultures or eagles. 

Gallgo (St.): hence Llanallgo, Anglesey. See Gildaa ap Caw. 

Gallgwn, the Gauls. {TyssUio.) Nant Gallgwn, Gaul-brook, 

Gallgwn. Henry ap Gallgwn Ddu o Feilienydd. 

Gallt y Celyn, a gentleman's seat {J. D.) 

Gallt Gadwallon, where a battle was fought by Ywein Cyf- 

eiliog. 

Gwaed ar wallt rhag Allt Gkdwallawn 

Yn Llannereh yn Lleudir Merviniawn. 

OynddeLWf i Yw. Cyfeiliog. 

Gallt y Teyfan. 

Gwrdd y gwuaeth uch Deudraeth Dryfan. 

LI. Br. Mock, 

Gallu, father of St. Hian or Elian Ceimiad ; in the Pedigrees 

called Alltud Bedegawg. 

A'i gyllell y gwnaeth Galla 

Torn i ben nid hir y bu. — (?. ap Gweflyn. 

See mUyd and AUUid. 



188 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Gallwyddyl, in Taliesin Oallwyddely the most ancient Ganls, 
first planters of Britain, called by the Irish Oall Oaidelia, the 
people of the Hebrides. The Irish call the Hebrides {Ogygia^ 
p. 360) Inse Gall, i, e., Ynysoedd Gall, the Islands of the Gauls ; 
Cambro-British, ffeledd. Erch a Heledd, the Orcades and Heb- 
rides. I wish to find in what the language of those islanders 
difiers from the Irish. 

Gam or Gam, one-eyed ; the surname of a valiant Cambro- 
British captain, Syr Davydd Gam, who served in France under 
Henry V, and was there killed a.d. 1414. His expression to the 
King, who sent him to reconnoitre the French, is well known : 
"Enough to kill, enough to be taken, and enough to run away." 

Ganllwyd (Y), peth o dir Phylip Dorddu. Mae Ue o'r enw 
ger llaw Dolgellau. [Brenhinbren y Ganllwyd. Triugeinllath y 
Ganllwyd.— W. R] 

Gannoc, a blundering name given by some Saxon writers to 
Diganwy, when rebuilt by Henry III. {Mdtth, Paris, p. 924.) 
See Teganwy. 

Gar, qu. Uangar [Llan Garw Gwyn. — W, D!\, a church and 
parish in the deanery of Edeimion, Merionethshire. 

Garanawg Gloywddigar ap Cwnnws. 

Garanie. Gwyddno Garanir, lord of Cantref Gwaelod. 

Cwynfan Gwyddno Garanir 
Y trees Duw y dwfr tros dir. 

Q. Glyn, i Rys Abad Tetrad Fflur. 

Gardd, properly a garden. Yr Ardd Ganol, one of the two 
commots of Gwent Llwg, Monmouthshire. 

Gardd y Medd, a gentleman's seat in Abergeleu. 

Garddun Arddunig, mother of Tyssilio ap Brochvael. (Cyti- 
ddelw) 

Garddwr, a headland in the north of Anglesey (i gardd and 
dwr, or garth and dwr^ or rather garwddwr, i, e., rough water). 
A gentleman's seat in Denbighshire, qu. ? Evan Oethin of Gar- 
ddwr and Glascoed [or leuan Gethin of Gartheryr and Glasgoed. 
— W.D,-] 

Gared (Y), peth arglwyddiaeth Syr Roger Vychan. 

Gargoed, a place near Ystrad Fflur (q. d. gardd goed). 



CELTIC REMAINS. 189 

Garmon, St. Germanus. This was German the Gaul that 
came to Britain with the title of Legate from Pope Celestine I 
in the year 429, and was pitched upon by a synod of Gallican 
bishops to suppress the Pelagian heresy. He was made by the 
Emperor Honorius Visitor of Auxerre, made Bishop against his 
^U. and succeeded Amator. In his British journey he queUed a 
storm at sea, stopped fires, etc., put to flight the Picts and Saxons 
without fighting, and having confuted the Pelagians, returned 
home ; but was called to Britain a second time, cured the son 
of Elaphius, preached, and returned home. {Brit, Sanct) There 
was another Gannon, Bishop of Man. Bede says he was a 
Prince of Auxerre in Burgundy, and his comrade. Lupus of 
Troyes in Champaign. It is a wonder Lupus had not a church 
dedicated to him as well as Gannon. [Ilanfleiddan or Llan- 
bleiddian, which see, was dedicated to him. He is called 
Bleiddan Sant in 61d Welsh MSS. — LM,] See Bede's supersti- 
tious account of these men. Germanus AUisidorensisj a.d. 470. 
[MS.) 

St. Garmon ap Redcus o Ffraingc a ddaeth yma yn oes Gwr- 
theym Gwrtheneu. {MS.) Garmon died a.d. 435. (K Llwyd, 
Notes on Camden, Flintshire.) How comes he to be in Britain 
in the time of Gwrtheym, about the year 460 ? 

Llanarmon, a chapel in Lleyn ; Ilanarmon yn lal, a church 
and parish in the deanery of lal, Denbighshire ; Llanarmon, a 
parish in Dyfliyn Ceiriog, Denbighshire ; Cappel Garmon, in the 
parish of Llanrwst. [Ffynnori Garmon in Mechain is Coed. — 
W, D.] See Nennius. 

Garn (Y), one of the three commots of Bhos (Roose) in Pem- 
brokeshire. 

Garneddwen (Y), a gentleman's seat [inLlanwddyn parish. — 
J. 2>., W. D.] 

Garth, a word used in the composition of names, signifying 
a promontory generally, a mountain, or sometimes an island-hill 
on a river. 

Garth Eryr, a gentleman's seat ; Garth Beibio ; Garth Gar- 
mon, a gentleman's seat ; Garth Gwidol, in Emlyn ; Garthmael, 
a gentleman's seat (Jones); Garth Grugyn Castle (Oararfoc, p. 308); 
Garth Lwyd, a gentleman's seat ; Garth Branan, a headland near 



190 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Bangor Vawr. Llanfair Oarth Branan was the ancient name of 
Bangor. Garth Gogo manor, Caermarthenshire ; Garth, a gentle- 
man's seat, Brecknockshire ; Garth, a place near Bangor Vawr ; 
Gogarth, a headland near Conwy; Ilwydiarth, a gentleman's 
seat in Anglesey and Montgomeryshire ; Garth Angharad, near 
Dolgelleu. Gorarth (k gor and garth), Llanvihangel ar Arth, 
Caermarthenshire. 

Gabth Bbibo, lands given by Cynan (Wledig) to Tydecho, the 
abbot of Mowddwy, in atonement for an attempt to ravish Teg- 
fedd his sister ; he and his followers having been struck with 
blindness in the attempt, or lost themselves in a fog. 

Garth Beibio is a church and parish in the deanery of Welsh 
Poole, on the river Twrch, in Caereinion Ymhowys, now Mont- 
gomeryshire. See Tydecho, 

Garth AN, qu. ? See Arrvnjyn, 

Gakth Branan, a headland near Bangor. Llanfair Garth 
Branan, the name of Bangor Church, which Br. Willis fancifully 
makes to be Edgarth Frenin. 

Garth Celyn, the place where Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffyth 
dated his letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury in defence of 
his proceedings against the English who oppressed his people 
{IT, Llwyd, 1281.) See Abergarth Celyn. 

Garth Ertr, a gentleman's seat. 

Garth Garmon, a gentleman's seat. 

Garth Geri, where Tudur Aled the poet lived. See TvdurAled, 

Garth GtOGO Manor, Caermarthenshire. 

Garth Grugyn, a castle rebuilt by Maelgwn Vychan, a.d. 
1242. {Caradoc, p. 308.) 

Garth Gwidol, in Emlyn, qu. ? Arglwydd Garth Gwidol 
See Gwidol river. 

Garth Gynan, a gentleman's seat in Dyflfryn Clwyi 

Garth Lwyd, a gentleman's seat. (/. D.) 

Garthmael, a gentleman's seat. Jones. {J, D) 

Garth Maelawc, a place in North Wales, where there was 
a battle fought between the Britains and Saxons, a.d.721. ((7ar- 
adoc) Qu. whether Garth Maelan near Dolgelleu, or perhaps 
Garth Meiliog, a gentleman's seat ? {J, D) Wynne of Cwm- 
mein and Garth Meiliog. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 191 

Garth Mathrik, nunc Brecheiniog. 
Garth t Neuadd^ a gentleman's seat in Bhuthyn land. 
Garth Orbren (n. 1.). 

Garth Ynghegidfa, a gentleman's seat. Wynne. 
Garthyniawo (n. L). 
Garw. Idris Arw ap Gwyddno Garanir. 
Garwen, daughter of Henyn, a concubine of King Arthur. 
{Tr, 60.) 
Garwy (n. pr. v.), cariad Creirwy. 

Nid wyf ddi hynwyf hoen Creirwy 

Hoywdeg am hndodd mal Garwy. — H. op Einion. 

Garwyn. Cynan Garwyn. 

Gavelford. Here a cruel battle was fought between the 
Britons and the West Saxons of Devonshire, a.d. 828, and after 
a great slaughter of many thousands the victory uncertain. 
(Powel, Car., p. 25.) And the next year Egbert brought all the 
Saxon kings under his dominion, and changed the name of 
Britain into England. 

Gavelkind or Gavalettum, a kind of ancient tenure in Britain 
where the father's lands were divided equally among the 
children ; a custom proper enough in a young colony, but de- 
structive in an ancient settlement. English antiquaries have 
puzzled themselves to derive the word from the Saxon tongue, 
when they might with great ease have found it in the British. 
Oavad is a hold ; and gynt, of old time ; so gavadgyrU is ancient 
tenure. Or if, upon the first plantation of the island, Keint (i, e., 
Kent) was the first country inhabited, as the name infers, then 
gavelgeint meant the Kentish tenure, which is still of the same 
signification, and means plantation tenure, 

Gaulon, enw lie (Ceretica), signifying a deep shore. Dafydd 
Goch o Gaulon. 

Gawnt, Gaunt, the metropolis of Flanders. 

Gynt a'i law esgnd Gawnt a losgodd. — 8ion Tudur. 

Gawen (n. pr. v.). 

Gawy (n. pr. v.) {Dr. Davies.) Caer Gawy, an old British 
camp near Prysgage, Cardiganshire. 

Gawran or Gafran, tad Ayddan Vradog. 



192 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Gefni : see Oefni, 
Geifr, river. Aber y Geifr. 
Geiriol ap Cenau ap Coel. (Rhys Ooch Eryri.) 
Geieionydd, qu. Uyn Geirionydd, a lake about two miles from 
Trefriw in Eryri Mountains. It is mentioned by TaUesin. 

A wn i enw Anenryn Wawdrydd 

A minnen'n trigo nglan Llyn Geirionydd. 

It is ako mentioned in the eighth battle of Ilywelyn ap lor- 
werth, if not falsely transcribed for Meirionydd : 

Engiriawl rnbeth am rybydd angerdd 
Ar gerddgerdd Geiryonydd. 

Gelbenefin (n. pr. v.), cog Elidir Mwynfawr. {Tr. Meireh, 1.) 

Geleu (fl.) : hence Abergeleu, a village, church, and parish, in 
Denbighshire. 

Gell (Y), qu. whether contracted from Oelli. Coed y Gell 
(q.d.Coed y Gelli),a rock above Dulas Sand in Anglesey, fonneriy 
abounded with hazle-trees : the sand, in digging, is found full of 
them. Qu. whether it would not make good manure ? 

Gelleu river runs by the town of Dolgelleu, through a valley 
of that name (Meirion). 

Gelli Auk, the Golden Grove. 

Gelli Dabvawc, a place where the men of G^yr, Brecheiniog, 
and GwentUwg, met the English and Normans, and fought them 
and put them to flight, A.D. 1094 {Caradoc, p. 153.) 

Gelli Dywyll, in Cenarth, Carmarthenshire. 

Gelli Felgaws, Glamorganshire. 
' Gelli Gandryll (Y), The Hay, Brecknockshire. 

Gelli Gar, a parish, Glamorganshire. [ffeHi ffaer, where there 
is an old Soman fort, from which the place takes its name. — 
/.Jf.] 

Gelli Gariad, Love's Grove, Cardiganshire. 

Gelli Gogau, Cardiganshire. 

Gelli Gynan, a township. (/. D,) 

Gelli Iorwerth, a gentleman's seat in Trawsfynydd. 

Gelli Onnen. Mynydd Gelli Onnen in the parish of lian- 
gyfelach ; a monument found in a earn. {E, Llwyd,) 

Gelli Wastod al. Wastrawd, in Llangyfelach, Glamorgan- 
shire. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 193 

Gelli Wen, in Trdech, Caermarthenshire. 
Gelliwig, one of Arthur's palaces in Cornwall. G^Uiswick 
in MiKord Haven seems to be of the same origin. 

I Gelli Wig ag i'w Uys.— 2V. 46. 

Y Wig, near Bangor, and another near Aberystwyth. 

Gelokwydd. Cefn Gelorwydd, a place mentioned by Llygad 
Gwr in an ode to Lly welyn ap Gruflfydd. 

Gemeirnon Hen, father of Geraint Hir. {Tr. 62.) 

Genee DiNLLE, q. d. Geneu'r Dinlle. Phylip Gruffydd o Ene'r 
Dinlle. 

Generys, verch Madog ap Gronwy. 

Generys Vechan ap Rotpart. 

Geneu'r Glyn, a pass on the borders of South Wales, near 
Aberdyvi At a place called now Uanvihangel Genau'r Glyn 
there was a castle of Walter Espec the Norman, called to this 
day Castell Gwallter. There is a manor or lordship here that 
goes by the name of Arglwyddiaeth Geneu'r Glyn (Powel, Oar,, 
p. 189); perhaps meaning Glyn Ystwyth, Glyn Eheidiol, or 
Glyn Aeron. 

Oeneu*r Glyn is one of the three commots of Cantref Penwedig 
in Cardiganshire. (Price, Descr.) There are several forts or 
castles in the pass ; as Castell Caletwr, C&stellan, etc. 

Geneu'r Glyn signiiSes the mouth of the valley ; perhaps of 
Glyn Dyfi. 

Geneuwy, Geneva (n. L). 

Genhillyn (n. pr. v.). Cadifor ap (Jenillin. 

Genhylles (Lat. Venilia), daughter, or an adopted daughter, 
of Claudius Caesar, married to Gweyrydd, King of Britain, upon 
a peace and an alliance made between them ; so that this accounts 
for Claudius* success and short stay then in Britain, as he was 
assisted by Gweyrydd to subdue the northern islands, which 
Tyssilio calls Ore. This Gweyrydd is called in Latin Arviragus, 
and some British writers call him Gwerydd Anoyneddog and 
Adar Weriedog, 

Genilijn ap Gwaithvoed ap Elffin. 

Genissa ach Gloyw, married to King Gweirydd. 

Genoa, Geneu wy or aw ; but rather Geneva is Geneuwy. 

Geraint (n. pr. v.); Lat. Gerontius. (H. Llwyd.) 

25 



194 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Geraint Caerwys Spaen, 

Geraint ap Elidir was the 43rd King of Britain. 

Geraint mab Erbin, one of the three Llynghesawg (admirals) 
of Britain, or owners of fleets, in King Arthur's time. {Tr, 20.) 
A prince or nobleman of Dyfnaint {E, Llwyd, from Marwnad 
Geraint by Llywarch Hen.)* Geraint ab Erbin ab Cynfawr, the 
7th after Eudaf Hen, about a.d. 530. 

Geraint Hir ap Gemeimon Hen, in King Arthur's court. 
(2V. 62.) 

Geraint, a prince of the Britains who fought Ina A.D. 716. 
Kil Charan in Scotland. Gil Geraint (n. L), Dyfed. 

Gerardus, Bishop of Llandaf. 

German, or St. Garmon, a disciple of St. Patrick and the first 
Bishop of Manaw (the Isle of Man), a Briton brought from Bri- 
tain by St. Patrick, a.d. 447. {MS. Ghron, ap. Usher, p. 335.) 

Gernerth Castle. {Jo, Major, 1. i, c. 5.) This is Gwrtheyrn- 
ion Castle, where Aurelius Ambrosius burnt Gwrtheym and his 
family. 

Gerontius. {BedCy 1. i, c. 11.) He is called Count Gerontius, 
and belonging to Constans, son of Constantine, was Qwrtheyrn 
Gwrtheneu, who is called by Tyssilio larll ar Went ac Erging 
ac Euas ; and who killed (or contrived the death of) Constans, 
whereby he got the crown. {TyssUio) Bede was quite in the 
dark about this affair, though the next king of Britain he names 
is Vortigem, who called in the Saxons. Why would Count 
Gerontius kill Constans, after he had made him king of a monk, 
but to succeed him as king ? And so the British history says 
Gwrtheym Gwrtheneu did, which was the real name of this person 
called here by Bede by the names Of Gerontius and Vortigem. 
Others say Gerontius kiUed himself after he had killed his friend 
Alanus. 

Gerwerth, qu. ? IlanvihaDgel Gerwerth, a church and parish 
in Gaermarthenshire. 

Gerwryd (n. 1.). Gorthir Gerwryd, a place where Llywelyn 
ap lorwerth encamped with the prime men of Gwynedd. 

Qorthoei drai draws a hjd 

Gorthir y gelwir Gerwryd. — Cylch Llywelyn, 

Gerwyn ap Brychan Brycheiniog. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 195 

Gerwyn Fawr (Y), a gentleman's seat. (/. D) 

Geta, the 81st King of Britain. 

Gethin : vide Cethin. 

Gevenni or Gavenni (fl.), Gdbannium : hence Abergavenni, 
now Aberganni (Lat. Abergennium and Abergavennium), i. e., Os- 
tium Gobanii, the fall of Gevenni into the Wysg. 

Gevisse, Bede's name for the West Saxons Q.. iii, c. 7); whe- 
ther from Suas or Eimas ? 

Gilbert (n. pr. v.), a.d. 600. Gilbert mab Cadgyffro, one of 
the three yscymydd aeran. {Tr, 29.) 

GiLDAS (n. pr. v.), a name famous among the ancient Britains, 
of which there were four. 

GiLDAS, the British poet and historiographer. He is men- 
tioned by TyssQio in his British History, by Ponticus Virunnius, 
by Lilius Greg. Giraldus, and by Leland. He lived in the time 
of Claudius the Emperor, a.d. 47 ; conveyed to Italy by Blasius, 
says Robert Vaughan {Gomman-Place Book, MS,). 

Ponticus Virunnius says (p. 10) that Gildas the poet and his- 
torian turned the Molmutine Laws into Latin, and King Alfred 
into English. So Galfrid's Latin edition in the reign of Belinus ; 
but in the British copy only plain Gildas. The same Ponticus 
Virunnius says that Gildas, the noble British poet, who lived in 
the time of Claudius, turned certain verses out of Greek into 
Latin, — " Diva potens," etc. He also (p. 14) says the account of 
the contention between Lludd and Minniaw is wrote by Gildas 
the famous poet and historian ; and also (p. 7) says that GUdas 
the poet wrote of the prophecy of the partridge which spoke in 
the 

Gildas, a British monk, who, being of the Medrawd faction, 
retreated over to Armorica after the battle of Camlan, and there 
wrote that bitter invective against the princes of the insular 
Britains which is called his epistle [de] Eoscidio Britannia, though, 
from several marks in it, it appears that the succeeding monks 
have fingered it to their own purpose. He was the son of Caw 
o Brydyn, i, e,, Scotland, bom in the valley of Clwyd, near Dun- 
britton, says Caradoc ; and Medrawd's sons, who were killed by 
Cwstenyn, were his ne^liews, which was the real cause of his 
venom . in that epistle against the British nation in general. 



196 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Either that epistle hath been corrupted, or else Oildas did not 
understand the British tongue ; for Cuneglas doth not signify 
Yellow Butcher, as that epistle says ; and Mr. E. Ilwyd hath, 
out of compliment to Gildas, made Cynglas of it. 

He is called Gildas Badonicvs because he mentions the battle 
of Mons Badon to have been the year he was born, which Usher 
says was in the year 520 ; others, 493 ; and by his epistle it 
appears that he was cotemporary with Gwrthefyr ap Erbin, King 
of Demetia, whom he abuses sufl&ciently : — ** Tu Vortipori**, etc. ; 
so that he was alive in the year 564 (-B. Vaughan), and died 
A.D. 570 {Usher), 50 years of age. Arthur died 542, when GLI- 
deis Badonicus was 22 years of age, and under the instruction of 
Iltutus in Glamorganshire. 

His father. Caw, was a Prince of Scotland, or of the royal 
family, and had a numerous family. He was brought up by 
St. Iltutus, as some say ; others, by Cattwg. Thence he went 
to Ireland, where he taught in the school of Armagh ; thence he 
went to Armorica, and founded the monastery of Eewys or Buys, 
and made him an oratory on the banks of the river Blavet, 
where he is supposed to have writ his epistle. 

Englynion y Clywed mentions Gildas ap Caw, nulwr adgas ; 
and Bangar ap Caw, milwr clodgar ; and Huail ap Caw Cym- 
mwyll arail. Henwau'r Seintiau hath one ... Wrlai ap Caw. The 
Triades mentions one Huail ap Caw €is one of the chief npble 
oflScers in Arthur's army, — " un o*r tri taleithiawc cad"; i, «., one 
of the three diademed or crowned generals. In an ancient 
British MS. I find a note, — " Gildas mab Caw arglwydd Cwm 
Cawlwyd", i e., lord of Cwm Cawlwyd. Tyssilio quotes one 
Gildas who wrote the wars of Emrys Wledig. Usher quotes the 

same on the authority, I suppose, of GaUrid, if not of , and 

Bishop Iloyd seems to like the quotation. 

There is an abbey in Bretagne at this day which bears his 
name. Some think there was another Gildas aYicienter than this, 
viz., that died about the year 5 1 2, called Gildas the Albanian, 
of which number is Usher. {Brit, Sanct) 

Gildas ap Caw b Brydyn, commonly called Gildas Albanius. 
This Gildas' Life was wrote by Caradoc o liangarvan. Caradoc 
says he was the son of Naw, King of the Scots in the north, who 



CELTIC REMAINS. 197 

bad twenty-four sons, valiant and warlike, one of whom was 
Gildas, who applied himself to the study of sciences. In one 
copy of Caradoc, which John Bale had, he is called Navus, King 
of the Picts (not Scots). In Capgrave's Legend he is called Oariy 
£jng of Albania, which should be wrote Cau, In an anony- 
mous writer of some Gildas' life, found in the Florence Library, 
by J. k Bosco [it is stated] that Gildas' father is called Oaurnts, 
and his country Arecluta, which joins on the river Glut (pro- 
bably the Clwyd) in the North. Usher says it is Argetheliam 
(Argyleshire). The same anonymous author says Caunus had 
four other sons besides Gildas, and a daughter. This, therefore, 
is not the same with the first Gildas that had twenty-three 
brothers ; or he was misinformed about the number of his 
children. The eldest son was Cuillus, a great warrior, who suc- 
ceeded his father in the kingdom ; Maelocus, a religious, who 
built a monastery at Lyuhes in Elmael ; Aegreas, Allseco, and 
Peteona, a sister, had their oratories in the extreme part of the 
region. {Usher.) 

This Cuillus is rightly called by Capgrave Howehis; by others, 
Hael, Hud, and Huelinus. For that in the monastery of Glas- 
tonbury it is wrote in an old register there that King Arthur 
defeated Haelus the King of Scotland, and subdued the country, 
whose brother the great historiographer was. Gildas Albanise 
m^ht be a historiographer. Caradog, in Gildas Albanius' Life, 
says that the twenty-three brothers of Gildas rebelled against 
Arthur, and that Huel, the eldest, a famous warrior, obeyed 
neither Arthur nor any other king. He often made descents 
from Scotland on Arthur's subjects. Arthur, the supreme king, 
hearing of this^ made war on him from place to place, and at 
last killed him at Mynaw, and was glad to overcome such a 
powerful enemy. This Mynmjo is Anglesey, says Usher; and 
the author of Mona ArUiqua follows him, and says young Arthur, 
A-D. 505, killed Howel ap Caw in Anglesey. Upon this Gildas 
came from Ireland, and pacified King Arthur with his tears 
and the petitions of all the British clergy, etc. Usher places 
this Gildas from a.d. 425 to 512 ; died 87 years old ; he had a 
great school in Ireland ; concludes he is a diflTerent person from 
Gildas the authpr of the epistle De Excidio BritannicB, published 



198 CELTIC REMAINS. 

by Pol. Virgil, and commonly surnamed Badonicns. But Bishop 
Nicolson will not allow this, and says that Gildas has been split 
into three. {Hist. Libr) 

Gildas Nennius. Sir John Pryse in his Description of Wales, 
before Caradoc's Chronicle, quotes Nennius' book by the name 
of Gildas. In his Defence of the British History he also quotes 
Nennius and the rasures, in some numbers, of an account of time 
in it, by the name of Gildas, and says that Leland gives it to 
Nennius. This is the Gildas MS. in the Cotton Library, called 
there Gildas Minor. Humphrey Lloyd, in his Descrvpt Brit., 
p. 32, quotes Nennius in it by the name of Gildas, about Caer 
Vortigem. In Hengwrt Library the MS. of Nennius, wrote by 
the great antiquary Robert *Vaughan, and collated with all the 
copies in the public libraries, is entitled Gildas Nennius, In 
the account of the tombs of the warriors of Britain, wrote by 
Taliesin, one Caw is mentioned among the great warriors ; and 
in Englynion y Clywed three of his sons are mentioned. His 
son Gildas is there called the " hated warrior" (" Gildas ap Caw 
milwr adgas"), or perhaps the father was " adcas". 

Lewis Glyn Cothi, who flourished about 1450, makes Caw, the 

father of the Cambrian saints, to have resided at Twrkelyn in 

Anglesey. 

Cynhedda fab Gwrda gwyn, 

Caw eilwaith o Dwrcelyn. — Goxoydd Ynys Mofi. 

These were two of the three Gwelygordd Saint Cymry ; and in 
the Grenealogies in the Iflyfr Goch o Hergest, in Jesus College, I 
find the three Gwelygordd to be Plant Cynedda "Wledig, Plant 
Brychan Brycheiniog, and Plant Caw o Frydain; which "Fry- 
dain" is a mistake of the transcribers for Prydyn, now called 
Scotland; called formerly the Unconquered Britain. But in 
enumerating the last Gwelygordd, the same Genealogies make 
them the children of Caw o Twrkelyn, which is in Anglesey. Is 
it not plain, then, that Caw came from North Britain with his 
family, and settled in Anglesey, at Twrcelyn, since we know 
that Cynedda's children, who came from Scotland, did settle over 
all Wales, having whole counties to their shares, as Cereticus 
had Ceredigion, etc., from whence they had drove the Irish Scots ? 
GiLEK (Y), a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. Kobei-t Price, 



CELTIC REMAINS. 199 

one of the Barons of the Exchequer in King William's time, 
w^ owner of this place ; as was Rhys Wynne ap Cadwaladr of 
Giler, who disputed in poetry with Thomas Price of Plas lolyn. 
See Price's Poems (MS.). 

GiLFACH (Y), a house in Creuddyu, Caernarvonshire. 

GiLFACH Wen (Y), a gentleman's seat. {Ow. a/p leuan Hen.) 
Gilfach Afal, a place in Cardiganshire. 

GiRALDUS Cambrensis : see Silvester Giraldus, 

Glais. Blaen y Glais, Glamorgan ; Pen Glais^ Cardiganshire. 

Glam Hector, a Prince of the Irish Scots, whose sons invaded 
Britain about the year 440. Ysgroeth took Dalrieuda, part of 
the Alban ; Builke took the Isle of Man ; Bethoun took Deme- 
tia, with Gwyr and Cydweli. (Price's Append. Nennius.) Mr. 
Camden, in his first edition (1586)^ calls this person, out of 
Nennius, Ilam Odor ; but in Gibson's edition (1695) it is wrote 
Elam Hodor, and in the margin Clan Hodor. Strange incohe- 
rencies ! (See Gale's Nennivs.) See Clam Hodor. 

Glamorgan, an English name corrupted from Gxolad Morgan 
or Morganwg, a county in South Wales, part of the territory of 
the Silures, as they were called by the Romans for Iselwyr. See 
Morganwg. 

Glann, an ancient Celtic word signifying the side or bank or 
margin of a river, prefixed to the names of several places ; as, 
Glann Hafren (n. 1.) ; Glan Gwy (n. L) ; Glan'r Afon (n. L) ; 
Glann Alaw, Anglesey ; Glann Bran, Caermarthenshire.; Glan 
y Meichiaid in Meivod [this is Nant y Meichiaid — fF".2?.]; Glan 
Uyfni, Breknockshire. In Scotland: Glen Luce Bay; Glen 
Shield ; Glen Elg ; Ruther Glen. 

Glan Wysg gwae galon ei wyr. — Bhisiart lorwerth. 

[Glann, in South Wales, is a hill. — L M.] 

Glan Alaw, a gentleman's seat in Anglesey, on the banks of 
the river Alaw. 

Glan yr Annell. (i. G, Cothi) 

Glan Cynllaith. 

GlaS, blue, pale, or green, in the names of men and places, and 
as cognomens. C)mog Las, i. e., Cynog the Pale, a prince men- 
tioned by Gildas. 



200 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Y Marchog Glaa o Wynedd [o Wenlr- JT. D.], Sir William [ab] 
Thomas [of Ehaglan— W. !>.]. 

Y Bardd Glas o'r Gadair. 

Brutus Darian Las, i, e., Brutus with the blue shield. 

GrufiFydd Ms ap Grufifydd Frfts o Ddyfei 

Ehiwlas; Bryn Glas; Glasgrug; Cruclas; y Maes Glas; y 
Uwyn Glas ; y Las Ynys ; and perhaps Cl<i8 Merdin in the Tri- 
odes. The first name of Britain was Glas, q. d. the Green Island ; 
for ancient Latin writers called it " Insula Ccerula". See Olas. 

Glasgrug, a round gi*een hill within two miles of Abeiyst- 
wyth, where encamped, a.d (Potvel, p. 179.) 

Glasvre (n. L). 

Glasvyb, a river, qu. ? or perhaps glas voroedd. 

Gorvn gwynt gwaeddian uch glan glasvyr 
Gorddwy clan tonnau Talgarth Ystyr. 

Gleddyf Hir. Gwilym Gleddyf Hir, the surname given by 
the Britons to William de Longa Spata. 

Gleis (n. pr. v.). Trioedd y Mdrch, 1. Hence Penglais near 
Aberystwyth. 

Gleisur o'r Gogledd, father of Aedenawc. {Tr, 27.) 

Glenfrinacht, in Antrim, Ireland. 

Glengevin, a village near Londonderry. 

Glessych, a river. Cwm Glessych. 

Gyrryd eifr bran deifr bry dufrych a'th ffon 
Gwynion a gleision o flaen Glessych. 

D. ab leuan Du, i S. Eorych. 

Glewisig, a lordship in Deheubarth, from Glywis ap Tegid. 
(E. Llwyd, Notes an Camden!) Myrddin Emrys was found by 
King Vortigem's messengers in the country called Glevising. 
Nennius, c. 42, "Ad Campum Electi". 

Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr. This seems to be a nickname of 
him that was King Arthur's chief porter or officer of the gates. 
He escaped alive from the battle of Camlan because he was so 
strong and big that nobody would venture to strike him. (2V.85.) 

Gloddaith, enw Ue. Madog Gloddaith. 

Gloyw. Caer Loyw {Triades) ; another copy, Caer Loyv ; 
Dr. Thos. Williams {Catalogtie), Caer Loew, which he Englishes 
. Glocester. 



CELTIC REMxVINS. 201 

Tyssilio says there was a city called Caer Gloew, built by 
Gloew Kessar, the Emperor, on the river Hafren, on the confines 
of liOegria and Cambria, in memory of the marriage of his 
daughter, Genhylles, with Gweyrydd, King of Britain ; and that 
other writers say it was built by his son (i. c, grandson), Gloew 
Gwlad Lydan, who was born there, and who was Prince of Cam- 
bria after Gweyrydd. See Genhylles. 

Gloywddigar: vid. Garanawg.' 

Gloyw Imerawtr or Ymerodr, Claudius the Emperor. Caer 
Loyw, Gloucester. 

Glyder, a mountain in Eryri ; perhaps Y Gludair. 

Glyn, a very ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of 

several places, signifying a little valley. Glyn in Dyfynnog 

parish, Brecknockshire. Glyn in Ardudwy, a gentleman's seat. 

Glyn Ebron, the valley of Hebron. {Bibl) Glyn Tawy. Gen- 

eu'r Glyn, Cardiganshire, a lordship. Glyn Rothney, a lordship 

in Morgannwc. Glyn Ilechog, the Abbey of Aberconwy here. 

Glyn Wysg. 

Glyn Tawy galont heol, 

Glyn Wysg a wyl glaw yn ei ol. — D. Eppynt 

Gl3mWrthaf ; yno 'r ymladdodd Goreu fab Cystenin Heusor fab 
Dyfnedig dros Arthur. {E. Llwyd) leuan y Glyn ap Moms. 

Glyn Achalch or (as some copies) Glyn Achlach, a place in 
Ireland where Murchert, King of Ireland, and Gruffuth ap 
Cynan, afterwards King of Wales, had a meeting to settle the 
Welsh and Irish music. This was about the year 1097. Here 
the twenty-four measures were made for the harp and crwth. 
The four masters who composed them were Welsh and Irish : 
Alban ap Cynan, Rhydderch Foel, Matholwch Wyddel, and 
Alofif Gerddwr. And these measures had Irish names given 
them, which we find in our ancient music books in Wales to 
this day. Our Welsh books call this Murchert Mwrchan Wyddel; 
and some Irish writers call him Murchertacus, and Murchardo- 
cus, and Mariardachus. This seems to have been when Gruff, 
ap Cynan and Cadwgan ap Bleddyn were retreated to Ireland, 
Hugh Earl of Chester and Owen ap Edwyn having taken pos- 
session of their lands and of the Isle of Anglesey. 

Glyn Ceiriog. 

2'6 



202 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Glyn Clwyd. 

Gwychder galon cler Gljn Clwyd a Thegaingl 
Ar wyth ng^in aelwjd. — Tudur Aled, 
See Dyffryn Chvyd. 
Glyn Cuwch : see Cuwch. 
Glyn Cyffin, terfyn Gwynedd a Phowys. (Dr. Davies in voce 

Glyn Dyfrdwy, one of the three comots of Cantre 'r Barwn 
in Powys Vadog, now in Meirionyddshire. Hence Owen Glyn 
Dyfrdwy, who was lord of this place, took his name. He gave 
the English a great deal of trouble in the reign of 

Glyn Glanoc (enw'r gwr), idem quod Glanec ; taid Pasgen 
ap Helic. 

Glyn Ieithon, one of the four comots of Cantref Melienydd, 
between Wy and Hafren. See Ieithon river. 

Glyn Lufon (enw lie), in some places writ Cwm liifon. 
liifon, avon. 

Glyn Nedd, a gentleman's seat in Glamorganshire. 

Glyn TwYMYN,.in Cemaes, a gentleman's seat, Montgomery- 
shire. See Tuyymyn river. 

Glywis ap Tegid, who gave name to Glewisig or Nennius' 
Gleuising. 

GoBANNiUM (Latin) ; Gefni or Cefni river. {E. Uvryd.) 

GoDDAU. Cad Goddau or Gwaith Goddau, one of the three 
frivolous battles. (TV. 47.) It seems Goddeu was the name of a 
country in the north of Britain, the country of the Gadeni. John 
Major, in his Hist, Scot, 1. i, c. 15, mentions a battle of this 
kind between the Scots and Picts ; for that the Picts stole a 
(molossus) mastiff from the Scots, and would not restore it 
From words it came to blows, and to a most cruel war, in which 
all the neighbouring princes were engaged. Major makes 
Carausius (or, as he calls him, Carentius) to be the mediator 
between them about a.d. 288, and that they then turned all their 
arms against the Komans. The Triades says the battle of Cad 
Goddeu was fought on account of a bitch, a roe, and a lapwing ; 
and Tudur Aled calls the battle Oioaith Colwyn (the lapdog 
battle). 

Taliesin hath an ode under this title, which is a battle of 
trees, — a banter ridiculing the insignificant cause of it. 



CELTIC KEMAINS. 203 

Dygryeswyfl Fflamddwyn 
Ooddan a Beged i jmddulla. — Taliesin. 
See Owaith and Gad Ooddau. 

Gwaith colwjn yn dwyn y dydd. — Tudur Aled, 

GoDiR, borders of a country {E. Llwyd) ; perhaps godrey the 
skirts of a country. It is wrote also Ooddir or Oodhir. 

GoDiR Dyfnaint, the borders of Devon {E, Llwyd), mentioned 
by Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Geraint. 

GoDiB Pennog, the place where Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks 
Urien Beged lived. 

GoDEBOG neu Godhebog (n. pr.). Coel Godhebog, a Prince of 
North Britain ; some say Hawk-faced. 

GoDFBYD, son of Harald the Dane, subdued to himself the 
whole Isle of Anglesey, A.I). 969 (Powel, Oaradoc, p. 62) ; but 
did not keep it long. At this time the Princes of Wales were 
butchering one another, lago and leuaf and Howel and leuaf. 

GoDO (n. pr. v.), father of Ffleidur Fflam. {Tr, 15.) 

GoDBis ap Wiliam Goodrider, arglwydd Elbeth jm Normandy. 

GoEDTBE (Y) parish, Monmouthshire. 

GoGABTH, a headland at the mouth of Conwy river, whibh 
Mr. Camden calls a vast promontory with a crooked elbow, as if 
Nature designed there a harbour for shipping ; and here, he says, 
stood the ancient city of Diganwy, which was consumed by 
lightning ; and he supposes it to be the Dictum where, under 
the later emperors, the commander of the Nervii Dictenses kept 
guard ; and he says that Ganwy is a variation of Conwy. But 
the city Diganwy was several miles from that promontory, and 
Nature could not design a harbour where it was impossible to 
make one. There remains of it a gentleman's seat called Dig- 
anwy, and a tower called Castell y Fardi*e or y Faerdref. See 
Gannoc. 

GoGEBDDAN, enw lie. 

GoGERTHAN, a gentleman's seat, q. d. Gogarth Ann. Castell 
Ann just by. 

GoGOF. Llywelyn Gogof ap leuau Uwyd. 

GoGOFAU, a noted place in Caermarthenshire for its vast 
niunber of caves or drifts in the rock, in the nature of levels 
for mines ; but some think them to be the station of some army 
or legion who made these surprising caverns to secure themselves. 



204 CELTIC REMAINS. 

GoGOFAWG, full of caves. Ty Crogofawg, a place mentioned by 
Asser Menevensis, in Alfred's life, to be in the country of Mer- 
cia, which he interprets " speluncarum donius". 

GoGON (idem quod Gwgon) ap Idnerth. 

GoGYRFAN Gawk, or, according to the Triades, Ogyrfan Gawr, 
was father of Gwenhwyfar, the third wife of King Arthur, who 
was dethroned and ravished by Medrod; pronounced by the 
vulgar, in their traditional stories, Gogfran Gawr, for Gogrfan, 
the letter y being but a mute thrust in by the ancients, as 
Lloegyr for Lloegr. He was a Prince of some part of Cambria, as 
appears by his title of Cawr (for Prince), which was not com- 
monly used in Albania, Loegria, or Cornwall, unless removed 
there. (TV. 59.) 

GoLEUBRYD verch Meredydd ap Ivan. 

(iOLEUDYDD vcrch Brychau, Santes yn Llanhesgin, Gwent. 

GOLIDAN Fardd, killed with an axe. (TV. 39 ; E. Lhoyd,) Gol- 
yddan Fardd, Cadwaladr*s poet, an. 660. 

GoLVA, a gentleman's seat. (/. D) [Moel y Golfa or y Glol- 
fa.— W. 2?.] 

GOLUCH : see Ihjffryn Goluch. 

GoLUN. Caer Golun {Triades) ; Caer Colun in Nennius ; Caer 
Colwn in Usher, which he interprets Colchester. Galfrid makes 
it Colchester. Hence Ehoscolun in Anglesey. 

GoLW^c ap Paun ap Meirchion. 

GOLYDAN. (TV. 75.) 

GoLLWYN (Pymtheg Llwyth) ap Gellan. 

GoLLWYN GOEG : SCO Coeg, 

GoRARTH (k gor and garth), Uanvihangel Orarth, Caermar- 
thenshire. 

GoRAU (n. pr. v.). Gorau fab Custenin, King Arthur's cousin- 
german, who released him Irom three prisons {Tr, 50) : from 
Caer Oeth ac Anoeth ; from Gwen Bendragon, who had him 
three days and three nights in a concealed prison under the 
stone. {Tr, 50.) 

GoRBONiAWN, the 30th King of Britain. 

GORDDINAM (n. 1.). 

GORDDINOG, enw Ue 'n Uwch Conwy. Wynne Gorddinog. 

GoRDDWFYN ap Gwiriawn ap Gwynnan ap Gwynfyw Frych. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 205 

GoBDDWK, enw He. 

Y gwr o Orddwr a nrdda meneich 
Yn Maenan a Benna. 

GuttoW Olytij i Rys Abad Ystrad Fflup ag Aberconwy. 

GoRDDWR ISAF, one of the comots of Cantref Ystlyc in Powys 
Wenwynwyn. 

GoRFYW (n. pr. v.). Cappel Gorfyw at Bangor Fawr. 

GoRGORN : see Gwrygion. 

GORGYRN : see Ovn^theyrnion, 

GoRLECH, a river that falls into Cothi at Abergorlech. 

GoRLLAis, qu. or Golles ? Cappel y Gorllais, near Holyhead. 

GoRLLWYN. Llanvair Orllwyn, Cardiganshire. 

GoRLLWYN (Y). Mynydd y Gorllwyn, one of the three heads 
or points of the top of Eifl Mountain in Caernarvonshire. See 
Eifl. 

GoROLWYN (n. pr. v.) ; perhaps CoUwyn. See Colwyn, 

GoRONAUT, id. quod Gronant, 

GoRONWY (n. pr. v.). Goronwy niab Echel VorddwytwU, one 
of the tri unben llys Arthur. (Tr. 15.) 

Goronwy Pefr o Benllyn. {Tr, 35.) 

Grouwy mab Pefr Garanir 

Arglwydd Penllyn hoyw wyn hir. — D. op OwUym, 

GoRSEDD Orwynnion, mentioned in Lly warch Hen*s Marwnad 
Cyndylan. See Oorwynion. 

GoRTHiR Gerwryd, a place where Uywelyn ap lorwerth en- 
camped with the prime men of Gwynedd. 

Gorihoei drai draws a hyd 

Gorthir y gelwir Gerwryd. — Gylch Llywelyn, 

GoRWLEDYDD, foreign countries. 

Caer lydan rhag gorwledydd. 

' Huw Oae Llwyd^ i Gasiell Nedd. 

GoRWYN. Mr. Stukely, author of the Palceographia BrUan- 
nica, A.D. 1752^ thinks this to be the Gaulish or British name of 
Onuna, the wife of Carausius, who, Zarabella says, was a Gaul 
or of Gaulish extraction ; but if he had understood the Celtic 
tongue he would have known that Gorwyn cannot be the name 



206 CELTIC REMAINS. 

of a woman, being of the masculine gender. It should have 
been Gorwen, anciently Gorven. 

GoRWYNNiON, an ode of Uywarch Hen. 

GrOBWTKiON, One of the sons of Lly warch Hen : hence pro- 
bably Gorsedd Orwynion in Marwnad Cyndylan Powys. 

GossELiNUS. (Jo. Major, Hist. Scot, L ii, c. 3.) This Ls Cyhelyn, 
the Bishop of London, that took care of the sons of Constantine, 
— a strange transformation into Gosselin ! 

GosGOBDDFAWB, a sumame. See Ulidir, 

GOTLOND (Tyssilio) ,GotlAnd or Gothland, an island of Sweden, 
in the Baltic, Ghthlandia ; and also the country of Scandinavia : 
in Latin, Ootiscomdia. {Mareri.) 

GouANUS and Elga. (John Major, L i, fo. 20.) These are 
Gwynwas and Melwas, said in Tyssilio to have intercepted the 
virgins sent to Armorica. 

GowEB, qu. ? Llangower, a parish and church in the deanery 
of Penllyn ; some say from Gwar y Llyn, as Llanuwllyn from 
Uwch y Uyn. [Others from Gwawr, mother of Llywarch Hen. 

— W.'R] 

GowEB Land : see Ov^. 

GowBES. Ilys Gowres. See Cawres, [Llys Gowres, in L Gl. 
Cothi, etc., means Cans or Caurse Castle, near Westbury, Salop. 

— W.D.'\ 
Gbadivel Sani 

Gradivel y del o*i dy. — 0, M. 

Gbaig Coch (Y). 

Graianog, a gentleman's seat in Caernarvonshire, in Uwch 
Gwirfau ; once a lordship given by King Cadwaladr to the Abbey 
of Clynnog Vawr yn Arvon. (Wyn., Hist, p. 11.) 

Gramel ap Bhiryd ap Rhys. 

Grasiak, the 92nd King of Britain. 

Gbauch or Grauth. Caergrauch in Nennius, by the mistake 
of transcribers. See Cfravmt, 

Gbawnt or Grant, a river in Lloegria, England. 

Grawnt and Grant. Caergrant. (TV.) This is, by mistake 
of transcribers, called in Nennius Caer Grauch for Caer Grawnt 
{T. W,) ; by Usher, Caer Grawnt. Dr. Th. Williams makes it 
Cambridge, from the river Grant or Grawnt. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 207 

Greal, Sain Greal and St. Greal ; St. Gregory, says Mr. Edw. 
Ilwyd, p. 265. This is a supposed saint, and author of a book 
of divers stories wrote in the British tongue about Arthur, etc., 
wrote in the romantic style for winter nights' entertainment. I 
have formerly seen it in MS. at Hengwrt Library, and it is called 
Llyfr y Oreal ; very fair wrote on vellum, and in good languaga 
Dr. Davies mentions it in his Dictionary, in the word Oreal ; 
and by Mr. Edw. Ilwyd in his Arch. Brit, p. 262 and 265. In 
an ancient table once belonging to Glastonbury this book is 
quoted : "Ac deinde secundum quod legitur in libro qui dicitur 
Greal, Joseph Arimathea," etc. Usher, Primard, (Dub. edit.), p. 
16 ; Capgrave, in the Life of Joseph of Arimathea, quotes a book, 
"Qui Sanctum Greal appellatur"; and Vincentius, in his SpeciU, 
Hist., mentions the same book of histories, and says it was called 
Gaal from a Oallice word (Welsh, I suppose), gradalis ot gradate, 
signifying a little dish where sonie choice morsel was put; and 
that it was not to be found in Latin, but common in GaUice. It 
is also mentioned in the Triades, 61. But hear what Archbishop 
Usher says of it : " Multa vero inde in fabulosa regii Arthuri 
acta. Lingua Anglicana a se edita transtulit Thomas Mailorius 
qui Sangreal vocem hie usurpat ad sanguinis realis notionem 
proximo accedentem." (Usher, Prim., p. 17.) 

Greddyf or Greddf. 

Greidiawl Galofydd, one of the three Galofydd of Britain. 

{Tr. 24) 

Argae Greidiawl wrhydri. 

Llygad Qwr, i L. ap lorwerth. 

Greiglas (Y). 

Greiglwyd (Y). 

Greigwen (T). 

Gresfford or Gresford (perhaps in the British, Croesffordd), 
a church and parish in Denbighshire. Holt Chapel is in this 
parish, but in the diocese of Chester. (B. Willis.) 

Greu, Caergreu, qu. (Tr. 35), the place where Gwrgi and Per- 
edur were killed by Eda Glin Mawr, their men having deserted 
them. The death of Gwrgi and Peredur is placed by the ^r. 
Catnlyr, in 584, and by the Vn. copy, 596. 

Griccyll, a river in Anglesey, now Grigyll. Porth Grigyll. 



208 CELTIC REMAINS 

Eowlands says from J. Agricola ; but rather from craig hyll, q. 
d. Oreigyll, 

Griffki, a man's name ; Bishop of Menevia. (Powel, Caradoc, 
p. 175, A.D. 1113.) Tre Eiffri in Anglesey; also an inscription 
on a stone at Penrhose Bradwen in Anglesey. Griffri and Bryn 
Grifiri in Powys. {Tr. 63.) In the battle of Meigen, between 
Cadwallon and Edwin, a,d. 620, qu. ? Griffri ap Heilin o'r Frou 
Goch Ymhowys. 

Grifft. Aderyn y grifft, griffon. {E, Llwyd.) See Gniff. 

Grisli verch Dafydd ap Meyric. 

Groeg, Greece. 

Groeg Vawr, Italy {E. Lhvyd), Magna Grcecia, It was only- 
some skirts of Italy which had Grecian towns along the sea-coast. 

Gronant, a river in Anglesey, and a gentleman's seat ; and a 
village in Englefield, from a river there. It belonged, in William 
the Conqueror's time, to the manor of Bhuddlan. {Doomsday 
Book.) 

Gronw, Gronwy, and Goronwy (n. pr. v.). 

Goronwy, Gruffadd, gwyr o anian plaid. — L, 01, Cotht. 

Grudneu (n. pr. v.), un o'r tri glew. {Tr. 27.) 
Gruffudd, non Gryffydd (n. pr. v.), k gruff and tidd; some 
think from Gryphtis or Gryjps, a griffon, and udd, and not from 
cry and ffydd. Ffydd is a provincial Latin word, and so is gryps^ 
and not from BufinuB, as Camden thinks. Hence Griffith, Grif- 
fiths, Gruffin, Griffin, etc. It is also wrote Gruffydd ; but mostly 
by the poets wrote Gruffudd. 

Gruffudd, qu. Glyn ap Dafydd ap leuan ap Einion. 

Brig gwydd Syr Gruffydd a'i sal. — Sion Cleri. 
Rhybndd i Rnffadd ryffol. — D. ap Qwilym. 
Gruffadd wallt melynrhudd vakn. — 8wn Ceri. 
Gruffydd awenydd nniawn. — D. LI. ap LI. ap Gruffydd. 
Gruffudd Beisrudd Bowysran. — Tudur Penllyn. 

Gruffudd ap Cynan, Prince of Wales, was cotemporary with 
William the Conqueror. He died a.d. 1137, after reigning vic- 
toriously fifty years. He was a great warrior, and a worthy, 
Ivise, and valiant Prince. I find in an old MS. noted that he 
was Owyn Gwyarchau that Myrddin prophesied of. His life 



CELTIC REMAINS. 209 

was wrote in Welsh by and translated into Latin by Nic. 

Robinson, Bishop of Bangor {J, D), and is extant. He was 
father of Owain Gwynedd. 

Gruffudd Llwyd ap Dafydd ap Einion Lygliw, o Bowys, a 
poet anno 1400 ; athro Ehys Goch o Eryri. 

Grug, enw lie. Salbri o Rug yn Sir Feirion. Recti Rug ; 
but qu. ? See Trefy Grug, 

Grugor (n. pr. v.), Lat. Qregorius, Gregory. 

A'u gwragedd hwy (myn Grugor). — 8ion Oeri. 

Grugor, the name of a place in Anglesey. Creigiau Si Gru- 
gor, St. Gregory's Rocks, near Aberffiraw. 

Grangcod, cimychod y m6r, 

O Greigiau'r hen Sain Grugor.— -H. BemaMt, 

Grugunan, mentioned by Cynddelw i Ho. Owain Gwynedd. 
[GreginoD, qu. Gregynog ? — W. D.] 

Grwst or GWRWST, the 14th King of Britain. 

Grwst ap Clydno, the 55th King of Britain. 

Grwst vel Gwrrwst ap Cenau. 

Grwst Sant. Ilanrwst, a town, church, and parish, in Den- 
bighshire. 

Grwyn (Y), Groeningen, or perhaps Graveling, in Flanders ; 
some seaport town. The Groine in Galicia. 

Aethau oddiar greirjau'r Grwyn, — Syr Dafydd Trefar, 

GuALH vab Dissyvyndod, un o'r tri unben Deifr a Brynaich. 
(E. Lhvyd) ; a Northumbrian poet of the 6th century. 

Guic, old orthography, in composition uicy now Gwig, a thicket 
of wood ; hence the names of several places in Britain ; as, Wic 
Wair, near St. Asaph ; Gwair Wic, i. e., Warwick 

Gumi {Bede, 1. i, c. 12), a city on the east arm of the sea which 
divided the Scots and Kcts from the Roman part of Britain. It 
was in an island (by Flaherty Caergreic), See Oaergrek, 

GuiRlGON. Caer Guirigon in Nennius. See Wrygion. 

GuissANEY, rectfe Gwysanau, a place in Denbighshire. 

GuoRANGON. Caer Guorangon. Mr. Camden, out of Nennius, 
for the city Worcester ; and so Usher {Prim., c. 5). Guorcon, 
Caerguorcon. Mr. Camden, out of Nennius, for Worcester. But 

27 



210 CELTIC REMAINS. 

neither of these names are to be found in the Cambridge nor 
Cottonian copy of Nennius, nor Mr. Vaughan's : and Usher 
makes Guorcon to be either Warwick or Wroxeter. (Notes an 
Camden.) 

GuoRTHiGiENE : See Owerthrynion, 

GUOTODIN. (Nennivs) See Manau OtLotodin and Oododin 
Aneurin. 

GuRGYRN : see OwHheyrnum. [Caer Chirgym, the old name of 
Llanilltud Fawr, according to some MSS. — L M!\ 

GUMCON. Oaer Guricon in Nennins. See TVyrangon. 

GuKN Ddu (Y) and Gurn Gogh (qu. whether it should be 
wrote y Geym Ddu, etc.), two mountains in Caernarvonshire. 
[Y Gum, Pen y Gym, Cum Moelfre, Cym y Bwch : W. Owen 
would say Civm, v. Geiriadur. — W. D,'\ 

GuRMOND, a captain of the Danes, called Godrun ; afterwards 
King of the East Angles, A.D. 877. (Garadoc in Anarawd.) 

GuTMOND (n. pr. v.), by Tyssilio called King of Afiric ; by Sir 
John Price, Gurmond from Ireland, who came hither from Afiric 
{Dr. Powel, note, p. 6) : Gurmundus, arch-pirate, captain of the 
Norwegians, a.d. 590. 

GuTTYN Owen, a herald, poet, and historian, anno Domini, 1480. 

GwAEDERW (n. 1.), now Gwedir or Gwydyr, near Llanrwst, 
where Gr. ap Cynan fought a battle. {Meilir Prydydd.) [Where 
Sir John Wynn, the first baronet of that name, lived, who wrote 
the history of his ancestors, etc. — W, D.] 

GwAEDNERTH. Gronw ap Gwaednerth. 

GwAETHYRN (n. pr. v.), a Saxon name, at the battle of Bangor 
is y Coed. {Tr. 67.) 

GwAiN, a river in Dyfed ; hence a town called Abergwain, Fis- 
card, in Pembrokeshire. 

GwAiR. Caer Wair, Warwick {Th. Williams) ; q. d. Gwair 
Wig or Gwig y Gwair. Uwyn Gwair in Pembrokeshire. 

GWAITH, an ancient Celtic word signifying a battle ; when pre- 
fixed to the names of places, signifying the battle of such a place. 

GwAiTH (fl.) ; hence Abergwaith. 

GwAiTH. Ynys Waith, the Isle of Wight. H. Llwyd, in his 
Brit Descr.y p. 22 (ed. 1731), says the Britons call it Ynys Wydd, 
i. e.y the Conspicuous Island. Ifennius (c. 2) or his interpolator 



CELTIC R BMAINS. 211 

calls it With, which he sajrs the Britons call Oweid or Owith, 
and that it signifies in Latin Divartium, L e., separation. It is 
true 6v;th, in British, is a thrust ; but are not all islands thrust 
from the continent ? 

GwAiTH Ardbrydd, a battle fought between Ehydderch Hael 
of Alclud, in Scotland, and Aeddan Vradwg, both North Britons, 
about the year 557. This battle, in the Trictdes, is called one of 
the three trifling battles of Britain ; that is, occasioned by trifles. 
Cad Goddeu was one of them, which see. Cad Gtemlan was 
another ; and this was the third, and occasioned by no greater 
a matter than two shepherds falling out about a lark's nest; 
where one killed the other, and the quarrel spread itself from 
two families to two principalities. See Owenddolau ap Ceidio. 

A morose critic may observe upon this, that it is no wonder 
the Britons have lost their land and power to the Saxons, Danes, 
and Normans, when they could be such great idiots as to have 
a national quarrel about a bird's nest, a bitch and buck, or a 
box on the ear. But history will shew us several instances, 
among other nations, of great wars and revolutions in empires 
occasioned by as little trifles. The most prodigious armament 
in history, which was Xerxes's war against the Greeks, had no 
greater a beginning than a Greek, who was the Queen's physi- 
cian, having a longing to see his country, represented this expe- 
dition in such a glorious light to his mistress, that the King had 
no rest of her- night or day till he undertook it. 

The occasion of putting all Greece in arms to destroy the 
kingdom of Priam and his Trojans, was an youthful Queen gave 
hints that she might be run away with, while the husband 
thought she was taken away by force. 

Count Julian's daughter's amour with Boderic King of Spain 
was the cause of bringing over from Africa an army of above 
two hundred thousand Moors, who subdued the country in eight 
months, and kept possession of it eight hundred years, in which 
were fought 3,609 battles. 

And to conclude this head, Voltaire, in his Age of Lewis 14th, 
says that the Duchess of Marlborough refusing Queen Anne of 
England a pair of gloves which had been sent her from abroad, 
and by an affected negligence spilling some water on Lady 



212 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Marsham's gown, gave a decisive turn to the affairs of Europe ; 
for upon this the Duke of Marlborough was called home from 
the command of the army, and all the British schemes knocked 
in the head. (Pens^ Diver, scr. d un Dod, de Sorbonne,) 

GwAiTHFOED (n. pr. v.). Gwaithfoed Fawr, arglwydd Cer- 
edigion. From him the Pryses of Gogerthan, etc., derive them- 
selves. 

GWAITH Gabth Maelawc or Garth Meiliog, a battle fought 
in North Wales by Bhodri Molwynog and the Saxons, in which 
he got the day. (Powel, Caradoc, p. 14.) 

GwAiTH GoDDAU and Cad Goddau, the battle or action of 
Goddau. (Tn 47.) 

GWAITHHENGAR ap Elffin. 

GwAiTH Llanfaes, in Anglesey, a.d. 818 {MS.) ; I suppose 
with Egbert, King of the West Saxons, who at this time spoiled 
Eiryri. (Caradoe in Mervyn.) 

GWAITH Llwtn Dafydd, Ceredigion. 

Dyfod at Waith Llwyn Dafydd 

Da fan gan bob dyn a fydd. — D. ap leuan Du. 

GWAiTH Machawy, a battle fought by Gruffudd ap Llewelyn, 
Prince of Wales, with Bandulph Earl of Hereford, when Gruffudd 
destroyed Hereford, and burnt the Cathedral, and killed the 
Bishop, A.D. 1055. It seems there were two battles then fought, 
one at Machawy, where Bandulph might be an auxiliary with 
Gruffudd ap Rhydderch ap lestyn ; and the other within tWo 
miles of Hereford, as above. But. qu. whether Machawy doth 
not fall into the Wy near Hereforf ? See ^r, Cambr, 

GwAiTH MoELFRE, the battle of Moelvre. [Tal Moelfre, 
Mon, qu.?— TV, D.] 

GwAiTH Pencoet : see Pencoet, 

GwAiTH Vaddon, A.D. 520 (^r. Cambr, M. W.), the battle 
of Mons Badonicus in Gildas. This battle is mentioned in an 
ancient MS. chronology in these words : " oes Gwrtheym 
Gwrthene hyd waith Vaddon pan ymladdodd Arthur a'i hyneif 
a'r Saeson ac y gorfu Arthur*'; i. 0., From the age of Gwrtheym 
Gwrthene to the battle of Badon, when Arthur and his elders 
{majores, lieutenants or inferior princes) fought the Saxons, where 
Arthur overcame, etc. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 213 

GwAL Sever, Severus's Wall ; called also Mur Sever ^ and by 
the English the Picts' WalL Jno. Major calls it Muro Tiroali 
(1. i, fo. 9) ; and in 1. ii, c. 3, he says that some say it was built 
by Bilemis, a British King, meaning, I suppose, Beliniis, 

GwAL Y ViLiAST, a crpmlech in the parish of Ilanboydy, Caer- 
marthenshire, called also Bwrdd Arthur. (R Llwyd) 

GwALCHMAi (n. pr. v.), literally the Hawk of May. I am sur- 
prised how Galfrid and others could Latinize it Walganvs, Men 
noted of this name were — 

GwALOHMAi AP GwYAR, One of King Arthur's generals, and, I 
suppose, his sister Anna's son by Gwyar, a second husband, and 
so but haK-brother to Medrod, who was son of liew ap Cyn- 
farch. He is often mentioned in the THades as a great orator, 
Aurdafodiog {Tr, 82), deifniawc (2V. 10). He was killed in a 
battle between Arthur and Medrod, on Arthur's landing in 
Britain. (Tysdlio,) He was lord of Castell Gwalchmai yn Ehos ; 
i. e., Eoose, near Milford Haven. About the year 1080 the 
sepulchre of Walwey (Gwalchmai), King Arthur's sister's son, 
was found upon the sea-shore in the country of Eos (now called 
Eoose), and the place is shewn between the Isles of Skomar and 
Skokham in Pembrokeshire. The body, by estimation, upon 
viewing of the bones, was thought to be 14 foot in length. He 
ruled that country which to this day is called Walwethay. He 
was a noble and valiant warrior of good reputation. (Matth. 
Paris, p. 17, apud Garadoc, Dr. PoweL) Ymddiddan rhwng 
Trystan a Gwalchmai. 

Gwalchmai [ap] Meilir o Fon, son of Meilir Brydydd, both 
excellent poets and warriors. Meilir was cotemporary with Gr. 
ap Cynan, and wrote that famous poem on the battle of Mynydd 
Cam, when Trahaearn, reigning Prince of North Wales, was 
killed by Gr. ap Cynan, a.d. 1079. It was by way of prophecy 
after the event had happened, — the safest way of prophesying. 
Gwalchmai, son of Meilir, wrote in the time of Owain Gwynedd, 
Prince of North WjJes. His description of the sea-fight on 
Menai is inimitable, and it seems he himself had a share in the 
action. We have several poems of his to Owain Gwynedd, who 
began to reign a.d. 1138, and died 1169. In one of them he 
brings him from iEneas. This seems to be one of his first poems 



214 CELTIC REMAINS. 

to Owain Gwynedd, for he says as a reason to come in favour 
with him, that his father had sung the praises of wain's father. 

Prydodd fy nhad ith fraisg frenhin dad. 

GwALLAWG, GwALLAwc, or GwALLOG (u. pr. V.), Lat. Galgacus; 
hence Sam WcUlog in Ceretica, a spot of foul ground in the Bay 
of Cardigan, where it is said the country of Gwyddno was 
drowned. See Oalgacus. 

GwALLOG AP Llienog or GwALLAWG AP Llebnawc, of Salis- 
bury, a general of King Arthur's, was killed in the battle fought 
in Gaul between Arthur and the Somans, a.d. 541. {TyssiUo.) 
[This was the Galgacus of Tacitus, and not Arthur's general. — 
W.D.'\ He is called by Camden (in his Description of Caledonia 
in Scotland) Gralauc ap Uiennauc, and which he Latinizes Gal- 
^cus. He was not the Galgacus mentioned by Tacitus, as he 
(Camden) would have it. He quotes in Caledonia the Triadwm 
Liber, which by Gibson, his translator, is called the Book of 
TripUcities. But neither of them knew anything of this book ; 
and it would have been more to Mr. Camden's credit if he had 
totally denied the authority of it, rather than giving it the 
highest encomiums in some parts of his works, and denying in 
other places that very Arthur who this book so aggrandises 
throughout the whole, that it appears to have been wrote purely 
to describe Arthur's greatness. But even the great Camden, 
when he acts out of his sphere, is but like another man. See 
Vaughan's Genealogical Tables at Hengwrt, where Onion Greg, 
daughter of Gwallawc ap Ueenawc, is said to have married 
Meurig ap Idno ap Meirchion ; and Uy warch Hen, one of King 
Arthur's privy council, was a grandson of the same Meirchion. 

Tri phost cad Ynys Prydain (i. «., the three pillars of battle of 
the Isle of Britain) ; Dunawt Fur mab Pabo Post Prydain ; 
Gwallawc ap Lleenawc ; a Chynfelyn Drwsgyl. Thus the Triades. 
" PwyUe Wallog marchog trin." {Llywarch Hen in Urien's Elegy.) 
See Galgacus. 

GwALLTER. Walter Mappseus, otherwise Calenns, a Cambro- 
Briton, Archdeacon of Oxford about the year 1150. Leland 
{Script Brit,, c. 157) mentions him with honour as the person 
that brought the copy of the British History over from Anno- 



CELTIC REMAINS. 215 

rica, and that he made a translation of it as well as Galfrid See 
some sayings of this Gwallter in Camden's Bemains, 

GwALLT EuKAiD. Llewelyn Wallt Euraid ap Madog ap Llew- 
elyn. 

GwALLTWEN, merch Afallach, a concubine of Maelgwn, and 
mother of Bhun ap Maelgwn. 

GwANAS, a place in Meirion. Here one Gwrgi was slain. 

{D. J.) 

Bhifo gwawn rh'of a Gwanas. — L. Gl, Cothi, 

See " Englynion y Beddau." 

Y Beddau Einion Gwanas. 

GwANiA, Chirkland, Tref y Waun. 

GwiR. Elidir War. 

GwANAR (n. pr. v.), Gwanar mab Lliaws ap Nwyfre, a general 
of the Britons, sister's son of Caswallon, that reigned here when 
Julius Caesar invaded Britain. (Tr. 40.) 

Bbli Mawb ftp Mavooar, King of Britftin 

! 

Llvdd, King Nthviaw, Llevblts, Caswallon, ABiABBH0i>==LliftW8 

of Britain, killed by killed in King of j ap 

killed by his Julius Gaul Britain I Nwjfre 

brother, Cas - Caasar J 

wallon I . I 

GwAHAB, GwBirwTirwTV or Gwbnwtn, the two generals. 

Cfiesar, in his Commentaries, says that the Britons had assisted 
the Gauls in their wars with the Bomans before he invaded 
Britain. The Triades says that Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, of 
Arllechwedd, sons of Lliaws ap Nwyfre and of Arianrhod their 
mother, daughter of Beli, went with their uncle, Caswallon ap 
Beli, beyond sea after the Cadsarians {i. e,, the Bomans, or Caesar's 
people), with an army of 61,000 men, and that they all settled 
in Gwasgwyn, and never returned. (2V. 40.) This was when 
Caesar warred with the Gauls, before the invasion of Britain. 
Mr. Edw. Llwyd, in his Archceohgia BrUannica (Brit. Preface), 
having hit upon a bad copy of the Triades, was not able to 
imderstand this passage, nor that of the auxiliaries granted to 
Urp Luyddog. See Urp, But yet it raised his curiosity to ex- 
amine into the language of Gwasgwyn (i. e., Gascony), and he 



216 CELTIC REMAINS. 

found a very great affinity between it and the British, which 
corroborates this passage in the Triades, and also that passage 
in the British history where it is said that Llefelys, a son of 
Beli Mawr, had the dominion of a country in Gaul by marriage ; 
and it is natural to think that this very Llefelys was him who 
Caesar calls Divitiacus, who had property in Britain, or at least 
a son of his. 

GwAREDDOG or GwAREDOG, in Arvon, where Beuno began to 
build a monastery, but was hindered by a woman. Qu., Gwt- 
edog ? 

GwARTHEFYN Beo Dynod. (Llywo/rch Hen in Marwnad Cad- 
wallon.) Whether Gw8u*thefin be not the name of the place ? 

GwARTHENioN, in Nennius. See Choortigem, 

GwABTHRENiON, One of the three commots of Cantref Ar- 
wystlL (Price's Descript) See Owrtheyrnion. 

GwARTHTJNioN, a name coined by Nennius [or] his interpolator, 
out of Gwrtheymion, the name of a country, to favour a silly 
fable of a country given to St. German. 

GWAS (Y) Teilaw o Went 

GwASANE or GwYSANE, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire. 
Davies, a noted botanist and antiquary. 

GwASGWYN, Grasgoigna The Triades mentions an army of 
61,000 Britons that w^ent to this country to assist the Gauls 
against the Eomans under Caswallon ap Beli Mawr and his 
nephews, Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, but never returned. (?V. 
40.) See Gwanar. 

GWATCIN, Watkin. 

GwAUN Breuan, in Llanrhaiadr, Denbighshire [pronounced 
Breton, — W, 2>.]. 

GwAUN Farteg, in Badnorshire. 

GwAUNYNOG, a gentleman's seat. {J, D) Middleton's. Qu., 
Gwenynog (^ gwenynyi 

GwAUNYSGOR, a church and parish (R.), Flintshire. 

GwAUNYTTYD (n. L). Here a battle was fought, ad. 1074, 
between the sons of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn and Bhys ap Owen, 
King of South Wales, where Ehys was defeated, but still kept 
the land. {Oaradoc in Trahaiam.) 

GwAWR verch Brychan, gwraig Elidir Lydanwyn. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 217 

GwEDiR, a gentleman's seat near Llanrwst {S. Tudur), com- 
monly pronounced Gwydyr, but rightly Grwaedei*w [or Gwaed-tir. 
See Gwydir, — W, -D.]. 

GwEDRAWS or GwEDROS, probably Gwaedros, a place in Car- 
diganshire ; though I find Deio ap leuan Du writes it Gwedraws, 

Ei gampaa'r gwyliau wr gwiw liaws frjd 
O frodir Caerwedraws 

Ai gjwydd oedd gaws. 

See Oaerwedros, 

GwEFLHWCH. Elgan Gweflhwch ; in another place, Gwefl 
Ffloch. 

GwEHELYTH, a family or clan. Gwehelythau a llwythau 
Cymru. 

GwEiLCHiON, the people and lands of GwalchmaL {Givelygordd- 
au Poivys.) 

GWEIR (n. pr. V.) [Trioedd y Meirch, 1); hence Llwyn Gwair, 
Pembrokeshire. 
GwEiRGURYT Fawr. (TV. 87.) 

GWEIRVYL, GWERFYL, GWERFUL, and GWEIRYL (n. pr. f.). Bet- 
tws Gweirvyl Goch, a church and parish in Merionethshire, in 
the deanery of Edeirnion, St. Asaph diocese. 

Gorwedd ym Mettws Gwerful 
Goch, hen oedd y wraig a chal. 

GwEiRYDD ap Cynfelyn ap Teneuan ap Lludd ap Beli Mawr. 
This Gweirydd is Latinized by Galfrid, Arviraffvs, which makes 
me suspect the name might be also wrote Arweirydd, By some 
of our British writers he is also called Gweirydd Arwyneddog, 

GWELW GwiNFFRWD ap Davydd Ddu Taerus. 

GWELYGAN. 

Ac y ar welagan gynnif rjssed. 

Gorh/]ffedd H. ap 0, Gwynedd, 

Qu. whether a place where a battle was fought between Gwynedd 
and Powys, where H. ap Owain Gwynedd behaved gallantly ? 

GwBLL ap Llywarch Hen, buried at Rhiw Felen. {Llywarch 
Hen) 

GWEN (n. pr. v.), one of Llywarch Hen's sons killed by the 
Saxons [on the banks of Morlas. — W. 7).]. 

28 



218 CELTIC REMAINS. 

GwBN ap Gronw. 

Gwyrda oedd Wfin a B^n-^^yn. — L. Q, Cothi. 

GWENABWT (n. pr. v.). 

A cbyssul a rofi i Wenabwy 

Nad fid ieaangc serchog eyberw vaocwy. — Hoi. Myrddin, 

GwANASSEDD verch Eeun Hael. 

GwENDRAETH Vechan, a river in Cydweli. (Camden's BrUan^ 
nia in Caennarthenshire.) 

GwENDDOLEN, Queen of Britain, and widow of Locrin. See 
Lloegrin Gawr. 

GwENDDOLAU, a Prince or general of the northern Britons of 
Celyddon, in the civil war when the great battle of Arderydd 
was fought in Scotland. He was an auxiliary of Aeddan Vrad- 
awg. Myrddin Wyllt, in his Hoiane, calls him his lord. He is 
mentioned in the Triades by the name of Gwenddolau ap Ceid- 
iaw, iin o^r tri tharw cad Ynys Brydain (one of three bulls of 
war) ; and in the 34th Triad it is said that his clan or army 
maintained their ground for six w^eeks after their lord's death. 
This battle was fought at Rhodwydd Arderydd, in Scotland, 
about the year 557, between Aeddan Vradog and Khydderch 
Hael of Alclud, etc. Gwenddolau had two vultures which he 
fed with the bodies of South Britons. They were killed by 
GaU, mab Dysgyfedawg. {Tr. 37.) 

GwENDDWR, a parish and village in Brecknockshire. 

GwENDDYDD (n. pr. f.). Also the morning star, Venus. 

GwENDDYDD, sister of Myrddin Wyllt, some of whose poems 
are by way of dialogue between him and her. Some hint that 
she was not his sister, but his mistress, which I believe is a 
mistake. 

GwENDDYDD verch Brychan, Santes Tnhowyn Meirionydd ; 
eraill a'i geilw Gwarddydd. 

GwENEDOTA {Nennitis), Gwynedd. 

GwENER (n. f.), the name of several of the princesses of the 
ancient Celtse, adored by the Romans^ &c., by the name of 
Venvs; genitive case. Veneris; and is derived from gwin bSr, 
i. $., a sweet smile, — the smiling goddess : hence Dydd Owener 
in the British, i. e., Du$ Veneris. If her name came fropi gwefna^^ 



CELTIC BEMAINS. 219 

white or fair, it would have been Gwenner or Gwenno» which in 
the name of Juno. 

Doeth ooeth cywrennin gwin a Gwener (wine and Yenus). 

Ein. ap Gwgan, to Lhi. ap lorwerth. 

GwENEU ap Edvedd o Frecheiniog. 

GwENFKEWi Santes, daughter of Biychan, abbess at Gwyth- 
erin (MS,) ; in English, Winifred Saint. Eobert, Prior of Shrews- 
bury, hath wrote her life, and before him Elerius, Abbot of Gwyth- 
erin, as saith Brit, Sanct She is said to have lived in the time of 
King El with (qu., who was he ?), and was daughter to a British 
lord, Thewith or Trebwith, who granted Beuno lands to build a 
church, under whose care she was brought up a nun. Caradoc, 
son of Alain, Prince of that country, cut off her head, because 
she would not consent to lie with him. Beuno put it on, and 
brought her to life. A well (Holywell) — Ffynnon Gwenfrewi — 
sprung out where her head feU^ etc. In her time Deifer was an 
anchoret at Botaver (Botvari), and Satumus at Henthlant (Hen- 
Uan) ; and Elerius Abbot of Gwytherin, who buried her, and 
where St. Kebius and St. Senan were buried, and the Abbess 
Theonia, after whom Winifred became abbess. {Brit, Sand,) 

In the legend of the British Saints we have the life of a lady 
of this name, called Santes Gwenfrewi ; but no author of note 
mentions any such a woman. Tudur Aled, the poet, about the 
year 1450, hath versified her legend as believed in those days. 
We have no such name in our ancient British history as Gwen- 
frewi. See Winifrtd and Beuno, 

GwENFFRWD, a river in Pervedd. 

GwENFEUON, daughter of Tutwal Tutclut, noted for her chastity. 
{Tr, 54.) 

GwENHWYFACH or GwENHWYACH, the Wife of Mcdrawt ap 
Llew ap Cynfarch. A quarrel about two nuts (says Tudur Aled) 
between Gwenhwyfar (verch Ogyrfan Gawr), King Arthur's 
Queen, and this Gwenhwyfach {Tr, 47) gave Medrawd a colour 
of dethroning Gwenhwyfar {Tr, 46), King Arthur having left 
him lieutenant of Britain while he followed his Gaulish con- 
quest. (Tr, 90.) This quarrel or pal/awd (t. e., a box in the ear) 
about two nuts was the occasion of the civil wat-between King 



220 CELTIC KEMAINS. 

Arthur and Medrawd, and both were killed at Cad Gamlan. 
{Tr. 47.) 

GWENHWYFOK, or GWENHWYFAWR, or GWENHWYFAR (n. pr. f.). 

King Arthur had three wives successively of this name. The 
first was daughter of Gwythyr ap Greidiawl, probably a Nort4i 
Briton ; the second, the daughter of Gawryd Ceint, which seems 
to have been a Loegrian Briton of Kent ; the third, the daughter 
of Ogyrfan Gawr, a Cambro-Briton (TV. 59) dethroned by Medrod 
(2V. 46) ; Cawr, in Wales, then signifying a prince or great com- 
mander, — Cawr Idris,Cawr Othrwm,Benlli Gawr, and Rhuddlwm 
Gawr (Tr. 32). My reason for the first being a North Britain is 
that Arthur, when he followed his conquests in the island, left her 
at home, and she having a former intimacy with Melwas, a Prince 
of North Britain, they contrived it so that she with her maids of 
honour went to the wood a Maying, where Melwas was to lie 
in wait for her among the bushes with a suit of clothes on him 
made of green leaves of trees. When the Queen and her maids 
came to the place appointed, Melwas started up and carried the 
Queen away in his arms to his companions ; and all the maids 
of honour ran away in the fright, taking him to be a Satyr, or 
wild man of the wood. He took the Queen with him to Scot- 
land, and kept her for a while. Our English writers (MUton, 
etc.) wonder how a little Prince could take away by force the 
Queen of such a valiant King as Arthur is said to be ; but the 
wonder ceases when it is considered that the King was abroad, 
and the Queen willing to be ravished by an old acquaintance. 

Fal Melwas yn y glas gl6g. — B, ap Gwilym. 

See Caradoc's Life of Gildas. 

GWENHWYNWYN ap Ywain Cyfeiliog, rectfe Gwenynwyn (alias 
Gwynwenwyn), ap Owain Cyfeiliog, 

GwENHWYSEG, the dialect or language of Gwenwys. 

GWENHWYTAR. 

GwENLLiAN and GwENLLiANT, euw merch ; from lliant, the flux 
or tide of the sea or stream of a river. " Idem quod Gwenllinan 
yidetur." {Dr. Davies.) 

GwENLUW, enw merch. 

6.\VENi.{.w.G, recti GwentUwg, one of the cantrefs of Mor- 
ganwg, now in Monmouthshire. (Price's Descr-ijyt,) 



{ 



CELTIC REMAINS. 221 

Pob man blaenan Morgan wg 

A deunaw llan hyd Wenllwg. — L. Gl. Cothi, 

GwENLLWYFO or GwENLLWYDDOG Saint. Uanwenllwyfo, a 
church, Anglesey. 
• GWENN (n. pr. f.), dim. Gioenno, Juno. 

GwENNAN, King Arthur's favourite ship of this name, cast 
away on a bank of sand near Bardsey Island, whence the place 
is called to this day Gorffrydau Casivennan, i e., the streams of 
Caswennan. See Gasrvennan, 

GwENNi. Brogior [Aberogwr — /. M,] wrth Wenni. 

GwENOG Sant. Ilanwenog in Cardiganshire. Fairs kept here. 
[Uanwnog in Montgomeryshire. — TV, I).] 

GwENONWY (n. pr. f.). B, ap Gwilipn, 

GwENOLWYN. Bodwenolwyn, Mon. Abergwynolwyn. Also a 
river in Brecknockshire. 

GwENT, Lat. Venta SUurum, one of the six parts or swyddau 
of tlie territory of Dinefwr, now (with Eadnorshire) called South 
Wales. Gwent is now in Monmouthshire, and contained three 
commots, viz., Cantref Gwent, Cantref Iscoed, and Cantref Coch. 
(Price's Descript) Caerwent, Chepstow. {Thos, Williams) Os 
Dwy-went is y deau {J. D.). The Upper and Lower Gwent. 
Gwent is Coed (Tr. 30) ; Gwent uwch Coed. Castell Gwent and 
Casgwent, Chepstow. See Giortheym. 

GwEN Teirbron verch Emyr llydaw. 

GWENSI verch Howel ap Gronw. 

GwENW^EUN Befr, a place where llywelyn ap lorwerth had 
his fourth camp. {Gylch Llywelyn) 

GWENWYN, the same with Gwenwynwyn. See Gwanar. 

GWENWYNWYN (n. pr. v). 

Gwenwynwyn ap Naw or Naf, one of the three admirals of 
Britain in King Arthur's time (Tr. 20) ; also a Prince of Powys 
(part of) of this name, whence Powys Wynwynwyn. 

Gwenwynwyn ap Lliaws ap Nwyfre, a general of the Britons 
under Caswallon ap Beli Mawr and his nephew. {Tr, 40.) See 
Gwanar. 

m 

Gwenwys. Cadwgan Wenwys. Gwenwys, arglwydd Bron- 
iarth. 

Gwenwys, name of a country, GwentlanJ or Monmouthshire. 



222 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Mathafam, in Montgomeryshire, seems to be in one Gwenwys, 
for liywelyn ap Quttyn calls D. lioyd of Mathafarn, 

Wrfch hwnnw, arth o Wenwys. — LL ap OtUtyn, 

GwENWYS, the inhabitants of Gwent, q. d. Gwent weision, 
Gwent men ; as Lloegrwys=Lloegrians,or the people of England. 

GwENYNOG or GwAUNYNOG, a gentleman's seat near Denbigh; 
likewise a place in Anglesey. [Another in Caereinion in Powys. 
— W.D.] 

GwEPPRA, a gentleman's seat, Flintshire. Cwtter Weppra. 
Llyn Gweppra. 

GwERCLYS, a gentleman's seat. Hughes. [Near Corwen, Meri- 
oneth.— W, D,] 

GwERN, a place of alders, in the names of places, as, Gwyddel- 
wem ; Pengwern ; Glan y Wern ; Pen y Wern ; y Wern Ddu, 
etc., etc. [ Y Wern Las. — W, J9.] 

G WERN AN or GWERNEN (n. 1.). 

GwERNAN ap Ifan. 

GwERN Y Brechdwn, a gentleman's seat. (/. 2>.) [Robert 
Llwyd Wern y Brychdwn. — W, D.] 

GwERNEN ap Clydno, al. Clydro, an ancient poet. (E. Llwyd.^ 

GwERN Y FiROGL {Vinogyl in E. Evans* transcript of Llyfr 
Coch Hergest), a battle fought between Owen Amhadawg and 
the sons of Owen Cyfeiliog. It is near Castell Carreg Hova in 
Shropshire, near Oswestry, A.D. 1187. Owein was killed by 
fraud in that castle, in the night, by Gwenwynwyn and Cad- 
wallon ab 0. Cyfeiliog. {Caradoc, p. 241.) 

GwERNGWY. Ilys Gwemgwy in Dyfifryn Clwyd, the seat of 
Efnydd ap Gwemgwy. 

GwERNGWY {Pymtheg Llwyih) ap Gwaeddvawr neu ap Gwaedd- 
gar (Gwaeddgawr). 

GWERNGWYGID, where Gruff, ap Cynan fought a battle. 

Qwern Gwygid gwanai bawb yn ea gilydd. 

Meilir Brydydd^ i Gruff, ap Cynan. 

GwERNLAN, Watliugford, qu. ? 

GwERNYFED, Gwern Hyfed, Gwern Hyfaidd, or Gwem Nyved, 
a gentleman's seat in Brecknockshire. Sir Herbert Mackworth. 
GwERSYLLT, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 223 

GwERTHEFiN. CacT Werthefin, a town in the Forest of Cale- 
donia, in Scotland, the native place of Myrddin ap Morfran or 
Myrddin Wyllt, the Pictish poet ; supposed to be Dunkeld in 
Scotland. See Cyfoesau Myrddin a Gwenddydd. (JE, Llwyd) 

GwERTHRYNiON, a castle and a territory on the river Gwy, 
first built by Gwrtheym Gwrtheneu, and should be wrote Gwrth- 
eymion. It hath been often in the hands of the Normans, 
English, etc. In the year 1254 it was taken by Llewelyn ap 
Gruflfudd from Sir Eo. Mortimer (Powel, a.d. 1201), says Cam- 
den, and erased This is that which in Usher's Catalogue is 
called Caer Gwrtheym ; and in the Triades, Caer Gorgyrn and 
Caer Gurgym ; and in Nennius' Catalogue, Caer Guorthigime. 
Mr. Camden^s account of it, out of Nennius, is a monkish tale 
pretending a grant of lands to St. Garmon because of the like- 
ness of the name Gwrtheymion to Gtmrth Union, two words 
which cannot be wrested to signify anything but reproach right 
or right reproach, which is nonsense. 

Gwrthrynion, in my MS., is also one of the three commots of 
Arwystli, once in Meirionydd. 

GwERYDD ap Rhys Goch, lord of Tal y Bolion, in Anglesey, in 
the time of Davydd ap Owain Gwynedd, anno 1170. Bore 
argent, three leopards' heads or on a bend sable. 

GwERYSTAN ap Gwaithvoed Fawr. 

GwESTUN. Twr Gwestun, a castle so called. 

Dinas gwestifiant gostyngws mal gwr 
Owestun dwr dorradwy. 

GynddelWy i Tw. Cyfeiliog. 

Gwestun or Gwestyn, a place mentioned in Hirlas Ywein 

Cyfeiliog. 

Ar lawr Gwestun vawr gwelais irdant. 

GwESTYD (Y), nomen loci. 

A gair o ben gwjm y byd 
Gwyr gystal ag o'r Gwestyd ? 

8ion Ceri^ i Ifan Goch o Gmg Bryr. 

GwBSTN or GwESSiN, a river. Abeigwesyn in Brecknockshire. 
GwEUNLLWc, qu. GwentUwg ? 
GwEURFTL, enw merch. 



224 CELTIC REMAINS. 

GwBUEUL verch Gwrgeneu, the wife of GruflFudd ap Meredydd, 
and mother of Ywain Cyfeiliog. 

GwEWENHYR: see Wewenhyr. 

GwEYRN Mawr (nomen loci). 

GwEYRYDD ap Cynfelyn, the 76th Kiug of Britain; rectA 
Gwairydd or Gweirydd. 

Nith gair yn llai na Gwairydd 
Ni mynnai dwyll mewn y dydd. 

D. M, Tudur, i How. Colanwy. 

GwEYTHAN, GwiTHAN, or GwiDDAN, a battle fought at Gweyth- 
an, between the Britons and the Saxons, A.D. 867. Tre Weithan, 
in Montgomeryshire ; qu., whether Forth Gweythan in Cardi- 
ganshire ? See Blaen Forth Gwithan and Tre Weithan. 

GwGAN, GwGAWN, GwGON, an ancient British name of men. 

GwGAN (Prince of Cardigan) ap Meuric ap Dyfnwal ap Arthen 
ap Sisyllt, drowned by misfortune, A.D. 872. 

GWGAN, the son of Gwyriad, the son of Rodri Mawr, died A.D. 
958. {Caradoc, p. 16.) 

GwGAN Cleddyfrudd, One of the tri Tscymydd aerau (7V.29); 
Porthawr gwaith Perllan Fangor {Tr, 66) ; Gwgon Gleifrudd 
[Tr, y Meirchy 4). 

GwGAN Wawd Newydd, a poet. [A founder of a new metre 
or tune, qu. ? — W. D.] 

GwGAWN GwRAWN, mab Feredur, one of the tri Ueddf unben. 
{Tr. 14.) 

GwHiR (ap Owein ap Ceredig), brother of Fedrog Sant. 

GwiAWN ap Cyndrwyn, un o dri phorthawr gwaith Perllan 
Fangor. (TV. 66.) The same with Gwion, brother of Cyndylan. 
{Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.) 

GwiniGADA (nomen loci). See Widigada. 

GwiDOL or GwiDAWL, a river : hence Rhos Widol. [Tr, 69.) 
See Garth Qvndol, 

GwiG, a river on the borders of Scotland, that falls into the 
Tuedd (Tweed), where the ancient Britons had a town called 
Aberwic (Berwic). Hence came the terminations of the names 
of many towns in England : Greenwich, i. e., T Wig JA& ; Sand- 
wich, Gwig y Tywod ; Keswick, in Cumberland. And hence, 
no doubt, came the termination xiyick in the names of places in 



CELTIC REMAINS. 225 

Germany, and towards the Baltic, where the Cimbriana once 
abounded. Brunswick ; Sleswick ; Bolwick ; Danswick (Dant- 
zick) ; Larwick ; Hud wick's Wald, etc., etc. [ Vide Cluverius, or 
some such author. — TF. ]).] And this throws a light on that 
passage in our British history which says that one Gotmiont, 
King of Affiric, who had come with a great fleet to subdue Ire- 
land, was called by the Saxons to their assistance after the 
death of Maelgwn Gwynedd. And Gotmwnt overran the whole 
island of Britain, and gave all Loegria to the Saxons, and drove 
Ceredic over the Hafren (Severn) into Wales. This Gotmwnt is 
called by Giraldus Cambrensis OermuTidvs, and [he] says he was 
a Norwegian. (Top. Ireland, c. 24 ; see Ogygia, p. 13.) The above 
Ceretic is the same name with the Oerdec Elmet of Nennius, 
Elved being the name of his country. Aflfric or Afferwic, there- 
fore, was the name of some country upon the Baltic ; or else 
transcribers, not used to those northern names, might mistake 
Afiric for Sleswick or Larwick, etc. 

[Gwig Fair, a gentleman's seat in Flintshire, vulg6 Wickwer. 
Wickwa/r (L n.), a town on the river which runs from Chipping 
Sodbury to Berkley, and so to Severn. Wdcewar in another 
map. — W, D!\ 

GwiLi (fl.), that runs through Cwm Gwili, and falls into the 
Towi, Caermarthenshire. Hence Abergwili, a village, and the 
palace of the Bishop of St. David's ; q. d. Gwy lif. See Aber* 
gwUi. 

GwiLTM, a name used among the Britons since William the 
Conqueror's time, and is always Latinized Oulielmus. It seems 
to have been formed from the Germ. Wilhelm or Guildhdm, now 
William, if not from the British Owaywlym. I don't remember 
ever to have met with it in any ancient MSS. older than the 
Norman conquest. It is also wrote Gwilim. PI. Gwilymiaid* 

Gweled gan Rhys a Gwilim 

Abid du heb wybod dim. — L. Oh Oothi, 

GwiNAU Daufreuddwyd. 

GwiNER (n. pr. v.), a Saxon name, at the battle of Bangor is y 
Coed. 
GwiNFFRWD. Gwelw Gwinffrwd. 

29 



226 CELTIC EEMAINS. 

GwiNiONYDD, a parcel of Cardiganshire. 

Trown yno trwy Winionydd 

Clera defeitia da fydd. — D. cup lewm Du, 

The borders of the river Gwy, q. d. Ovnjonydd. 

GwiNLLiw, a parish in Monmouthshire. Fairs kept here at 
Stow. See Gwynlliw Filvrr, 

GwiON and Gwiawn (n. pr. v.). 

GwiON Bach, a poet mentioned by Taliesin in his transmi- 
gration. 

GwiON AP UCHTRYD {Rhys Ooch JEryri). Croes Wion in 
Anglesey. Gwydd Gwion, Montgomeryshire. [Celli Wion in. 
Glamorgan. — J. if] 

GwiRFAi, a hundred of Carnarvonshire. Uwch and Is GwirfaL 
Bangor Fawr uwch ben GwirfaL (0. LI, Moel,) 

GwiRiAWN ap Gwynnan ap Gwynfy^ Fr^ch. 

GwLAD, a country ; the people of a country ; the government 
of a country ; the same with the Saxon set, as Somerset, Gwlad 
jT Haf; Westset, Gwlad Gwent Hence Gwledig, a king or 
governor : Cynan Wledig, Emrys Wledig, etc. Gkiir y wlad, the 
common report; i. e., the country's word. Rhoi ar y wlad, 
referred to a jury ; t. e., to put it on the country or people. Dif- 
ferent from bro. 

Ach gwyr oil, wlad Fro Gadell. — Bhys Nanmor. 

GwLADUS (n. f.), from gwlad, a country. Several worthy 
British women of this name. So gwledig, an appellation in the 
Loegrian dialect, signifying a prince or ruler, comes from gwlad; 
that is as much as to say, one that owns a country or governs a 
country. Emrys Wledig, Cynan Wledig, etc. But Camden 
squeezes it from Claudia ; but might not Claudius and Claudia 
come from Gwledig and Gwladus ? 

Gwlad yr Haf, Somersetshire. Also a province in France of 
that name. 

GwLEDic or Gwledig, a surname or title ; " beUicosus*'. (JE. 
Llwyd) Emrys Wledig, Aiirelius Ambrosius. Cynedda Wledig, 
Cunedagus. Cynan Wledig, Aurelius Conanus. Macsen Wledig, 
Maximus. Cylyddon Wledig. Gwerthmwl Wledic o^r Gogledd, 
and Gyrthmwl {Tr. 69). Oeuroswydd Wledig (Tr. 50). Am- 



CELTIC REMAINS. 227 

lawdd Wledig, sign. teym. Casnar Wledig. (MMnogi) . See 
Prtodawr and Carvr and Yrth. 

GwLYDDiEN ap Howy ap Arthen. 

GwNDA or GwYNDA Sant. lianwnda^ Caernarvonshire. Bod- 
gynda in Anglesey. 

GwNLLB, a gentleman's seat. (J, D) Price's. 
, GwNNE (n. pr. v.). Davydd ap Gwnne Ddu. {Extent of 
Anglesey in Tre Ddestiniet.) Hence Melin Gwnne in the said 
township. 

GwNNEN. Llanwnnen in Cardiganshire. Fairs kept here. 

GwNNiOG Sant. Llanwnniog, qu. St. Winoc, a Britain bishop, 
a follower of St. Patrick in Ireland. Another, a cotemporary of 
Gregory of Tours, which he ordained priest. (Hist IV,, 1. v, 
c. 21.) 

GwYNNW, vid. id. quod Cwnnws. 

GwNNWS Sant. Llanwnnws in Cardiganshire. 

GwONNO or GwiNlo. Uanwonno, Glamorganshire ; Llanwinio, 
Caermarthenshire. 

GwoRTiGER Mawr : See Gfwortigem and Oaer Gwortigem. 

GwoRTiGERN. Caer Gwortigem in Camden's Britannia^ which 
he makes to be the city of Vortigern in Maelienydd, in a great 
wilderness which never existed; and there, he says, he W6is 
burnt by a fire from heaven, having married his own daughter. 
These are heavy charges without proper proof. Tyssilio says he 
was burnt in his castle of Gwrtheymion ar Ian Gwy by Emreis 
and Uthur, the sons of Cwstenin, who claimed the crown from 
him. So Gwrthrenion, Gwarthenion, and Gwortiger Mawr, are 
mere dreams, the latter being a plain corruption of Gwortigem- 
iawn. 

GwRAN ap Cynedda Wledig, father of Maelor, who gave name 
to Maeloron^ the two Maelors. 

GwRANGON: see Wyrangon, 

GwRDDFAN G AWR (n. pr. v.). (Dr. Davies in Bann) See Ogyr- 
fan, 

GwRECSAM, in English Wrexham, a town and church dedicated 
to St. Silin ; perhaps the same with St. GUes. The situation of 
this town makes it beyond doubt that the Britons, in ancient 
times, had a town here ; but its ancient name is lost. [I have 
an ancient name of it. — W. -D.] 



228 CELTIC REMAINS. 

GwREDOG or GwABEDOG, a chapel and parish, Anglesey. B. 
Willis says it was Locus refugii, "which is a mistake. Noddfa is 
a place of refuge, or sanctuary. This Gwai-edog seems to be a 
proper name of a man. 

GwREi ap Cado of Bennystrywed yn Arwystli. 

GwRFAWR ap Cadien ap Cynan. 

GwRFYWDYGU, the 18th King of Britain. 

GwHFYW ap Pasgen ap Cynfarch. 

GwRGAN (n. pr. v.). 

GwRGENEU. Eirid Flaidd ap Gwrgeneu. 

GwRGAN Farfdwrch, or Farf Twrch, a King of Britain ; the 
23rd King of Britain. Camden writes him, Owrind harmtruch, 
and says it is spade-beard. This shews his entire ignorance of 
the language, and he ought not to have meddled with it. The 
meaning of it is Gwrgan with the hog-beard. 

GwRGAN ap Rhys died a.d. 1157, the be^t poet of his time. 
(Caradoc in 0. Gwynedd.) I never met with any of his 
works. 

Gwrgeneu (n. pr. v.), commonly wrote in English Vrgeney. 
It is of the same origin with Gwrgan and GwrgL 

Gwrgeneu, Bishop of St. David's. 

Gwrgeneu ap Sitsyllt, a nobleman of Wales, killed by the 
sons of Ehys Sais. {Oaradoc, p. 114.) 

GwRGi (n. pr. v.). 

GwRGUNAN, qu. an idem Gwrgeneu ? 

GwRGi Sant. Church at Penystrowydd, Montgomeryshire. 

GwRGi ap Hedd Molwynog. 

GwRGi Garwlwyd, the name of some Pict, it seems a great 
enemy of the Southern Britons, who made it a custom to kill a 
Briton for every day in the week. He was at last killed by 
Diflfedell ap Dysgyfedawc (2V. 37), and this was reckoned a 
notable good deed. 

GwRGi and Peredur, twins, and sons of Elifer Gosgorddfawr 
(Tr. 35), killed in a battle with the Saxons, A.D. 584. {^ra 
Cambr.) 

GwRGON, father of Etheu. {Tr. 62.) 

GwRGON Verch Brychan, gwraig Cadrod Calchfynydd. 

GwRGUSTU, or Llanrwst, where a battle was fought a.d. 952, 



CELTIC REMAINS. 229 

between North Wales and South Wales men for the government 
of Wales. [Note. — ^Llewelyn buried at Llan Ewst. — JT. 2>.] 

GWRIG. Caer Gwrig {Usher), Warwick. See Wair. 

G^BiN Sant. Ilanwrin, a church and parish in the deanery 
of Cyfeiliog. 

GWKISNYDD ap Dwywelyth, or Grisnydd ap Dwywylith ap 
Tegawc. 

GwRLAis, larll Kemiw. 

GwRLi or GwRLBU. Caer Owrh, a castle and town in Flint- 
shire ; in English, The Hope. Fairs are kept here. A room 
under ground, and coins and books found there, February, 1767. 

GwRNERTH (n. pr. v.), A.D. 610. {JE, Llwyd) Ymatgreg Llew- 
elyn a Gwrnerth. 

GwEON (n. pr. v.). 

Gwrawl gleddyfial gwrial Gwron. 

Cynddelw, Marwnad Cad. ap Madawo. 

GwRTHEFYR Fendigaid, the 96th King of Britain, son of 
Gwrtheym Gwrtheneu, who called in the Saxons. Gwrtheym 
was dethroned, and Gwrthefyr set upon tha throne. Latin 
writers call him Vortimerus. {Tr. 45.) 

Gwrthefyr, the 103rd King of Britain. 

GWRTHEYRN GwRTHENEU, the 95th King of Britain, Earl of 
Gwent, Euas, and Erging, on the death of Constantino, King of 
Britain, brother of Aldwr, King of Armorica, took Constans, his 
son, out of a monastery, to have a colour to reign, and to main- 
tain his power called in the Saxons against the Picts and Scots 
on one side, and the Armoricans on the other, who got at last 
the government of the whole island after a struggle with the 
Britons of above 700 years. He is called in one copy of Nen- 
nius Gworthigem mac Guortheneu, and in the Triades Gwrth- 
eym mab Gwrtheneu. He had, perhaps^ some claim to the 
crown after Eudaf, who was Earl of Euas and Erging also, whose 
daughter married to Maximus the Emperor. He built the castle 
of Gwrtheymion in Wales, wherein he was burnt by Emrys and 
Uthur, the other sons of Constantino. He is caUed by Latin 
writers Vortigemue. Zosimus says that the Britons cast off the 
Boman government, and settled a commonwealth after their own 
liking (Zosim.f 1. vi), which Selden says was in the year 430. 



230 CELTIO REMAINS. 

(Selden, Mar, Olaus., p. 248). So they only changed Bomans for 
Saxons ; and these Sttxons were diiven out by the Danes, and 
they by the Normans. 

Most writers say that the Saxons came first to Britain in the 
year 449, which doth not agree with the time of Gannon's being 
here to confute the Pelagian heresy ; therefore Camden (in Bri- 
tannia, p. 95) places their coming in a.d. 428), which, as Mr. 
Selden says upon better consideration may, perhaps, be allowed. 
(Mar. Glaus,, p. 232.) 

GWRTHEYRNION : SCO Owcrthrymon, 

OwBTHGAiN ap Bhys; perhaps the same with Gwigan ap 
Bhys. See Owrgeneu. 

GwRTHKYCHLAD, properly Gwrthddrychiad, an heir. Spelman, 
in his Glossary, in AdelingvSy reads this out of a MS. of the Laws 
of Howel Dda, by mistake, Vrch/richiad. See JSdlin. 

GwBTHEYMUS. Idnerth arglwydd Elfael, Maelienydd, a Gwrth- 
rymus ; id. q. Gwrthynion, qu. ? 

GwBTTD Sant, qu. ? Uanwrtyd, Brecknockshire. 

GWRWARED ap Cyhelyn Fardd ap Gwynfardd 

GwRWARED ap Gwilym. 

GwRYDYR Drwm ap Gwedrawc ap Geraint ap Garanawch (an 
id. quod Caranawc ?) ap Glewddigar ap Cynwae Eychwain o Fed 
Rychwain yn Rh6s (i gii^ and hydr), 

GwRYAT (n. pr. v.). 

GwRYAT fab Gwryan yn y Gogledd ( JV. 76) ; one who ad- 
vanced himself from a native tenant or slave to be a King of 
some part of North Britain. 

GWRYGION: see Wrygion. 

GwTHERiN, a village in Denbighshire. Fairs kept here. 

GwY, the name of a river in Wales, rising in Plumlumon 
mountain, so to Bhaiadr Gwy, to Buellt, and to Boss in Here- 
fordshire, and emptying itself at Chepstow ; by the English 
called Wye; hence Dyfifryn Gwy, Glyn Gwy. 

Mr. Edward Llwyd says that guy, uy, uys, ey, y, and i, are as 
often the final syllable of our rivers as Tarn or Tau is the initial. 
In the Gothic and modern Swedish aa is a river ; and in the 
French, eau is water, to which the British word answers. He 
further adds that, seeing the water between Anglesey and Caer- 



CELTIC REMAINS. 231 

narvonshire is called Meneu, and that St. David's is called Meneu, 
it, according to that sense, signifies narrow water, because there 
is a narrow water at Kamsey, near St. David's. But if Mr. 
liwyd had been better acquainted with our ancient poets, he 
would have seen that the water of Anglesey is always called 
Menai, and not MeTuu. I agree with Mr. Ilwyd that wy and 
gwy signified water in the Celtic, as appears from the names of 
several rivers, as Llugwy, Colunwy, Elwy, y Vymwy, Dourdwy, 
Cynwy or Conwy, Mawddwy, Mynwy, Trydonwy, Dyfrdonwy, 
Duwyfawr,Duwyfach,Edwy,Pnwy,Machawy,etc.,etc.; and from 
awy or aw : Manaw, q. d. Monaw ; Alaw. But in nothing plainer 
than water-fowl : gwydd, hwyad, gwylan, gwyaeh, gvryrain, gwylog^ 
givylym. Therefore this takes off the strength of Mr. E. Ilwyd's 
argument that the Gwyddelian Britons and us had different 
languages (see Wysg and Zlwch), for Gwy is a river called by the 
name of water, as he says the river Wysg is. Should not we 
rather conclude from these things that the Gwyddelian Britons 
were colonies sent from the country now called South Wales to 
Ireland, as several words in their language agree to this day not 
to be found in North Wales ; as ysgadan, a herring ; llwch, a lake 
or lough ; eagair, a ridge of mountains ; arann, a kidney ; clebair, 
a babbler, etc., etc. [Tsgadan, plural, and ysgadenyn, singular, is 
always used in Montgomeryshire for herrings. — W, i>.] 

GwT, a river mentioned by Uywarch Hen in Marwnad Cad- 
wallon. 

GwYAR, father of Gwalchmai, nai Arthur, second husband of 
Anna, qu. ? See Ghvalchmai. 

GwYDiON or GwDTON, SOU of Don, Lord or Prince of Arvon. 
This Gwdion was a great philosopher and astronomer, and from 
him the Via Lactea, or Milky Way, or Galaxy, in the heavens 
is called Caer Gwdion. His great learning made the vulgar call 
him a conjuror and necromancer ; and there was a story feigned 

that when he travelled through the heavens in search of 's 

wife that eloped, he left this tract of stars behind him. (D. J,) 
See Math and Don, and Qronwy Pefr, 

GwYDYR ap Cynfelyn, the 75th King of Britain. 

GwYDYR Dbwm, husband of the chaste Efiliau. (Tr. 55.) 

GwYDD, Gweith, the Isle of Wight. 



232 CELTIC BEMAINS. 

GwYDDAiNT, cousm gennan to King Cadwallon. (E. Llwyd, 
ficom Vaughan's MS. Notes on Oamden.) 

GWTDDALUS. Llanwyddaliis in Cardigandhire. Fairs kept here. 

GwTDDEL, Hibemicus, an Irisliman (from grvydd, wood) ; plur. 
Chvyddyl, the inhabitants of Ireland. Ireland was originally 
called by the Britons Qwydd Ynys, the Woody Island (by the 
natives^ in their own dialect, jiiobimj*; t. e., Insula Memorosa^ — 
Flaherty p. 18) ; and it was natund enough for the Britons, 
from whom they were descended, to call them Owyddyl or Gwydd- 
elod. Wood Men, though they named the island Y Werddon, 
i. e,, Y Werdd Ynys, the Green Island, which is the British 
name of it to this day ; and yet the inhabitants are never called 
in Welsh Owerddoniaid, but Owyddelod or Gwyddyl. Owyddd 
(pL Owyddyl) signifies also foresters, wild men, woodmen, out- 
laws, wood-rovers, thieves of any nation. In the legend of 
St. Elian a Saxon wood-rover is called gwyddel, from gwydd. 

I Iwyn o goed dan len g^l 

Efo'i gwjddai 7 Gwyddel, etc. 

Gwedi'r Sais o'r g^aed ar sam. — O. Owyn. 

And Owyddelyn is the diminutive of Gwyddel. 

Gwyddelyn mewn gwe ddalwyd. 

HwD Oae Lhoydy to the Ape. 

Gwyddel is also used as a cognomen. leuan Wyddel. Gwyddel 
in the names of places; as, Pentre'r Gwyddel, in Ehoscolyn, 
Anglesey ; and Cerrig Gwyddel, near Malldraeth, Anglesey ; 
Pont y Gwyddel, in Llanvair, Denbighshire ; Pentre'r Gwyddel, 
in Llysfaen, Denbighshire ; Cerig y Gwyddel, near Ffestiniog, 
Meirion ; Cwm y Gwyddel, in Penbryn parish, Ceretica; another 
in Llanbadam Vawr, Ceretica ; another in Glamorganshire; Cam 
Phylip Wyddel, in Ilanwenog, Ceretica. See Iwerddon, 

GwTDDELEG, Kngvu Hibemica, the Irish tongue ; called also 
laith Werddonig, Flaherty {Ogygia, p. 63) makes it consist of 
four dialects ; i. e.. Law Dialect, Poetry, Picked, and Common. 
So the language of the poets in the British differs much from 
common speech, which accounts for the obscurity, at this time, 
of some poetical writers. 

GWYDD Elen or GwYDDELEN. Uanwyddelcn, parish and 
church in Cydewain deanery. See Dol Wydd Elen, 



CELTIC REMAINS. 233 

GwYDDYL GoRR, the same with Eiddilic Gorr, a noted hudol 
or magician mentioned in the Triades (31). 

GwYDDELiG. llysiau Gwyddelig. Dyn Gwyddelig, a brutish 
fellow (Cardiganshire), or a morose, unmerciful fellow. 

GwYDDELWERN, a place in Powys Land, where Beuno built a 
church, the ground being given him by Cynan, King of Powys, 
ap Brochfael Ysgithrog ; called Gwyddelwern from an Irishman 
that Beuno raised from the dead, who had been murdered by 
his wife. {Buchedd Beuno, Jes. Coll., Ox.) Q. d. Gwern y 
Gwyddel. 

GWYDDEN, or GWDDYN, OF GWTDDIN, or GWYDDYN. Llan- 

wyddyn or Llanwydden, a parochial chapel in the parish of Han- 
rhaiadr ym Mochnant, county of Denbigh and Salop. [A church 
in Montgomeryshire. — W. D.] Llanwydden, a house in Creuthyn, 
near Conwy ; but no church near. Qu. whether Glan Wydden ? 

GWYDDFA. 

Gwyddfa Rbnfawn Pefr. — H. cup 0. Qwynedd. 

GwYDDFARCH (n. pr. V.) is Marchwydd transposed, says Mr. 
R Llwyd. Gwyddfarch Gyfarwydd. (Dr. Davies in Proverbs.) 

GwYDD GwiON, a gentleman's seat in Bro Wyddno. (0. Gwyn- 
edd) 

GwYDDNO (n. pr. v.). 

GwYDDNO GoRONiR or Garanir was lord of Cantre Gwaelod, 
a large flat country overflown by the sea about the year 500. 

Cwyufan G wyddno Garanir 
Pan droes y donn dros ei dir. 

Mwya Gwyddno Garanir was one of the thirteen rarities of 
Britain. Meat for one man, when put into it, would be meat 
for a hundred when it was opened. This is generally taken for 
some kind of vessel ; but I suppose it was some new contrived 
weir for catching fish. See Dr. Davies in Mwys, [This is con- 
firmed by Taliesin comforting Elphin, the son of Gwyddno Gor- 
onliir, when his weir was robbed. " Elphin deg, paid ag wylo", 
etc.— W. D,] 

Forth Wyddno yn y Gogledd, or Gwyddno's port or harbour 
in the north, one of the principal harbours of Britain. See Ys- 
ceu^yn and Gwygyr, 

30 



234 CELTIC REMAINS. 

CoTtA Wyddno is in the mouth of Conwy river. 

Caer Wyddno is a spot of foul ground in Aberystwyth Bay, 
which cornea dry on spring tides. See CaTUref Gwaelod, Taliesin, 
and Elphin. 

GwYDDNO ap Emyr Llydaw. 

GwYDDYL (anciently wrote Gwydyl or Chvytyl), the inhabitants 
of Ireland, the Irish. In the Irish tongue, GoaidhU is an Irish- 
man ; Odoilag or Goidheilg, the Irish tongue. But the original of 
the name is not found in the Irish. These people, being the first 
inhabitants of Britain, were called by the conquerors Gwyddyl, 
from gwydd, wood, as being obliged to skulk in wood ; or from 
gibydd, wild or savage ; and from hence were drove to Ireland, 
or obliged to transport themselves in colonies. 

Gwyddyl Alban (in Irish, GaoidhU Alban, the people of Ire- 
land that planted themselves in Alban, now called Scotland. 
(Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 346.) 

GwYGYR (fl.), the rivers Gwygyr and Mathanen, in Anglesey, \ 

go to Kemaes harbour. Qu. whether the Forth Wygyr of the 
Triades (No. 5), one of the principal harbours of Britain ? Beau- 
maris rather. See Forth Wygyr, Rhyd Wygyr, and Yseewyn. 

GwYL (n. pr. f.), one of King Arthur's concubines. {Tr, 60.) 

GwYLATHR, larll Desmwnt. Vid. Osbwm. 

GwYLAWC ap Beli ap Mael Mynan. 

GwYLFA. Bryn Gwylfa, a gentleman's seat. (/. D) 

GWYLFYW. 

GwYLiiON Celyddon, the names of the Caledonians. 

Can Wyllon Celyddon cerddant. 

Prydydd Mock, i Lin. ap lorwerth. 

GWYN (fl.) : hence Abergwyn. 
Gwyn (n. pr. v.). Triad 62. 
GwYN, appellative ; as Rhys Wyn ap Ehys. 
Gwyn ap Cyndrwyn. (Llywarch Hen, Marwnad Cynddylan.) 
Gwyn ap Golly^yn : vid. Ywain. 

Gwyn ap Nudd. Adar Gwyn ap Nudd ydynt i'r elyrch. 
Gwyn Gwyarcheu, mentioned by Myrddin. See Qruffydd ap 
Cynan. 
Gwyn, father of Coleddawg. (TV. 62.) 
Gwynda Gyoet (n. pr. v.), and 



CELTIC REMAINS. 235 

GwYNDA Keinyat. {Tr. Meirch, 1.) 

GwYNDODES, a North Wales woman. 

GwYNDODTDD, a North Wales man. 

GwYNDYD, North Wales men. 

GwYNDOR, i. e.. White Breaks, the name of a river in America, 
said to be given it by the Britons who settled there under Madoc 
ap Owain Gwynedd, a.d. 1144. 

GwYNEDD, North Wales ; Lat. Gwyneddia and Ouinethia, Vene^ 
dotia, and Venedocia. (Zeland.) Mr. Camden thinks it to be 
the Oermania of Pausanias, who, in his Arcadia, says that Ant. 
Pius had chastised the Brigantes for making inroads into G«r- 
mania, a province of the Bomana 

Owen Gwynedd, etc. 

Llywelyn ei enw o eisaillydd 

Gwynedd gwr dygorbydd. — Hoi, Myrddin, 

GwYNFA (n. 1.), in Caermarthenshire. Mathraval Wynfa. See 
Maihraval, Peillged o Wynfa i frenin Aberffraw. {Gyfraith,) 

GwYNFRYN (nomen loci). 

GwYNGAD ap Nos ap Hoyw. 

GwYNGREGYN (fl.) ; hcncc Abergwyngregyn. See Garth Celyn, 

GwYNHYFAR (n. pr. v.), maer Cernyw a Dyfnaint. {Ystori K, 
ap Kilydd,) 

GwYNLLiw (n. pr. v.). 

GwYNLLiw ap Cjmgor. 

GWYNLLiw FiLWR, King of the Demetians ; in Latin, Gund- 
leus, confessor. See his Life in John of Tinmouth. Qu. whether 
Cynllo, Llangynllo ? He divided the kingdom with his six 
brothers ; married Gwladus verch Brychan Brycheiniog, who was 
father of St. Cynog and St. Keina. (Brit. Sanct, Mar. 29.) Gwyn- 
lliw's son was St. Cadoc. He was attended at his death by 
St. Dubricius and his son Cadoc. {Brit, Sanct.) See Cattwg, 

GwYNNAN ap Gwynawc Farfsych. 

GwYNNAWC ap Gildas ap Caw, arglwydd Cwm Cawlwyd. (MS,) 

GWYNNOG Sant. Llanwynnog in Arwystli ; also the church 
of Aberhavesp. Idem quod Gwynnawc ap Gildas ap Caw, ar- 
glwydd Cwm Cawlwyd. 

GwYNODL Sant. liangwynodl in Lleyn. Qu. whether Guinolo 
in Vertot. 



236 CELTIC REMAINS. 

GwYNOGiON. Swydd Wynogion, a commot (from Oicyn, or 
Owyn ap Cyndrwyn in Llywarch Hen, Marwnad Cynddylan, or 
Churynnog St. Llanwynnog). 

Amgylch cyminawc cymynai Saeson 

At Swydd Wynnogion yd wynnygai. — Oyndddw, 

GwTNOLWYN (fl.). Abergwynolwyn. 

GWYNT. Caer WytUy Winchester {Th. Williams), A-D. 520. 
jEr. Oamb, (M, Williams) See Wynt and Caermy^tU. 

GwYNWAS (n. pr. v.), fair man (i ffTvyn and gwas), 

GwYNWYS. Madog Gwynwys. 

G^YR was one of the three commots of Eginoc in Carmarthen- 
shire, but is now in Glamorganshire. (Price, Descript) 

G\Vyr, Tir G^yr, in English Oower land ; by Nennius (Gale'3 

copy), Ouhir, where he says the sons of Keian, a Scot, seated 

themselves till they were drove out by Kynedhav, a British 

Prince. (Camden, Glam^organshire.) But this Keian is called 

by Sir John Price, in his Desaiption of Wales, Olam Hector, See 

Glam Hector, 

Aberllychwr yn nhir Gwyr. 

G^YR. Maen G^^, a stone near Cappel Curig in Caer yn 
Arfonshire, and a cist vaen near it (E. Llwyd, Notes on Camden 
in Gaennartheiishire), where he seems inclined to think they got 
that name from gwyro, bowing, because places of worship in the 
Druidical times, or else because they are crooked, i. e,, bending 
or inclining. But aU stones set on end do bend or incline one 
way or other. [Hence also cromlech, from crymmu, to bend in 
worship. — W, 2>.] 

GwYRANGON: sce Wyrangon, 

GwYRFAi (fl.), a river near Llanfaglan in Arfon : hence Is 
Gwyrfai and Uwch Gwyrfai, two commots in Caernarvonshire ; 
in Cantref Arfon. 

Gwyr Werniaion, {Gwelygorddau Powys,) 

GwYS. Castell Gwys, De Guise's Castle, a castle in Cantref 
y Coed, Dyfed, taken by the famous Howel ap Owain Gwyneth 
as an auxiliary to the sons of GrufTydd ap Rhys, who made use 
of battering-rams and machines to cast great stones, etc. {Cara- 
doc in 0, Gwynedd,) 

One of the commots of Cantref y Coed. (Price's Descr) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 237 

Cost oil yw gwin Castoll Owis 

Coety yw lie i ceid dewis. — lor, Fynglwyd, 

Ag ar Oastell Gwys gogwys yd orfu 
Godwrf Uu llachiad gwrys. 

Cynddelw^ i H. ap 0. Gwynedd. 

Gwys, the pi. of gwas^ a servant or a youth. In the termina- 
tion of the names of places and people : Lloegrwys=Lloegrians; 
Argoedwys= people of Argoed, etc. According to ancient tenures 
the lordships and the inhabitants were bought or sold together. 
So in the Saxon tenures in Doomsday Booh we find there were 
in the lordships more or less of these kinds of inhabitants belong- 
ing to them, — servi, villani, bordarii, presbyteri, radmani, bova- 
rii, faber, molinarius, francigenae, praepositus, picatores, ancillse, 
etc., etc. 

G\Vyth. Bryn Gwyth, a hill near Salop, where Llewelyn ab 
lorwerth encamped when he took the town. 

Pebylhvys Llywelyn 

Ym Mryn G^yth yn Amwythig. — Cylch Llywelyn, 

Gavtthelyn (n. pr. v.) Caer Gwythelyn, Watlingaceaster. 
{E, Llioyd.) 

GwYTHERiN Sant yn Rhyfoniog. (MS.) 

GWYTHERIN, a parish and village in Denbighshire. The church 
is dedicated to St. Winifred, as B. Willis says. 

Gyfarllwyd (Y). 

Gyffylliog (Y), a chapel in Denbighshire. 

Gyfylciii : see Gyfylchi 

Gymwynas (Y),or YFilltir GymioynaSy a road in Caernarvon- 
shire, through very rocky ground, supposed to be a continuation 
of the military way of Sarn Elen made by Helena, mother of 
Constantine the Great. (E. Llwyd, Notes on Oamden in Meirion,) 

Gyrthmwl or Gwerthmwl (n. pr. v.), mentioned by Lly warch 
Hen. 

Gyrthmwl Wledig, penhyneif ym Mhenryn Ehionedd. [Tr.l.) 

H. 

Haer, verch y Blaidd Ehudd o'r GSst. 
Haer, daughter of Gyllyn or Gillyn, wife of Bleddyn ap Cyn- 
fyn. {Caradoc in Bleddyn.) 



238 0£LTIO REMAINS. 

Hafais (fl.). Aberhafaifi. [It is Hafea (baf heap) = Summer- 
gild, or dry.— W, R] 

Hafabt. lenkyn Hafart. 

Hafod {k haf and bod), a summer habitation, a summer dairy- 
house. Several places named from hence ; as, Hafod y Bwch, a 
gentleman's seat, Denbighshire, — ^Robeits; Hafod Uchtryd, a 
house in Cardiganshire, once a seat of the Herberts ; Hafod y 
Goven, a house; Hafod y Brain, a gentleman's seat; Hafod 
Lwyddog, a gentleman's seat ; yr Hen Hafod ; yr Hafod Lorn ; 
Hafod y Grarreg, a gentleman's seat, — ^Thomas ; Hafod y Maidd, 
a gentleman's seat, — ^Wynne's. 

Hafod Lwyfog, a gentleman's seat. (J, D.) 

Hafod Unnos, a gentleman's seat (/. D.). — Mr. Lloyd ; in 
Denbighshire. 

Hafod y Wern, a gentleman's seat. (J. D) 

Hafon, qu. ? Llanhafon. 

Hafren (fl.). The British historian's account of the naming 
of this river is this : Lloegrin or lAocrin, the eldest son of Brutus, 
having met with Essyllt, a daughter of a King of Germany, 
among the spoils of Humer, King of Hunawt, who had made a 
descent upon Britain about 1,000 years before Christ, he kept her 
in a place under ground, unknown to his Queen, Gwenddolen, 
and had a daughter by her, which he called Hafren [q. d. Hafn- 
ain, queen of May — W, D,'\ ; and when Corineus, the father of 
Gwenddolen, died, he advanced Essyllt to the throne, and dis- 
carded Gwenddolen, who going to Cornwall, her father's king- 
dom^ got an army, and gave her husband battle on the side of 
the river Furam, when Locrin was killed, and Gwenddolen 
ordered Essyllt and her daughter Hafren to be drowned in the 
river ; and ordered by proclamation through her whole kingdom 
that the river should hereafter be called Hafren, in eternal 
remembrance of the fair daughter of her husband Locrin. Hafren 
seems to be derived from Hafriain, i. e., the queen of summer ; 
from whence the Latin Sabriana, now Sabrina; in English, 
Severn. Camden says he could never learn whence this name 
came, for that it seemed that the story of a virgin being drowned 
in it was of Jeffrey's invention. He might have seen it in the 
British copy of Tyssilio, before Jeffrey's time. This river is also 



CELTIC REMAINS. 239 

mentioned by Uywarch Hen in Marwnad Cadwallon and Marw- 
nad Cyndylan. 

Hafren. Cwmmwd Hafren, one of the two commots of Can- 
tref Cydewaiu in Powys Wenwynwyn. (Price, Descr) 

Hafren, enw merch Llocrin Gawr. 

HAIA.DEN. Llanhaiaden in Pembrokeshire. Fairs kept here. 
Qu. whether Uawhaden ? 

Haiarnwedd, wife of Gleiaiar o'r Gogledd, and mother of 
Aedenawc. {Tr. 27.) 

Hair ap Llewelyn ap Dafydd Llwck. 

Halawc. Penardd Halawg. Bod Halawg. Coed Halawg. 
See Tcdog. 

Halchdyn, Halchdun. leiweith Hilfawr o Halchdun. [Now 
Haughton, near the influx of the Vemiw and Severn. — W. Z>.] 

Halken, church and parish in Flintshire, E. ; rectA Helygen. 
Pentre Helygen. 

Halterennes, a place mentioned (in PowePs Oarad^, p. 142 
and 148) to be in Ewyas land. It is surprising that AlU yr 
Ynys should come out of the learned Dr. Powel's hands in this 
shape. What can we expect from Speed, Camden, and other 
strangers to the language, when a man so well read in our anti- 
quities could commit such a blunder ? 

Hamladd. Uanhamladd, a manor in Brecknockshire. Qu., 
Hammwlch ? Ilan Hammwlch parish in Brecknockshire. See 
Ty nitud. 

Hamon. Caer Hamon, North Hampton. {T. Williams.) 

Hamtwn. Tir Hamptwn, Hampshire. 

Magwyd wr llwyd o'r He hwn 
A'th rent ynn na thir Hamtwn. 

Hanker, a church and parish in Flintshire, in Chester diocese. 
Sjrr Gruflydd o Hanmer. 

Haran. Llanharan, a church in Glamorganshire. 

Hardd. Cadrod Hardd. 
, Harddlech. {T. p.) 

Harfyn, one of the three commots of Cantref Ffinioc in Caer- 
marthenshire. 

Harlech or Arlech, a town and castle in Meirion. See Llech 
Ardvdwy. 



240 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Haba Sant, i, e., St. Asaph, of noble British stock : hence 
Ilanhasa in Flintshire ; and in English the town of Llanelwy is 
called St. Asaph, after his name, because he succeeded Cyndeym 
Garthwys (Kentigem) in that bishopric and abbacy, and whose 
disciple he waa (Brit. Sand,, May 1.) He had 965 monks ; 
300 were labourers out of doors, 300 were servants within doors, 
and 365 learned and religious. {Brit. Sanct) 

Hayarden, a church and parish and village and castle, Flint- 
shire (in Welsh, Pen at Lac, but rightly Penardd Halawc), in 
Chester diocese. 

Haves, R Aberhaves ; qu. Haf Hesp, dry in summer ? Aber- 
hafesp, Montgomeryshire ; parish and church in Cedewain, St. 
Gwynnog. [This gave name to Bedo Hafesp, a poet. — W. 2>.] 

Hawau, Hawai, or Hawi, a place in Badnorshire, where fairs 
are kept [close to Llandrindod Wells. — W, D\ 

Hawcwn or Howcv\rN, a river which falls into Malldraeth, at 
Aberhawcwn, in Anglesey. 

Hawdd-dre, in Baglan, Glamorganshire. Canhawdre in Car- 
diganshire. 

Hawff. Tir yr Hawflf (probably Ehalff), peth o arglwyddiaeth 
Sir Eoger Vychan. 

Hawstyn. Penrhyn Hawstin, a promontory in Cornwall. 

Hawys (n. f ., qu. an idem Hawystl ?) ; hence Caer Hawys or 
Caerwys. Several noted British ladies of this name in ancient 
times ; as, Hawys Gadam, etc. [hence it came a proverb for a 
gigantic female, "0 yr Hawys fawr !" — W, D.] Hawys is derived 
from haf or hav, summer. 

Hawys Gadarn, i. e., Hawys the Proud, daughter of Ywein 
ap GruflFudd ap Gwenwynwyn. Hawys Gadam, canys balch 
oedd. {MS^ She was married to J. Charleton, a Norman, who 
gave her relations great disturbance. 

Hawystyl (n. pr. f.), a Saxon name. Hawystl Drahawc, un 
o dri phorthawr Perllan Fangor o barth y Saeson. (TV. 67.) 

Hawystl ferch Brychan Brychelniog, santes ynghaer Hawystl. 
Qu. whether Caer Hawys, i, e., Caerwys ? 

Hay, a town in Brecknockshire ; in Welsh called Tre Gelli, 
or Gelli OandrylL Camden says it was well known to the 
Eomans, for their coins are found there. It was burnt by Owen 
Glyndwr. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 241 

Hedd MoLWYiJOO, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, 
lord of Uwch Aled, and lived at Ilys Maes yr Henllys. (D.) 
Bore vert, a hart passant argent. 

Heddwch, a cognomen. Madog Heddwch of Bhiwlas. (J. D.) 

Heiliarth, nomen loci in Powys. 

Afal yr holl filwyr ben 

Dros Heiliarth draw o Sulien. 

leuan Da/ydd Ddu, i Fred, ap Rhys o Geri. 

[Qu. Yr Heniarth, near Llanfair ? — W. D.] 

Heilyn (n. pr. v.), k hail. {Dames.) Bryn Heilyn. Gwaith 
Heilyn, which see. 

Heilyn ap Llywarch Hen. {Llywarch Hen.) 

Heilyn Frych ap Cynfrig Fychan. [Pentre Heilyn. — W.JD.] 

Heilyn (Gwaith), a battle fought in Cornwall between Adel- 
red, King of Westsex, and Ehodri Molwynog, King of the 
Britons, A.D. 720. 

Helchenb, in Doomsdai/BookyGheslme ; corruptly for Helygen, 
a village in Englefield. 

Heledd (n. pr. v.), un o*r tri thrwyddedawg ac anfoddog. 
{Tr. 71.) 

Heledd, a sister of Cyndylan. (Llywarch Hen in Marwnad 
Cyndylan.) 

Heledd {Triad), some northern islands ; I suppose the Heb- 
rides. O Erch a Heledd {Triad), which see. 

Heledd Wen (Yr), Namptwich (i haUn, salt). Gyrru halen 
i'r Heledd. 

Helen : see Ekn, 

Heli, brine, pickle, salt water. Heli 'r mfir, sea-salt water (i 
halen, salt). Qu. whether hence Pwll Heli, a seaport in Caer- 
narvonshire, or from EU ? One of the mouths of the Ehine is 
called Helium, perhaps from heli, salt water; but is not the 
others also salt water ? 

Heug ap Glyn Glanoc (vel ap Glanoc). 

Hbn. Yr Hen lerwerth. Llywarch Hen. 

Hendref, in the names of several places, signifying old tewn, 
old dwelling, old habitation, anciently inhabited ; but is properly 
the inhabited country distinguished from the uncultivated 
mountains. There are many places of this name in Wales, or 

31 



242 CELTIC REMAINS. 

with Hendref prefixed. Mynydd a hendre', i e., common and 
freehold ; the same with gwyllt a dof, i, c, wild and tame, or 
uncultivated and cultivated. 

Hendref, name of a house in Uandyfrydog, Anglesey ; Hen- 
dre Gadog, near Malldraeth; Hendre Velcn; Hendref Howel, 
Anglesey ; Hendref Mur, Meirion, a gentleman's seat ; Hendre 
Bippa, a gentleman's seat (J. D.) ; Hendref Mynych ; Hendref 
Urien, a gentleman's seat, — Iloyd ; [Hendref Hen. — W, 2>.] 

Hendre Vigill, a gentleman's seat («/". D,), See Gorsedd 
VdgiUy Anglesey. See Elian. 

Hendwr (n. 1.). Madog o'r Hendwr. 

Heneglwys, a township in Anglesey, and now a parish 
church. It is mentioned in the Prince's Extent (Edw. Ill, 1352) 
to be a/ree villa held of the Saints Franciscinus and BaceUinus. 
The inhabitants were remarkably free, for they were exempted 
from bearing arms, and owed the Prince no services, or suits, or 
rents, except a suit to the two grand turns [circuits — W, JD.] of 
the Lord Prince yearly, and a suit to the Prince's mill at Tin 
Dryvol. See Francisdnvs and BaceUinus, 

Henfache, a gentleman's seat. (/. D) [Ilanrhaiadr Moch- 
nant.— W. 2>.] 

Hen Fynyw, Eglwys Hen Fynyw, near Aberaeron in Cardi- 
ganshire, which I take to be the Old Menevia ; so that instead of 
BvJyus Vetus (Leland in Dr. Davies' Dictionary) you must read 
Hvdiis Veins, i. e,, the old rubbish or ruins of Mynyw, or the 
ruins of Old Myny w. See Hen Fenyw. 

Henffig, near Margam (in Modlen), Glamorganshire. 

Henffordd, the town and county of Hereford, also called 
Hereford East It signifies Old Way. 

Henffordd (GwAiTH),the battle of Hereford, between Gruflfudd 
ap Llewelyn ap Seisyllt and Eandolph, nephew of Edward the 
Confessor. He burnt the Cathedral, slew the Bishop, Loeger, 
spoilt and burnt the town, and killed 500 Saxons, a.d. 1054. 
See M^acJiarvy. 

Hengwrt, a gentleman's seat near Dolgelleu in Meirionydd- 
shire. Here is a great collection of curious British MSS. con- 
taining poetry and history, collected by that great British anti- 
quary, Mr. Robert Vaughan of Wengraig, ancestor of the present 
owner, Mr. Vaughan. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 243 

HenotSj one of the commanders of the first Saxons that came 
to Britain (TV. 48) ; by English historians called Hengist; by 
Verstigan, Hengistus. 

Henllan^ near Denbigh, a church and parish (V.) dedicated 
to St. Sadwrn. {B, WUlis.) 

Henllan, on the river Gwy, where Dyfrig had a college of 
1,000 scholars, among whom were Teilo, Idan, Sampson, etc. 
(Dubricius? Life.) 

Henllan, Cardiganshire. 

HenliIan Amgoed, a church and parish, Carmarthenshire. A 
Eoman inscription there. 

Henlleu (n. 1.). {Einion ap Qwalchmai, i Dduw.) 

Boed ef yn diben bod yn diblen 

HeU yn Enlli hyd yn HeiiUeu. — (I Qrist,) 

Henpen (n. pr. v.), un o'r tri glew. {Tr. 27.) 
- Henwen (n. pr.). Henwen, hwch Dedlweir Dalben. {Tr, 30.) 
This seems to have been the name of some ship which Coll ap 
Collfrewy went captain of, etc. (TV. 30.) 

Henydd, an id. quod Hunydd ? Sain Henydd, enw lie. 

Henyn (n. pr. v.), father of Garwen, King Arthur's concubine. 
(TV. 60.) 

Henyr : see Ynyr. 

Herast (n. 1.). 

Herast. Llewelyn ap Herast ; hefyd arglwydd Herast. 

Herbert, a surname of several noble families in Britain. This 
name was here far before William the Conqueror's time, and 
probably not Norman. It is naturally enough derived from the 
British, and may be originally a British name. Sirberth, in 
British, signifies tall and beautiful; anciently wrote Hirhert 
Herbeirtion is the plural formed after the manner of the ancients, 
as Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr in William the Conqueror's time, 
in naming their clans ; so from Tyngyr, Tynghyrion ; fi'om 
Gwalchmai, Gweilchion. 

O Herbardiaid aur bnrdaL 

Hercles {J. D)y Hercules. See Ercwlff. 

Hergest. Tomas ap Eoger, arglwydd Hergest. 

Hergest (n. 1.), in Glamorganshire. [There is a place of that 



244 CELTIC REMAINS. 

name in Glamorgan ; and another, I believe, in Montgomeryshire. 
— /. M, Herefordshire, from whence came the Llyfr Coch MS. 
in Jesus College. — W. D.'\ 

Hergyn, some place in Caemarvoushire. See Ergirvg and Eifl. 

Herwnden (n. pr. v.), a Saxon, father of Gweattyrn. 

HiLFAWR, a cognomen. lorwerth Hilfawr ap Mael Meilien- 
ydd. {J. D,) 

HiRADDUC, nomen loci [near in Flintshire. — W, B.\ 

Dafyddd Ddu o Hiraddue.y a learned poet and grammarian. 
We have his Grammar of the British tongue and several of his 
poems extant, but not in print. His translation of the Te Deum 
is curious. He lived about the year 1380, and from his know- 
ledge in natural philosophy and chymistry he got the name of a 
conjuror among the vulgar, and abundance of strange stories are 
to this day told of him and the Devil. His shewing artificial 
snow in summer-time made them insist that he was just come 
from the Alpes on the DeviVs back. His erecting of bridges in 
difficult places by the Devil's help, and cheating him of liis 
pay, and his outwitting the Devil in everything, even when he 
expected his body when he was dead, made the poor Devil, in 
the hearing of all the congregation, cry out at last, "Dafydd Ddu, 
ffals yn fyw, ftals yn farw !" i. c, false alive, and false when 
dead. These are stories that very well suited the age he lived 
in, when the monks made learning a crime. 

HiRADDUG (GwAiTii), a battle fought at this place, where Cws- 
tenin Ddu, son of Idwal Foel, was killed. (MS.) It was fought 
between Uowel ap leuaf and Cvvstenin Ddu, son of I ago, who 
had liired Godfryd, captain of the Danes, A.D. 970. (Caradoc.) 

HiRFLAWDD. Icrwerth llirflawdd, yr hwn yn yn 'r ach newydd 
a elwir lerwerth liirymladd. 

HiRFRYN, a lordship in Ystrad Tywy. (Caradoc, p. 274.) 

HiRFRYN (Caer), Longcaster {Th. Williams).; rather Luncas- 
ter, from the river Lune in Lancasliire. 

HiRiETH, a river. Aber Hirieth on the Dyfi river. Rhiw 
Hirieth, a gentleman's seat [in Caereinion. — JV, Z>.]. 

Hirnant, church and parish in the deanery of Welsh Poole. 

HiRYMLADD : see Hirjlawdd, 

Hispaen, Hespacn, Spain. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 245 

HiRAETHOG, one of the two commots of Cantref Ystrad in 
Denbighshire : from hence Grufludd Hiraethog, a sound poet of 
the 16th century, took his name. He was the teacher of Wm. 
Lleyn, Sion Tudur, William Cynwal, Simwnt Vychan, poets that 
flourished in Queen Elizabeth's time. 

HiKELL, Uriel, an angel. See Gabriel. 

HoAN, a King of the Britons (probably the Northern Britons), 
mentioned by ¥LQheTiy,Offygia, p. 478, in the year 642, who beat 
Domnal Brec, King of the Scots, in the battle of Ystrad Car- 
maig. 

Hob (Yr), the Hope. Mredydd o'r H6b. 

HoBEU (Yr). Stat. RJmddlan, See Flint, 

HoDNANT (n. 1.), qu. a river ? Llywelyn Brydydd Hodnant, 

a poet anno Domini 1360. [The little river of Llan-Illtud Fawr 

in Glamorgan. 

Hyd y nant loy w Hodnant Iwyd. 

Cywydd Ultud 8anU — J. If.] 

H'oDNi, a river which falls into the Mynwy, and together fall 
into the Wye. In Giraldus Cambrensis called Hodeni. It runs 
by the abbey of Lantony, which was probably Llan Ilodui, or, 
as Giraldus thinks, Nant Hodni. This is often confounded with 
Honddu, and even by Mr. Edw. Llwyd on Camden (a marginal 
note), and by Dr. Towel, Dr. Th. Williams, etc. See Honddu 
and Bliodni. 

HoEDLYW ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrudd. Gorsedd Hoed- 
11 w ar dir Carrog, yn Llanbadrig, Mon. 

HoFA and HwFA (n. pr. v.) : hence Carreg Hova, Castell Car- 
reg Hova, and Caer Carreg Hova, in Shropshire, mentioned in 
the tenth battle of Llywelyn ap lorwerth. 

Pobyll Llywelyn, etc. 

Ynghacr Yngharreg Hova. 
See Ilivfa. 

Holt, in Denbighshire, a town and castle, where fairs are 
kept ; called })y the Komans Leonis Casti^m. So called, as Cam- 
den thinks, from the " Legio vicesima victrix", which kept gan-i- 
son a little higher on the other side Dee. He means Westchester , 
called by the Britons Caerlleon Gawr and Caerlleon ar Ddyfr- 
dwy ; but Camden had a mind to throw a veil over the Leonis 



246 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Castruyn, lest the Welsh antiquaries should claim it for Caer- 
lleon. Leonis Oastnim is literally Caerllean, in spite of all 
glosses and shifts, where the name of the ancient King Lleon is 
still retained. 

HoNDDY or HoNDDU (fl., hence Aberhonddu), falls into the 
Wysg at Brecknock ; hence the town of Brecknock or Biych- 
einiog. (Price, Descr.) This by English writers is called Hodni. 
Caer Hodni, Brycheiniog. (Th. Williams, Catalogue.) 

Hodni a'i fraint hyd nef fry. — Huw Cae Llwyd, 
Aber hydrfer Hodni. — Prydydd y Mochy i Llywelyn. 

See Bhodni and Hodni. 

Hope (called in Welsh Yr Hob), part of Powys Vadog, one of 
the three commots of Cantre 'r Ehiw, now part of Flintshire. 
Hope Castle, Caergwrle. 

HoRAN. Llanhoran or Glan Horan, a gentleman's seat in Caer- 
narvonshire. Timothy Edwards, Esq.,^ a captain in the royal 
navy. 

HoRS,one of the Saxons' first commanders in Britain. (TV. 48.) 

HowEL, HoEL, or Hywel (n. pr. v.), k hy and wSl, i. e., sharp- 
sighted. There have been several famous men of this name. 
Hywel, by some made the same with Huw or Hugh. 

Howel wyd Haw o Ladin 
Haelaf o'r gwyr, heiliwr gwin. 

HowLBWCH neu Howlbwrch, qu. whether Old Burgh f Uow- 
arch Goch ap Llowarch Howlbwch. 

HowLFFORDD {GuitoW Glyn), Haverfordwest or Herefordwest. 

HowNANT, in the parish of Penbryn, Cardiganshire. 

HoYW ap Gloyw ap Caw ap Cawrda. 

HowMON (n. 1.). Yn Adis [?] y bu varw Dafydd ap Owain 
Gwynedd ac yn Howmon y claddwyd ef. {MS) See Adis [?]. 

Hu Gadarn, an Emperor of Constantinople that held the 
plough, and would eat no bread but from corn of his own raising. 
(Jolo Goch) 

HUADAIN : see Llanhayaden, Ilanhuadain, vulgo Llanhaden, 

South Wales. 

Pen ar ddigrain 

A chan Haw llndwaw Llanhnadain. 

Ein, ap Qwgan^ i Ln. ap lor worth, Anno 1230. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 247 

HuAlL, mab Caw, un o dri thaleithiog cad Ynys Prydain. {Tr, 
26.) A hu and ail, i, e., Hywel ; Hugo Secundus. (Br. Davies) 
See GUdas ap Caw, 

Hubert, esgob Mynyw, a.d. 876. 

HuDWYDD or Hydwydd (n. 1.). Carreg Hudwydd, a place men- 
tioned by Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan. Mr. E. Llwyd 
thinks it to be Beny, a hill in Shropshire, near Wroxeter. Hud- 
wydd, as Mr. E. Llwyd reads it, is in Llyfr Coch Eergest wrote 
Hytwyth, i. e., Hydwyth. 

Stafell Gynddylan nid esmwyth heno 

Ar ben Carreg Hydwyth 

Heb ner heb nifer heb amwyth. — Llywarch flow. 

HuGANUS, lord of Dyfed. 

Hugo de Lacy. 

Hugo Lupus, ad. 1092. 

HuGYN ap Pagan o Gaenan H&l tuhwnt i Lwdlo. 

HuNAWD, Hungaria. (MS.) 

HuNYDD, daughter of Efhydd (Einudd, MS.) ap Gwemgwy, 
lord of Dyffiyn Clwyd, wife of Mredydd ap Blethyn, Prince of 
Powys. (J.D.) 

HuNYDD verch Eoger arglwydd y Drewen. 

Huw, Hew (n. pr. v.), Engl., Hugh ; but is a contraction of 
Hugo. Huw Conwy. 

Hywel wyd Hnw o Ladin. 

HwcH, qu., whether a river or a man ? 

Dym cyfarwyddiad yn hwch 

Ddywal, dwedyd yn ddrws llech. — Llywarch Hen. 

See Unhwck. 

Hwen Hir, a woman's name, qu. ? (Gr. Zl. D. ap Einion) 

Huan, qu. ? 

HwFA (n. pr. V.) ; hence Carreg Hova. Ehos Tre Hofa, in 

Anglesey. 

Nid er da i Hwfa hen 

Namyn er maws im' fy hnn. 

Hwfa ap Cynddelw, lord of Llys Llifon in Anglesey, lived at 
Prysaddfed, in the time of GrufFudd ap Cynan and Owain Gwyn- 
edd, AD. 1100. One of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales. He 
bore gules, a chevron or between three lions rampant of the 
second. See Mona Antiqua, p. 130. 



248 CELTIC REMAINS. 

HwLFFORDD, Haverford West, Pembrokeshire; wrote also 
Hereford West ; a town and castle on one of the branches of 
Milford Haven, one of the three commots of Cantref y Khos (now 
Roose), formerly inhabited by Flemings. 

HwLKYN. Llywelyn ap Hwlcyn. 

HwLKYN ap Bleddyn. 

HwNTYNTWN, Angl. Huntington. 

HwYSGiN Hwland, neu Hwysgyn ; in another I read it 
Hwysgwyn ; qu. an id. Ysgwyn ? 

HwNDRWD, corrupt ior Hutidred, Tir 3m Hwndrwd, one of 
the three commots of Cantref Cronerth in Morganwg. (Price, 
Descr.) 

Hyarthwy, a place in South Wales where a battle was fought 
for the Principality of South Wales, in the year 1031, by Howel 
and Mredyth, sons of Edwyn ap Einion ap Owain ap Hywel 
Dda, and the sons of Bhydderch ap lestyn, who they first had 
killed in another battle. {Caradoc.) 

Hychan Sant. Llanhychan, Denbighshire. 

Hydwn Dwn ap Ceredig. 

Hyfeid, or rather Hyfaidd (n. pr. v.). 

Hyfeid ap Bleiddig yn Deheubarth {Tr. 76), one who, from a 
slave, became King of South Wales. Pentre Hyfaidd, a gentle- 
man's seat. (f/. D.) See Maes Hyfaidd, 

Hyfeidd. Ilowarch Hyveidd ; signifies beiddio'n h^f, or bold 
adventurer. 

Hymye, the Humber. {Tr, 4.) 

Hynap, an elder, or the oldest in the family, tribe, clan, or 
society. Hence brenhyn or breienhyn, a king (i h-aint and hynaf, 
i.e., privilege and eldership) ; and so Llywarch Hen in Marwnad 
Cynddylan Powys : 

Stafell Cynddylan ys araf heno 
Gwedy colli i hynaf, etc. 

Hywel ab Emyr Uydaw {Tr. 83), called Brenhinol Farchog, 
royal knight, in Arthur's court. Camden derives it from Ilmlius, 
sun-bright. 

Hywel Dda, King of Wales, about the yejur 940, began to rule 
over all Wales, being Prince of Po^vys since 914. He revised 



CELTIC REMAINS. 249 

the Welsh Laws, and adapted them to the circumstances of the 
time he lived in. We have several copies of these I^aws in MS. 
in Welsh and Latin, and they were lately published by Dr. Wot- 
ton. A little before this, Alfred, King of the West Saxons^ with 
the assistance of his tutor Asserius, a Cambro- Briton, translated 
the Laws of Dvfnwal Moel Mud into the Saxon, or at least 
picked out of them what he thought fit. 

The ancient Saxon laws were rather customs and traditions, 
such as are among the North Americans and other illiterate 
nations, the laws of Ethelbert, King of Kent, being their first 
written laws, which was above a hundred years after their 
coming to Britain ; and those reached no further than Kent. 
Then the West Saxons, about a hundred years after that (a.d. 
714), under King Ina, had written laws. Then, soon after, the 
Mercians had written laws. Lastly, Alfred, grandson of Egbert, 
who in 827 reduced the Heptarchy, did about the year 900 give 
them a written general law composed from the ancient laws of 
the island ;, and this was about 400 years after their conquest of 
Loegria^ now called England. 

Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd, brother of Madoc ap Owain, who 
first discovered the country called now America, which should 
have been called Madoca, This Hywel was an excellent British 
poet and a great general. We have several of his works extant 
He flourished about A.D. 1140. See Powel's Caradoc in Owain 
Gwynedd. 

Hywel (Castell), in Gwinionydd, qu. ? 

Hywel (Cebrig) or Crug Hywel, where Hywel ap Caw, brother 
of Gildas, was killed by King Arthur or by his orders, which 
wajB the occasion of Gildas's inveteracy against the Britons in 
his Epistle. See Giraldus Cambrensis, and Sir Jo. Price, Defence 
of the British History. See Huail ap Oaw. 

[Hywel Ystoryn, an ancient bard of the fourteenth century, 
lived at Cjmffig in Glamorgan. — I. M,] 

HrwYN ap Gwyndaf Hfen o Lydaw, Periglor yn Enlli. 

L 

Iabn (n. pr.). [laen and Twymyn, two riveA in Cyfeiliog. — 

W. D.] Plant Cyndrwyn a laen. 

32 



250 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Iaco or Iago (n. pr. v.). This is rendered in the Bible trans- 
lation for James or Jacobiis, and is by some of the old poets 
used for Jacob the son of Isaac ; and the 16th King of Britain 
being of this name shews it to be purely British. There was a 
Prince of Wales of this name in the year 948 ; cmother, a.d. 
1021 ; and yet the name is not common in Wales, nor in manu- 
scripts, nor in names of places or churches. 

Rhyd Iago; T^ Iago; Digwyl Iago; crogen Iago, condia 
Veneris, Myn Iago, an oath. 

Iago, the 16th King of Britain. 

Iago, mab Beli, killed with an axe. {Tr. 39.) 

liL, the name of a country ; in English, Fa/« ; one of the com- 
mots of Cantref y Ehiw, part of Powys Vadog. {Dr. PoweL) 
It is in Denbighshire. Camden thinks 1^1 has its name from 
the river Alen. Why not from la, ice ? [Is not Idl, cultivated, 
anial, the negative, being uncultivated ? — W, D.] 

Ian, qu. an id. quod Jane ? 

Ian, OwBD, hi aeth yn ddydd. 

The last is pronounced in English, eean. 

Iancyn, idem quod Siangcyn, qu. ? 

Ianto, dini. ab leuan, and leutyn. 

Tarll, an earl ; in the Danish, eorla, erle ; a degree of nobility 
among the ancient Britons. This title Camden (in Rem,, p. 67) 
says came hither with the Danes. The Saxons might receive it 
from the Danes, but the Britons always had it; and [it] is a con- 
traction of arghoyddj i. e,, a supreme leader ; and from aril came 
iarll and earl. But the Saxon word earl was anciently no more 
than an elder. See Canute's grant. Spelman says the English 
borrowed the word, but not the degree, from the Danes, and that 
the title begun in Canute's time, who was a Dane. 

Iarll y Mjmydd Cadarn, in the time of Arthur. 

Iarll ar Went ag Erging ag Euas oedd Gwrtheym (Tyssilio), 
about A.D. 400. 

Iarll ag larlles ; pi. leirll. Eorla in Danish is the same with 
alderman in Saxon. 

Ystori larlles y Ffynnon. Galfrid translates Iarll Cernyw, 
Ditx CornvMce. Iarll Caer Lundain a swydd Geiut, Dux Trino* 
vanti. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 251 

Iarddub (n. pr. v.), wrote by the ancients Yarthur and lardur. 

Iarddur ab Mervyn, ad. 952. {Oaradoc in leuaf.) Moses 
Williams, in Notes on H. llwyd's Brit, Descr. Com,, would have 
it that the words in Llywarch Hen's Marwnad Geraint should 
be read *' Yn Dongborth Has Yarddur", which Sir John PryBe in 
his Def, Brit, Hist,, and Mr. Edward Llwyd, reads y Arthur, 
and which last reading is backed by the Triades, which makes 
Geraint ab Erbin one of King Arthur's three admirals. Moses 
Williams is wrong in placing G. ab Erbin in the time of Ina. 

Tre Iarddur, a house near Holyhead. 

Iasedd neu Iaseth ap 

Iau or lou (signifying young), Jupiter, Jove, son of Sadwni, 
a Prince of the Celtic nation before the foundation of the Greek 
and Boman empires. This is him who his own people having 
deified, imposed upon those nations afterwards as their supreme 
god by the name of Jupiter or lou Pater. The oblique cases, 
Jovis, Jovem, etc., shew him to be the same, and answer that 
famous question of Cornelius Agrippa which puzzled all the 
grammarians, why Jupiter makes Jovis in the genitive case ? 
The Britons and Armoricans to this day call Thursday, or Jupi- 
ter's day, Dydd lou, Dydd Iau, Difiau. 

Cwm lou, a parish in Monmouthshire. 

See Pezron's Antiquities. 

Ibranc. Nennii\p (Li. Cantab.). See Efrog. 

ICENi, a people of Britain inhabiting Suffolk, Norfolk, Cam- 
bridgeshire, and Huntingdonshire. They are called in Welsh 
Uwchcynniaid, See Keint or Cdnt. 

IcH DiEN, the motto of the Princes of Wales, which they use 
under tliree feathers. Spelman, in his Glossary, says it is from 
the Saxon Ich Thien, I serve. Bailey deriyes it from the Ger- 
man Ich Diennan, But if it is British it is Ych Ddien, you are 
young ; or perhaps Eich Dyn, your man. Qu. whether it was 
not to please the Welsh this was contrived by Edward I ? Or 
whether it was taken, not by Edward the Black Prince, son of 
Edward III, after the battle of Cressy, ad. 1346, it being said to 
be the motto and arms of John King of Bohemia, who served in 
the French wars, and was killed in that battle ? [Yes. — W. D,'\ 
Verstegan, p. 259, says Ih Thian is ancient English, and sig- 



252 CELTIC KEMATNS. 

Difies / serve. But if it is true that John King of Bohemia had 
this motto, it is the Slavonian tongue, the proper language of 
Bohemia, and is neither German nor Saxon ; and it is not very 
probable that a son of the King of England would make use of 
a Slavonish motto, or that a King of Bohemia would use a Ger- 
man motto to shew that he served under France. 

Iden, Idan, or Aidan ; but qu. ? Llaniden, a church and 
parish, Anglesey. If it was from Aidan of North Britain, it 
would have been pronounced Aeddan ; but this is Iden Sant, in 
some MSS. Nidan. 

Idgwyn, neu Iddon, o enw arall. Vid. Iddon. 

Idlos and Idloes Sant. Llanidloes yn Arwystli. 

Eos Tref Idlos tra fti. — Sion Phylip, i lenan Tew, 

who resided here with Lewis Gwyn ; died old. 

Idlos ap Gwyddnabi ; rect^ Idloes. 

Idnbrth ap Hwfa. (Rhys Goch Eryri) 

Idno ap Meirchiawn. 

Idman Amherawdyr, Adrian. (B. Lhuyd.) 

Idris (n. pr. v.) ; hence Cader Idris, a mountain fortified in 
ancient times. Cader Idris Gawr. (Leland.) Idris Gawr. (Dr. 
Tfios. Williams, Caerydd.) 

Idris, the third son of Llewelyn Aurdorchog, lord of liL 
Hence Bodidris, a gentleman's seat, laL 

Idris Arw ap Gwyddo Garanir ; unde Oadair Idris. 

Idwal (n. pr. v.), falsely wrote Edwal. 

Idwal ap Edwin, the 41st King of Britain. 

Idwal Iwrch, son of Cadwaladr, last King of Britain. See 
Cadwaladr, 

Idwallawn ap Morgant Mawr. 

Idwallon, a nobleman of Wales, who died a.d. 841. (Powel, 
Oaradoc, p. 27.) 

. Iddawg (n. pr. v.). Iddawg Com Brydain a wnaeth brad 
Arthur. Hist, (J. D.) 

Iddig (n. pr. v.). Madog ap Henri ab Iddig, a poet. 

Iddon ap Ynyr Gwent. In Tr. 75 a battle is mentioned to 
be fought by Maelgwn, where the blood turned the colour of the 
river Severn, where this man is mentioned ; but the passage is 
dark and obliterated, but in Trioedd y Meirch the name is entire. 

Ieithodd (fl.). Aberieithodd, qu. ? 



CELTIC REMAINS. 253 

Ieithon (fl.). Aberieithon. Falls into the Wye. Glyn leithon. 
(Price, DescT,) 

Ierwerth, Angl. Edward. lorwerth, ait Dr. Davies. Chwaer 
John Edward un fam un dad oedd Elen verch Ierwerth. (Llyfr 
Achau, fol. 70b.) Ierwerth Swdyrgrin. 

Iestyn Sant Llanie8t)m in Ueyn and Anglesey. 

Iestyn ap Geraint ap Erbin. 

Iestyn ap Gwrgant ap Ithel ap Idwallawn ap Morgan Mwyn- 
fawr, Prince of Morganwg, that lost it to the Normans, 1090. 
Camden tells this story differently from Dr. Powel and Caradoc. 
(Camden, Britannia, Glamorgan.) 

Ieufaf, Ieuan, Iefan, Ifan, and Ivan (n. pr. v.), commonly 
Latinized Johannes. It signified originally youngest ; the same 
with leuangc, q. d. nxitu minimus \ and there are now family 
names of Evan and Evans that should not be translated John. 
Hence Evan, a modem name, which by Anglifying is turned to 
Evans, as William is to Williams, Owen to Owens. 

Ieuaf and Griffri were generals of the Powys forces in a 
battle fought between Cadwallon Fendigaid and Edwin King of 
the Saxons, and were both killed, and succeeded by Myngan. 
{Tt. 63.) See Tr. 75 ; and see Belyn, 49. 

Ievanawl ap Einion. 
• Ieuan y Coed. Gwyl Ieuan y Coed : qu. what St. John's Day ? 
[John the Baptist in the wilderness, a festival to celebrate his 
retiring beyond Jordan. — W. D!\ 

Ieuan, Eang of Alban, before Brennus' time. 

Ieuan ap Howel Swrdwal, a poet of Ceri, an. 14G0. 

Ieuangc. Rhys leuangc. 

IvoN (n. pr. v.). Camden says the Welsh and Slavonians use 
Ivon for John ; but he was quite out, for the Welsh never had 
the name Ivon in their language. The name Ieuan, which is the 
same with Evan, looks like Ivon, but is not sounded the same. 
It is true the name of St John is pronounced by the common 
people in Wales Ifan or Ivan, which would be in English Yevan; 
and St. John's Day is called Dygwyl Ifan. But John, as a com- 
mon name of men, is always pronounced as if wrote in English 
Shone ; and St. John's Gospel is translated Efengil loan, in two 
syllables, as if made from Johannes. But Howel ap Syr Mathew 
has 



254 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Matbe, Ifan, maith ddefod, 
Marc a Lac, cjmer eu clod. 

(To Davies, Bp. of Menevia.) 

Ifor or Ivor (n. pr. n.). 

Ifor Hael, lord of Maesaleg, was Dafydd ap Gwilym's patron. 
If or Hael is Ifor the Liberal 

Ifor, the eldest son of Cadwaladr Fendigaid, the other two 
being Alan and Idwal Iwrch. See Ynyr. 

Ivor ap Severws. 

Igmond, a captain of the Black Nation, or Danes, who made 
a descent at Bhod Meilon, near Holyhead, a.d. 900 ; now Pen- 
rhos Meilon, vulg. Y Feilw. 

Ikenild : see Ystrad Ychen. 

Ilar or Iler Sant, probably St. Hilarins or Elerius, abbot and 
confessor, of whom there is mention in the Acts of Winifred ; 
educated at Llanelwy and Ad Vallem Clutinam; founded a 
monastery, of which he was abbot; and a nunnery, of which St. 
Winifred was abbess. (Leland and Pitta, Brit Sand,, June 13.) 
He was abbot of Gwytherin, where he buried Gwenfrewi. 

Llanilar, Cardiganshire, where their fairs are kept on St. Hilary's 
Day. 

Illan (n. 1.), Glamorgan. 

Illtud, Illdud, or Elltud Sant, appointed by St German 
head of a college in Glamorganshire. His scholars, Daniel, etc. 
His name is Latinized Iltutus. Llanelltud, Meirion, and near 
Neath. See Elltyd and LlanelUyd, See Oerman Sant. 

Indeg, merch Afarwy Hir, a concubine of King Arthur. 
{Tr, 60.) 

Inerth verch Edwyn. (Caradoc, p. 183.) 

Ingl (wrote also Eingl), Angli, Saeson Doegr ; the English 
nation. 

Inglont, the manner of writing the word England by the 
Welsh poets : 

Ba yn Inglont tenont taer, 

Bid i Inglont byd anglaer. — L. OL Cothi. 

Inse Gall, i.e.,Ynysoedd Gall, the Hebrides {Flaherty, p. 323), 
inhabited by Gall Wyddyl, i e., the most ancient Gauis, or first 
inhabitants bf Britain, who were thrust there by later colonies. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 255 

lo (n. v.), Job. Golud lo. 

I6-AN (in two syllables), from Johannes. 

Ail yw Idan laa lonydd. — lolo Ooeh. 

loDDiON ap Idnerth ap Edryd. 

loHN Dafydd Ehys, author of the printed British Grammar, 
in foL, 1592, and of a Dictionary in MS. ; also of a printed Italian 
Grammar which he published in Italy when he followed his 
studies there, and read lectures on physic. He commenced Dr. 
of Physic at Sienna^ professed Physic at Padua, was practitioner 
in divers parts of Italy, afterwards in England, and had been 
reader to most of the Colleges of Physicians ; was about sixty 
years of age in 1606. Fe ddywedir mai mab i glochydd Uan- 
faethlu ym Mon oedd ef. See note on Winifred! % Life. 

loL-LO and loLO (n. pr. v.). 

Achau lolo ni cbelir. — QuttoW Olyu. 

loLO Gogh, a famous poet that flourished a.d. 1400, of whose 
works we have several Pronounced lol-lo and lolo. 
lOLYN (n. pr. v.). 

Gair lolyn gwych wrol naf 
Gwr gwiwnerth gwir a ganaf. 

Hywel Kilan^ i L. ap Gr. v. ap Gr. 

lOLYN ap Gronw Gethin : hence Plas lolyn, in Denbighshire, 
the seat of Thomas Prys, Esq., an ingenious poet in Queen Eliza- 
beth's time. 

lONAVAL, son of Meuric, right heir to North Wales, a.d. 984, 
killed by Cadwallon ap leuaf. 

lORDDWFN : vid. Bywyn. 

lORWERTH (n. pr. V.) (2>. ap Owilym) From I6r, 

lORWERTHlAWN {Owclygorddau Fawys), lands of lorwerth in 
Powys. 

lotJ and Iau : hence leuan, lefan, Ifan, Ivan, leuaf (n. pr. v.), 
commonly Latinized Johannes. 

Ippo, Hippocrates. {leuan Tew,) 

Irwon or Irfon, a river near Buellt. Qu. whether Dr. Powel's 
Orefwyn f [Vide Casrau, — W, D.] 

IsAERON, the country to the south and south-west of the river 
Aeron in Ceretica. See Aeron, 



256 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Isc : see ^Vysg, 

ISCBRDIN. 

IscoED, one of the four commots of Cantref Gwent. See Ban^- 
gar is Coed. 

IscoED is also the name of one of the four cantrefs fonnerly 
of Gwentland, containing the comraot of Bryn Buga,Uwch Coed, 
y Teirtref, Erging ac Euas. (Price, Descr,) 

ISCONWY. 

IsELWYR, Inferiores ; hence the Silures in Latin writers. Ise- 
lures, because below the river Dyfi. [Essyllwyr ; Bro Essyllt. — 
W. D.] 

ISHELI. 

IsGENENY, one of the three commots of Cantref Ffinioc in 
Caermarthenshire. 

IsGENNEN. {LevHs Olyn Cothi.) 

IsGWYRFAi, a commot. 

ISLONT (Tyssilio), Iceland, an island in the North Frozen 
Sea, belongs now to Denmark, about 300 miles long and 150 
broad ; said by some to be the Thule of the ancients, t. e,, tyinell, 
dark. It belonged to Britain in the time of King Arthur, a.d. 
520 ; and Melwas, or Gillamwri, was king there, which, by the 
name, seems to have been from North Britain or Ireland. Quaere 
whether their language be Teutonic or Celtic ? Probably the 
latter. [Teutonic : see Von Troil's account, and that of Sir Joseph 
Banks. — /. if.] 

ISMYNYDD, one of three commots of Cantref Elfael, between 
Wy and Severn. 

IsYRWON, one of the three commots in Cantref Buellt. (Price, 
Descr,) 

Ital (Yu), Italy. See Eidal. 

Itguallon, wrote anciently for Idwallon. {E. Llivyd,) 

Ithel and Ithael (n, pr. v.). This name seems to be derived 
from vihr and hd, that is, a wonderful hunter ; and probably by 
the ancients was pronounced Uthel. 

Aeth Ithel fal mab Elen. — J. op Howel, 

Hawdd gyda'm gwahawdd im' gael 

I ihreth a bath Hryr Ithael.— L. Gl Oothi. 

Ithel ap Ueien, the 52nd King of Britain. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 257 

Ithel 6am ; neu letbell and IthaeL 
Tthon, river, recti leithon. 

A chad Abergwaith a chad laithon. — Ho. Myrddin, 

luDDEW, Judceus, a Jew. 

luDDEWES (feem.), a Jewess. 

luDDEWiG, Judaictis. 

lUNO, the sister and wife of Jupiter ; in the Celtic, Ghvenno. 
See Venus, 

IWERDDON, the kingdom of Ireland ; wrote also Exverddon and 
Y Werddon by the "Welsh; anciently y Werdd Ynj/8,i,e,, the Green 
Island ; by Orpheus, Aristotle, and Claudian, it is called lema 
(Orph.lepvisi)] by Juvenal and M-els,, Juverna; by Diodorus Sicu- 
lus, Iris ; by Martianus Heracleota, lovepvia ; by Eustathius, 
Ovepvia and l&epvui ; by the inhabitants, Erin ; by the English, 
Ireland {Caniden) ; by Nennius, from a captain csdled Irnalph. 
(flamden!) 

PriiTyrdd cerdd o I werddon. — Owilym ap leua/n Hen, 
Bbdn ac Iwerddon i gyd, i'th arfoU. — I. op H. Cae Llwyd, 

See Ewerddon and Y Werddon. 



L 

Lacharn (now Lam) : see Talacham. 

Lar^s, the spirits of the hearth, etc. Duwiau'r Llawr, qu. ? 

Larina, a noble woman in Viigil, En, ii ; in the Celtic, Zloer- 
wen. 

Lasar, Lazarus. 

Lavan (Y), Traeth y Lavan or Olavan, the sands between 
Beaumaris and Penmaen Mawr, which some opinionately derive 
from oer levain, which they back with a tradition that all that 
tract of ground from the entrance of Conwy river to Bangor 
was once dry land, but for the wickedness of the inhabitants was 
overflowed by the sea ; and they pretend to shew the ruins of 
houses now under water, in a spot of foul ground over against 
Penmaen Mawr, which they call Llys Elis ap Glanmor. Such 
accidents have been caused by earthquakes in many places ; and 
there are at this day, in the Bay of Port Royal in Jamaica, the 

33 



258 CELTIC REMAINS. 

ruins of houses and a fort to be seen under water, and great 
valleys where mountains once stood in the memory of man. 

Lawarian : vid. Llaw. 

Lawnselot (n. pr. v.), a Gaulish name. Lawfiselot di L&c. 
{Tt. 61.) Camden thinks it is no old name, but was invented 
by the writer of Arthur's history, meaning the history of the 
Eound Table, wrote by some foreigner. But it is 1200 year old 
at least. 

Legion : see Llion. 

Leil : see CaerleU, 

Lein, the British name of Leinster in Ireland. {Camden in 
Lagenia.) 

Leiuion ^ see Lyrion. 

Leri, a river in Cardiganshire ; rectfe, Eleri. Aberleri, a creek 
near Aberdyfi. Glan Leri, a gentleman's seat. 

Lerion : see Lyrrion, 

Lethrigh, a battle in the year 590, in which Aeddan ap Gaf- 
ran was victor. {Ogygia^ p. 475.) 

LiGACH, the name of some Irish general or prince who once 
had possessions in Anglesey. His gravestone was shewn me in 
the high-road near Dulas, and called Bedd Ligach, where tradi- 
tion had it that he was buried there erect in his arms. Kot 
far off, near Bodavon Mountain, there is a place called Ffridd 
Ligach, and also Ffos Golmon. 

LiGUALiD. Caer Ligualid is the name in the Cambridge copy 
of Nennius of one of the twenty-eight cities of Britain ; but in 
the Oxford copy it is Lualid. Usher hath it Caer Lualid, and 
says it is Carlisle. It is not in the catalogue in the Triades 
under this name. If LugavalUvm ad Vallum be Carlisle, the 
similitude of the name Ligualid would make one think it to be 
the same ; but there is very little dependence on the names in 
Nennius or any Latin writer, the transcribers having murdered 
the British names ; besides that the orthography of that age 
blinds the matter very much. Qu. whether Luguvallum from 
Llyw river in Ilywarch Hen ? 

LiMNOS {Ptolemy), supposed to be the Isle of Kamsey near 
St. David's or Menew. Leland calls this island Limerms, and 
says the name is of Greek original ; but why not from the British 
Mynyw ? 



CELTIC REMAINS. 259 

LiRlON : see Lyrrion, 

IisiDiT. Caer Lisidit {Tr,) ; another copy, Lesydit, one of the 
twenty-eight cities, qu. ? 

LoNT and Lond, for the Teutonic Land in the names of Islont, 
Gotlont, Esgottlont, and Inglont, t. e,, Iceland, Gotland, Scotland, 
and England, etc. 

LoYW. Caer Loyw. See Oloyw, 

LocRiN : see Llocrin. 

m 

LowRi or LoWRY (n. feem.). 

LovAN Lau Dhifro (n. pr. v.), Archceol, Brit, p. 260. Thus 
Mr. Edward liwyd writes this name in Uywarch Hen's Marw- 
nad Urien Beged, which is the same as is wrote in the Triades, 
Llofan Llawddino, The person who killled Urien Beged. [Llaw 
DdifrOy the desolating or lay- wasting hand. — W. D.'\ 

LUALID : see Ligvxdid, 

LuDWAL. Mr. Camden, out of William of Malmesbury, says 
King Edgar imposed a tribute of three hundred skins of wolves 
on Ludwal, Prince of Merionethshire, or those countries ; but, as 
is observed in the margin, there has been no prince of that name 
in Wales ; and it was leuaf and lago, sons of Edwal, that were 
Princes of North Wales in the time of Edgar, about ad. 960. 
And I also desire it may be observed that no such a man's name 
at all occurs in Wales as Ludwal, either in MS. or elsewhere. So 
this story wants a bottom. [Son oiEdwaL Camden might take 
it for LudwaL— W. D.] 

Luna, a town and port of Tuscany, from the Celtic Llwym 

LUNED (D. wp QwUym) ; perhaps the same with Elin, qu. ? 
See Muned. 

Lutatia, the ancient name of Paris in France, from the Celtic 
Llaidwysg or Laitusc, i, e., muddy water. 

LwLEN, dim. of Lowri. 

LwNDRYS, Londres, a Norman name of London ; as if you 
would say lAongdref, or the shipping town. See Llongddin. 

LwYT Coed. Caer Lwyt Coet (Triades) ; in Nennius, Caire 
Lwit Ooite ; in Dr. Thomas Williams' Catalogue, Caer Lwyd Coed, 
Lincoln. [Llwyd Coed: Llwyd o Lwyd Coed, Llangadfan. — 
—W. D.] 

Lymnos of Ptolemy : see Lleyn and Enlli. 



260 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Ltbrion. Caer Lyrrion. This is in the catalogue of the 
British cities in the Triades. In Nennius it is Oaire Lerian ; in 
Usher's catalogue, Caer Zeirion ; in some copies of the Triades^ 
CcterZmon, i. e., the city of the people of Uyr, t. e., Ilyrion ; but 
I presume it is the same vf ith Caer Llyr in Tyssilio, which he 
says Llyr built on the river Soram, and called by the Saxons 
Leyrcestyr ; now Leicester. Caer Lyr, Lyrcester. (Th. Williams, 
OatalogvA^ 

LL. 

Lladwm. 

Llaethnant, a river. 

Chwecbant hyd at Laethnant Iwyd. — Tudut Aled. 

Llafyr, father of Ussa, a.d. 943. (Oaradoc in Howel Dda.) 
Llai (fl.). AberUai. (Llywarch Hen) Qu. whether not Aher» 
llitv; or qu. whether Elay of Mordens Map, Glamorganshire, 
and Lay of Price's Description, if to be read Llai ? [Llai is the 
Welsh name of the river. — L M.] Coed y Llai in Flintshire, 
Englished Leasewood, as if wrote Llau, lice. Qu. whether there 
is a river Llai there ? Then it should be Lesswood or Greywood. 

Yn Aberllai lladd Urien. — Llywarch Hen. 

Pont ar Lai, Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here. 

Llamiwrch, a gentleman's seat. (/. D,) Moi^gan's. 

Llam Mwri, a place in Anglesey. 

Llambe, enw caseg Arthur. (E. Lhvyd,) 

Llam yr Ebol, a place in Anglesey. 

Llam yr Ewig, a place in Powysland. See Lbvchayam, 

Llan, an ancient Celtic word used in names of places in 
Britain, etc., and signifies a spot of ground or inclosed area for 
any use (as corlan, a sheepfold ; pcrllan, an orchard ; ydlan, a 
place of corn ; ffmnllan, a vineyard, etc.), but chiefly consecrated 
for a church, and is the same with the Latin fanum, a plat of 
consecrated groimd ; as, Llanvair, St. Mary's Church ; Llanbedr, 
St. Peter's Church ; Llandeilo, St. Teilo's Church, etc. And qu. 
whether Lambeth, on the river Thames, was called so for being 
St. Peter's Church (the Welsh calling it Llanbed to this day), 
and Languedoc in Gaul ? For Llanfair see Mair; Uandeilo, see 
Teilo; and so for the rest. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 261 

Llanamddtfri Castle, anno Domini 1204. 

Llanabthne. 

Llanbadabn, a collegiate church near Aberystwyth, a.d. 1144. 
John, archpriest of Llanbadam, sainted a.d. 1138. Sulien ap 
Bythmarch, of the College of Llanbadam, a.d. 1143. 

Llanbistair. 

Llanbleddian, a lordship in Morgannwg. [Llanbleiddian, in 
Welsh Llanfleiddan, a parish and lordship. In the laige and 
fine village stand the church and two castles in ruins. In this 
parish is the town of Cowbridge, with another church and a 
grammar school, a member of Jesus College in Oxford. Cow- 
bridge has two markets weekly, many fairs, quarter sessions, etc. 
At Aberthin, a village in this parish, Owain Glyndwr defeated 
the forces of Henry IV. Annual races. — L if.] 

Llaxdaf or Llandav, wrote in English Landaff, a town and 
bishop's see on the river Tav in Glamorganshire. The Cathedral 
is consecrated to St. Teilaw, once Bishop thereof ; and, as Cam- 
den says, erected by Germanus and Lupus when they suppressed 
the Pelagian Heresy, But here was an archbishopric before the 
time of Germanus. See Price's Defence. 

Llanddinam, a church and parish in Arwystli and Tre New- 
ydd Ynghedewain. Here Owain Gwynedd came to chastise 
Howel ap leuaf, a.d. 1162. 

Llanddtjlas, a church and parish (R.), from the river Dulas ; 
dedicated to St. Cymbryd. (B. Willis,) 

Llanddwy, in Breclmockshire. 

Meibion myr llenwyr Llanddwy, 

Meddiant teg mae iddynt hwy. — Bedo Phyltp Back, 

Llanddyn, a gentleman's seat. (J. D) 
Llandeilo Fawe, a town in Caermarthenshire. 
Llandudoch, a village in Pembrokeshire, on the river Teifi, 
between Cardigan and the sea. Here a battle was fought be« 
tween the sons of Cadivor ap Collwyn of Dyfed, Grufifudd ap 
Mredydd, and Rhys ap Tewdor, their lord, a.d. 1088. Rhys 
defeated them. Eneon fled to lestyn, lord of Morgannwc; 
which Eneon was the cause of bringing an army of Normans 
there, and had battle near Brecknockshire, where Rhys was 



262 CELTIC REMAINS. 

killed ; who, after assisting lestyn and Eneon, took possession 
of the country of Glamorgan, or Gwlad Forgan, and whose issue 
mixed with the Britons^ and remain there to this day. This 
happened a.d. 1090. {Oaradoc, p. 119.) 

Llandudwo. 

Llanegbyn. 

Llanbgwbst or Egwestl, an abbey called also Valle Cruets, 
built AD. 1200 by Madoc ap Gr. Maelor, lord of Maelor in Brom- 
field, near Llangollen. 

[LlanfeithTn, still standing, the College or Monastery of 
St. Cadoc ap Gwynlliw in liangarfan in Glamorganshire. It is 
mentioned by Aneurin in the Gododin, — L Mi] 

Llangadog Castle, ad. 1204. 

Llangarfan, Glamorgan. [See LlanfeUhin above. — L M.'\ 
Caradog or Cradog, the faithful and impartial author of the His- 
tory of the Princes of Wales, which he wrote by the order of 
-Galfrid Archdeacon of Monmouth, an. 1155, was of this place. 
Fairs kept here. 

[Nine villages in Llangarfan, viz., Llangarfan^ Pennon, Moel- 
dwyn, Ilanbydderi, Dangadell, Tre Gof, Tre Wallter, Castell 
Moel, and Heol Las. — I. M!\ 

Llangewydd [a village in the parish of Trelalys in Glamor- 
gan, where lived Uywelyn Sion o Langewydd, a very ingenious 
bard, author of the best treatise on Welsh poetry extant. — L if.] 

Llangoed, a parish and gentleman's seat in Anglesey. Wil* 
liams. Also a gentleman's seat in Brecon. Sir Edward WiUiams. 
See Oaihgoed. See Tanwyn Sant. 

Ilakgollen, in Denbighshire, where Sawyl ap Lly warch Hen 
was buried. 

Llangors, a castle in Brecknockshire, near Brecknock town. 

Llangwm, a church and parish in Roose, Pembrokeshire, 
where a battle was fought between Mredydd ap Owain and 
Edwal ap Meyric, ad. 992, and Tewdor Mawr slain. 

Llangwm Dinmael, a church and parish in Ehose Deanery 
in Denbighshire. 

Llangymwch Castle, erased by Llewelyn ap Grufifudd, a.d. 
1256. S. W. 

Llangwstenyn, in Creuthyn, near Conwy, a church where 



CELTIC REMAINS. 263 

the Abbots of Aberconwy and Cjrmer summoned King Henry III 
to appear before them by a commission from the Pope about a 
dispute between him and Dav. ap Llewelyn concerning the 
Principality of Wales. (Powel, Caradoc, p. 309.) But the King 
bribed the Pope. 

Llangynllo. 

Llanhafon. Qu. Llanhafon or Uanafon ? 

Llanhayaden, one of the two commots of Cantref y Coed, 
in Pembrokeshire. 

Llanhuadain, a castle burnt by Llewelyn ap lorwerth. 

A chan Haw lladwaw Llanhaiaden. — Einian ap Otogan. 

Llanllwch, Caermarthenshire. 

Llanllwchayarn (V.), in Cedewain, Powysland. 

Llan y Meichiab. 

Llanmeli, a gentleman's seat {J. D.), Denbighshire, qu. ? 

Llaknerch, a word prefixed to the names of places, signifying 
an area or spot, a bare spot. (D. ap Owilym) 

Llanerch, one of the commots of Cantref Dyffryn Clwyd. 
(Price, Bescr) 

Llannerch Bennaf. 

Llannerch y Clwydau. 

Llannerch Euron or Aeron, vulgo Llanychaeron, a place in 
Cardiganshire. 

Llannerch Hudol, one of the three commots of Cantref y 
Fymwy in Powys Wenwynwyn. 

Llannerch Felus. 

Llannerch y Medd, a market town in the middle of Anglesey 

Llannerch y Mor. 

Llannol, a place in Anglesey, in the parish of Llanbabo, where 
there is a stone called Maen Llannol with an inscription ; cor- 
ruptly for Maen Llineol, as Mr. Llwyd thinks. 

Llan Non. 

Llannor, a church in Lleyn. Qu. whether Lknfair or Llan- 
fawr or Llan lor ? 

Llanrhystyd, in Cardiganshire. A castle built here by Cad- 
waladr ap 6r. ap Cynan, a.d. 1148. {Caradoc, p. 201.) 

Llanrwst, a town in Denbighshire. Qu. from Grwst or Gw- 
rwst Sant ? 



264 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Llansawyl. 

Llansilin. (Tr. 63.) [A church and parish in Denbighshire. 
— W.R] 

Llanstephan Castle, Caermarthenshire. 

Llantkedafp, a church in Herefordshire. 

Llantrydbyd, the seat of Sir John Aubrey, ad. 1693 [and 
is so still. A fine, large, and very ancient house, lai^e park, 
etc. The house is in the parish and large village of Uan- 
tryddyd.— /. M.] 

Llantuit, or Boviarton ; some call it Llanelltud ; a lordship 
in Morgannwg. (Pawd.) See Camden in Iltudus. [Llantuit, an 
ancient town in Glamorgan ; in Welsh, Llanilltud Fawr. This 
is the name of the parish. Boverton (not Boviarton) is a large 
village in this parish, and gives name to the lordship. It is the 
Bovium of Antonine. Here is still standing a very ancient seat 
of the Lords Marchers of Glamorgan. In the town of Llan- 
illtud or Llantwit stands in ruin the College of Iltutus. In the 
church and churchyard are more ancient British inscriptions 
than are to be found anywhere else in Wales. There are in a 
neighbouring field four or five Boman and British camps. The 
place is famous for the longevity of its inhabitants. It stands 
in the Vale of Glamorgan, on the sea-shore. — I. M.] 

Llanvaes seems to be the old name of Beaumaris in Anglesey. 
" Daeth ystiwart llys Brenhyn Uychlyn a chwech herwlong gan- 
thaw hyd yn Llanvaes ac yspeiliaw y dref a'i Uosgi." {Otdyfr y 
Brut,) Here Llewelyn ap lorwerth. Prince of Wales, built a 
house of barefoot Friers over the grave of Jone his wife, daughter 
of King John, in the reign of Henry III, A.D. 1237, called now 
the Friers near Beaumaris. 

Llanvihangel Ysgeifiog, a church and parish in Anglesey. 
Qu. whether from ysgaw, a place of elders ; as Celynnog from 
cdyn, a place of hollies ? 

Llanvorda (from Mordaf). A collection of British MSS. here 
made by Sir W. Williams, chiefly copied out of Hengwrt MSS. 

Llanuftod : see Nefydd. 

Llanwanoc (qu. Llanwenog?), in Dyfed, near St. David^s, 
where a battle was fought between the Britons and Harold the 
Dane, ad. 981. (Powel, Garadoc, p. 65.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 265 

Llanychan, Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here. 

Llanynghenedl, a chapel and parish, Anglesey. 

Llanynys, a church and parish, Denbighshire. 

Llanystindwy, a parish, Caernarvonshire. 

Llary ap Casnar Wledig. 

Llathwryd, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire, (J. D.) 

Llawarian : vid. Arian. 

Llawdden, the father of Beren, who was Beuno's mother. 
(Beuno's Life.) 

Llawdden Lueddog, or Llewddyn Luyddog,o Ddinas Eiddun. 

Llawddiffro or Llawddino, the appellative of one Llofan 
that killed Urien ap Cynfarch. (Tr. 38.) 

Augerdd Urien is a gro 
Gennif cjrch ynad ymhob bro 
Yn wise Llofan Llawddi£fro. 

Llywarch Hen^ in Marwnad Urien ap Cynfarch. 

Llawddog Sant. Llanllawddog, Carmarthenshire. Qu. whether 
Lavdatus ? 

Llawesog, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.) 

Llawprodedd Farchog Coch (n. pr. v.). Cyllell Llawfrodedd 
Farchog, or the knife of Llawfrodedd the Knight, was one of the 
thirteen rarities of Britain. This knife would serve twenty-four 
men from one table to another, and when wanted was ready at 
the call of every one. The Bretons of France are allowed but one 
knife for each table, and that chained to the table. See Eluned, 
Buwch Llawfrodedd Farchog. (TV. y Meirch, 2.) 

Lla WGAT Trwm Bargawt Eidyn killed Afaon, son of Taliessin. 
In Mr. Vaughan's Index, Llowgat Trwm Bargot Eiddyn. (Tr. 38.) 
Some Scot of Edenbrough, it seems. 

Llawhir, generous; lit. longimanus, long-handed, perhaps 
liberal ; the epithet or surname of several men ; as, Caswallon 
Law Hir ; Angharad Lawir ; Aireol Lawir, etc^ etc. 

Llawr (n. pr. v.). Lljoiges Llawr mab Eirif, un o'r tair Llynges 
gyniweir. (Tr. 72.) This Llawr was admiral of some famous 
fleet of pirates, probably of the Lochlin men about the Baltic, 
that pestered the British coast. 

Llawr or Llafyr ap Llywarch Hen. Bwlch Uorion. 

34 



266 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Llawr Crach Feifod. Collwyn ap Llawr Crach. 

Llech, an ancient Celtic word in the composition of names of 
places, etc., signifying a stone^ or sometimes a flat Tock ; hence 
Uechgynvarwy in M&n; liecb Oronwy in Blaen Cynfad in 
Ardudwy. {Tr. 35.) Llech Ysgar. (TV.) Llech Ardudwy is 
Harlech in Meirion. Llech Elidir. {Tr.) Y Benllech in Anglesey. 
Hence also Leuca, a league ; that is, milestones among the 
Komans ; as much as to say, Llechau, i. e., stones. 

Llech, a river. Aberllech. {Llywarch Hen!) 

Llech Ardudwy. Caer Llech Ardudwy, now Harlech or 
Arlech town and castle, Meirion. 

Llkchau (n. pr. v.). Llechau, a son of King Arthur, was killed 
at Llongborth. (jD. Js., 1587.) 

Fal y lias Llechau is Llechysgar.— ^5Zeiiyn Fardd. (TV. 10.) 

[Llechau, afon ym Morganwg. — /. jl/.] 

Llechcynfarwy : see Cynfarwy, 

Llech y Drybedd, a cromlech, or Dniidical monument, or 
altar, in the parish of Nevern in Pembrokeshire. 

Llechddyfnog, one of the three cantrefs of Elfel. 

Llech Elidir, a place in North Britain ; also in Anglesey. 
See Penllech. 

Llecheu ap Brychan, in Llangayan (Tregaian, qu. ?). See 
Gayan. 

Llech Gelyddon yrahrydyn. (MS.) Nefydd ferch Brychan, 
gwraig Tudwal Befyr, Santes yn Llech Gelyddon ymhrydyn. 

Llech y Gowres, a monument near Neuadd in Cardiganshire, 
very curious. 

Llechid, 8ante8 yn Arllechwedd, merch Ithel Hael o Lydaw. 
(MS.) Llanllechid, Oaemarvonsliire. {B. Willis.) 

Llech Idris, in the parish of Trawsfynydd, Meirion, near 
which is a stone with a Latin inscription which hath been ill 
copied by Mr. B. Llwyd in his Notes on Camden. 

Llechog, a river : hence Mynachlog Lechog. 

Jjlechog, Mynachlog Maenan, the Abbey of Aherconwy. 
Here Llewelyn ap lorwerth was buried. 

Aethodd o fewn i wythawr 
Fynachlog Lechog i lawr. — T. Llwyd. 

Llechriddtawr, enw lie. [Llecheiddiawr. — IF. J).] 



CELTIC REMAINS. 267 

Llechryd, a place in Cardiganshire, on the river Teifi ; petli 
o arglwyddiaeth Syr Roger Vychan. Here a battle was fought 
between Rhys ap Tewdwr and the sons of Bleddyn ap Cynvyn, 
where Madoc and Riryd were killed, and the other fled. Rhys 
ap Tewdwr had in this battle a strong power of Irish and Scots 
which were in his pay, A.D. 1087. {Oaradoc in Gr. ap Cynan, 
p. 117.) 

Llechwedd (Y) Isa ag Ucha, cwniwdau. Madog ab larddwr 
o*r Llechwedd ; properly Arllechwedd. 

Llechwedd Llyfn, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) 

Llechysgar (n. 1.), the place where Llechau, the son of King 
Arthur, was killed. Llys Madog am Mhredydd. 

Bra nchel braint ar ddangos 

Lie trydar Llechysgar Uys. — Cynddelw, 

Lledr, a river near the town of Penmachno. See Machno and 

Siglvaen. 

Ai hwn yw V maen graen grynno llwydwyn 

Rhwng Lledr a Machno ? 

Geill dyn nnig ei siglo 

Ni chodai fil a chwedyn fo. — W. Cynwal, 

Lledbod or Lledbawd, a parish in Cardiganshire. 

Lledrot, a town near Oswaldstry, and a gentleman's seat. 
{J, D) (Powel, ChronicUy p. 3.) 

Lledwigan. Two villas or townships of this name in the 
commot of Malldraeth, in Anglesey, when the Extent was taken 
by Edward III, 1352 ; i. e., Lledwigan Llys and Lledwigan Llan. 

Lledwigan Llys, or belonging to the palace or prince, was called 
a free township, and yet paid the prince 268. \0d. yearly in 
money, with a suit to the commots and hundreds with relief, 
gobr and amobr, 10s. It contained but one wde under several 
coheirs who had a mill of their own. But there was Llewelyn 
ap Ednyfed, one of the coheirs of the said weU, who owed 
neither relief nor amobr either before or after the Conquest 
(meaning the Norman Conquest) ; but the others paid relief, 
gobr and amobr, lOs., when due. What, then, is a wele ? It is 
not a messuage. There was a hamlet of two boviats of land 
belonging to Lledwigan Uys, which paid JEl 1«. M, yearly, who 
owed suit to the prince's mill of Dindryfol and to the commot 



268 CELTIC REMAINS. 

and hundred, and also relief, gobr and amobr, with three boviats 
of escheat land which had been crau mvck (soccage tenure), but 
paid to the prince lid. a year ; so the lands in soccage tenure, 
it seems, were only to plough instead of rent. Howel ap Madog 
ap Ily welyri was sole heir of lledwigan Llan, or that held under 
the Church, and he owed no suit to the prince except an appear- 
ance at the first commot held after Michaelmas yearly {%. e., as 
we call it now, the court leet), but to other commots or hun- 
dreds neither relief nor amobr ; but he and all his villans were 
to attend the two grand turns yearly in lieu of all services. But 
Lledwigan y Llys, held under the prince, had heavy services 
though called a free village in the Extent. 

Lleenawc, father of Gwallawc, one of the tri phost cad. 
(Tr, 11.) 

Llefethyr, one of the three commots of Cantref Emlyn, Pem- 
brokeshire. 

Llefnydd, oue of the four commots of Cantref Gwent. See 
Gwent, 

Llefoed Wynebglawk, a poet. 

Lleian, verch Brychan, gwraig Gawran, a mam Ayddan 
Vradog, mentioned by Beda, jEdanus, 

Lleision (n. pr. v.). Lleision, abad Glyn Nedd. (Z. 01 CothL) 
Gwelygordd Lleisiawn. 

Lleision ap Philip ap Caradog ap Ehys. (ifS.) 

Lleision or Lleisiawn, a country or lordship in Powysland ; 
or qu. whether people of LlSs, mentioned in the eighth battle of 
Llewelyn ap lorwerth. See Gylch Llywelyn : 

Teymdud Lleisiawn ac alasswy dir i deym Dyganwy. 
Rhac Madawc mechdeyrn Lleisyawn. 

Gwalchmaiy i Mad. ap Meredydd. 

Lle Herbert, in the mountains of Meirionyddshire, where 
W. Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, passed with great difficulty to 
besiege Harlech Castle maintained by David ap Jenkin [leuan — 

• 

TF, D.] ap Einion against Edward IV siding with the house of 
Lancaster. 

Llbmenic, mab Mawan. {Tr. 11, No. 7.) Uemem'g ap Maon 
(n. pr. v.), (Tr,), un o'r tri trwyddedawg ag anfoddawg. {Tr, 71.) 
Llwmhunig ap Maon. {Br. Davies in Trwyddedawg.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 269 

LiiEiNiOG, a place in Cwmmwd Menai, Anglesey. Mredydd 
of Ueiniog ; and Lleiniog or liienog, near Beaumaris. 

Llen Arthur Ynghernyw a Dyfnaint, one of the thirteen 
rarities of Britain, i.«., King Arthur's veil. Whoever went under 
it could see, but would not be seen. See Eluned, 

Llenvodden. Meiriawn Llenvodden ap Boet. 

Lleon, called also Ueon Gawr, the 7th King of Britain. The 
British history says he was the founder of Caerlleon in the north 
of the island, which must be Caerlleon ar Ddyfrdwy, or else 
Leonis Castrum, which hath been called since the City of Legions, 
on the river Dee, and by the Saxons Legeacester. This in the 
Triades is called Caerlleon^ and by British writers and the poets 
Caerlleon Gawr ; Lleon Gawr signifying Ueon the Prince, and 
not the Giant, as is imagined by persons ignorant in the Celtic 
tongue. It is now called West Chester, on the river Dee. See 
Ogyrfan Gawr, BerUli Oaivr, etc. 

Llys llawr Lleon Gawr linn gwawr gwimpaf. 

Or. ap Mer. ap Dafyddy i'r Grog o Gaerlleon. 

But rather Holt or Lyons in Flintshire. 

Rhag ffalsed, rhag oered oedd 

Gaer Lleon Gawr a'i Unoedd. — L. 0, Cothi. 

Mae hwpp arvan mab hirfawr 
Mae llun gwych mal Lleon Gawr. 

S. Cerij i S. ap Rhys. 

Lleon (taid Iddic ap Llywarch) ap Cilmin Droedtu. 
Lleon Llychlyn, some Prince on the coast of the Baltic in 
alliance with the Britons. 

Mi fum Vardd Telyn 

I Leon Llychlyn. — Hartes Taliestin, 

Engil ar gychwyn 
Rbag Lleon Llychlyn. 

Lles (n. pr. v. ; Latinized Lucius. 

Lleiddawd ap Marchnad. {Ekys Goch Hryri.)- 

Llbs Amerawdr Rhufain. . {TyssiHo.) This, in Galfrid's 

Latin, is Lucius Tiberius, Procurator of the Republic. He 

was general of a Roman army in Gaul that fought with King 

Arthur and the Armoricans about the year 541. Others call 



270 CELTIC REMAINS. 

him Lucius Hiberue. The British writers use to call the gene- 
rals of armies by the titles of emperors and kings, and at that 
time Rome hardly knew its emperors. See Procopius. 

Lles ap Coel, the 79th King of Britain, said to be the first 
Christian King, and converted by Ffagan and Dwywan, two 
preachers sent by one Eleuther, a Pope of Rome. Usher pro- 
duces twenty-four different opinions of the time this Prince 
received the Christian faith. By Latin writers he is called 
iMciua; and by S. Beulan's note on N"ennius,Zet;erifa'M'r, which 
he interprets magni spUndoris, i. «., great light. But none of 
our writers in the .British tongue mention this cognomen of 
Lleufer Mawr. Bishop Lloyd is ready to give him up as never 
to have had a being, and he thinks Bede might find him in that 
mixen of fttble, the Gesta Pontificum. Some are so whimsical 
as to derive Ihe name from St. Luc's Gospel, and to deny the 
very being of Lucius ; but they should have shewed the affinity 
between Lles^ his real name, and Luke, for Lucius is only bastard 
Latin. 

It is the tradition of the churches of the Switzers and Grisons 
that he went to France and Germany to preach the Gospel, and 
is said to be consecrated Bishop of Chur or Coire, the capital 
province of the Grisons. There is an ancient monastery near 
the city of Chur which bears his name, and his feast is solemnly 
kept there, and his sister Emerita is honoured as virgin and 
martyr. {Brit. Sand,, Dec. 3.) 

This Lies ap Coel died, according to Tyssilio's British History, 
A.D. 156. See also tTsfier's Primord., p. 340. 

Lles Llaw Ddeoc. 

Llestr, and Morlestr, a ship or any sea vessel This word i» 
to be found in Doomsday Booh, in Cheshire, but corruptly wrote 
Lesth, an h for an r. " Quatuor d^narios de unoquoque Lesth 
habebant Rex et Comes.^' 

Lleuci, Lleucu, and Lleuc¥ (b. J». f.) ; Latinized Lucia. 

' Ynghylch dy dy Lleucy Llwyd 
A cblyd fnr a chlo dar* du 
A chliccied yn iach Lleucn. — Llewelyn Oock. 

Llehddai) Sant, (Latinized Laudattis), first Abbot of Enlli, as 
some say cousin-germam to Beuno. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 271 

Lleufkb Mawr, a cognamen. See Lies ap Coel. 

Llew (n. pr. v.), an ancient and a natural name enough for a 
British commander, if it be true that they painted the shapes of 
beasts and birds on their bodies. The name signifies a lion ; 
and the famous Prince Llew ap Cynfarch of North Britain, who 
married King Arthur's sister, should have been translated by 
Galfirid Leo, and not Lotho; but he hath often mistaken as well 
as here. Names of fierce or strong creatures were commonly 
given to men among the Britains ; as, Arth, a bear ; Blaidd, a 
wolf ; Gruff, a griphon ; Owalch, a hawk ; Uryr, an eagle ; March, 
a horse. 

Llew ap Cynfarch, King of Llychlyn (Norway, or some 
country near the Baltic). He was made King there by Arthur, 
his brother-in-law, being entitled to the crown in his mother's 
right. He married Anna, daughter of Uthur Bendragon, and 
sister of King Arthur, whose son Medrod claimed the crown of 
Britain because Arthur wa!^ not begot in wedlock. Gwalchmai, 
the other son of Anna, was, it seems, of another opinion, for he 
was one of King Arthur's chief generals, if both had the same 
father. His name should be translated into Latin, Leo; but I 
cannot tell for what reason Galfrid has made it Lot and Lotho, 
unless in order to make British histoiy tally with the Scotch ; 
perhaps a mistake for Llewddyn Luyddog o Ddinas Eiddun, 
who Mr. Ed. Llwyd Latinizes Leodinus Bellicosiis. But this was 
wrong : let every history stand on its own bottom, true or false. 

Llew, river. Old orthography, Lieu, 

Yn Aberllew lladd Urien. — Lhjwarch Hen, Marwnad Urien. 

Mr. Edward Llwyd reads it Llay. 

Llewelus and Llefelus (n. pr. v.), a King in Gaul, brother 
of Lludd ap Beli, King of Britain, and of Caswallon. {Tyssilio.) 
A dispute between him and Lludd, called Cyfrangc Lludd a 
Llewelys {MS.) ; by others, Ymarwar Lludd a Llewelus. {Lleiaelyn 
Fardd, i Ln. ap lorwerth.) 

Llewelyn or Llywelyn (n. pr. v.), generally Latinized Leoli- 
nns ; perhaps from llexo and euly7i, lion's form or lion-like, or 
else from llew and gelyn, lion's enemy. This name seems not to 
have been used till after the Romans left Britain. See Hoinnc 



272 CELTIC REMAINS. 

MyrddiD. The first Prince of this name was Llewelyn ap Seis- 
yllt. Math. Westminster mentions him in the year 940. 

It is also by the poets taken to be the same name with Lewis, 
as Lewis Glyn Oothi, the poet, is called Lly welyn Glyn Cothi ; 
and the sneer of an Anglesey gentleman on his countryman in 
Dublin, that had Anglified his name, explains it. 

Nnper lorwerth ap Llewelyn 
Nunc Ned Lewis o Dre DdulyD. 

Llewelyn ap Gruffudd was the last Prince of Wales of the 
ancient British races, betrayed into the hands of the English by 
his own subjects of Buellt and one Madog Min, a Bishop, in the 
year 1282, and his head put on the highest place of the Tower of 
London by Edward I. He was son of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn ap 
lorwerth Drwyndwn. 

Llywelyn ap Iorwerth Drwyndwn was a Prince of Wales 
that' bravely defended his country against Sichard I, King John, 
and Henry III. He is called by historians Leolinus Magnus. 
He began his reign, 1194; died, 1240 ; reigned fifty-six [forty- 
six] years. 

Llewei, or Llewmei, or Llowmai (n. f.). Llewei ferch Seith- 
wedd {Tr. 64) ; un o'r tair gwrforwyn, i. c, hermaphrodite. 

Llew Llawgyffes, mentioned Tr, 35 ; in a battle at Llech 
Oronwy in Blaen Cynfael, Meirion {Tr. 77), Llew Llaw Gyflfes 
and Gwdyon getting names and arms of Bhiarot y Fram. 

Lleweni Fawr Ynghegengl (n. 1.). 

Llewon. Caer Llewon, Holt, Flintshire, or Cc^tle of Lions, 
made by Jno. Barlow [Earl ?] Warren and William his soa But I 
think this is rather the old Caerlleon Gawr, or Llewon G«wr, 
which Camden has kept such a rout about, and not the city of 
Westchester, which T take to be a later thing, and perhaps built 
by the Romans. 

Lliana. Llanlliana, a chapel in Mdn. 

Lliaws (n. pr. v.), a very ancient British name. Lliaws mab 

Nwyfre o Arllechwedd {Tr. 40), father of Gwenwynwyn and 

Gwanar. 

Rhag colofn Lliaws maws mab Nwyfre. 

Frydydd y Moch, i Gr, ap Cyn. ap O. Gwynedd. 

See Choanar. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 273 

Llibio Sant. Llanllibio Chapel, Anglesey. 

Llieni. LlanUieni, the town of Lemster in Herefordshire ; in 
Latin, Leonminster and Leonis Monasterium, from a lion that 
appeared to King Merwald in a vision, and upon this he built a 
nunnery. (Leland, IHn,, MS,) But Camden says Uanlieni is in 
British a church of nuns. Some, says he, derive it from linum, 
flax, the best kind of which grows there. (Camden.) It is true that 
lleian in the British is a nun, and that the life of nuns is called 
lleianaeth ; but the plural of lleian is lleianod, and not lleiani ; so 
this etymology goes for nothing. To derive it from lliain, linen 
cloth, as some do, is as little to the purpose, for the plural of 
lliain is llidniau. We have Llanlliana in Anglesey, a chapel 
dedicated to St. Lliana, a woman ; but as the Oney river falls 
into the Wye at Lemster, might it not have been ZlanUiontvy, 
as Llanllyfni, Llangefni, etc., have their names from rivers ? 

Llienawg. Aber Llienawg in Anglesey, a castle built by 
Hugh Earl of Chester there. (Camden,) Eightly Lleiniog, qu. ? 

Llienog, father of Lloeger and Gwallog. This Lloeger is pro- 
bably the same name with the Irish Loegarius, son of Neill 
MaighialacL (FlaJierty, p. 394.) 

Llifon or Lliwon, a river in Anglesey, whence Cwmmwd 
Uifon has its name. Another river in Caernarvonshire, whence 
Glyn IJifon has its name. Llivon mentioned by Llywarch Hen : 

Pyll wyn pwyll t&n trwy Livon. — LI. Hen. 

Lligan or Llugan. Llanllugan, an abbey, once in the diocese 
of St. Asaph, deanery of Cedewain, and a nunnery. (A Willis.) 

Llion. Caer Llion, a market town on the river Wysc in Mon- 
mouthshire, sixteen mUes south-west of Monmouth. Some say 
it is called so from a legion of Eoman soldiers placed there. 
Nennius, in his Catalogue, hath a city called Caer Legion, to dis- 
tinguish it, I suppose, from Ca^ir Zleon, The poets have taken 
care to write this Caer Llion, and not Lleon, 

Am fi y nhref Oaerllion 
a'r ford gron. 

This Caerllion was the seat of the kings of Britain when they 
retreated over Severn, it being a city vying in pride for lofty 
towers, etc., with Bome itself, as Giraldus Cambrensis describes 

35 



274 CELTIC REMAINS. 

it. Here was the Archbishop of Wales'fl seat till it was, on 

account of the wars, removed to St. David's, and then Britany. 

Usher, in his OatcUofftie, calls it Caerlleon ar Wysg ; but if this 

city and Westchester came to be called Caer Legion from the 

Eoman legions quartered there, why are not all the Boman 

quarters called so ? 

The British writers say that this town was built by Beli ap 

Dyfnwal, and called Caerwysg ; but that after the coming of the 

Bomans, because they quartered there in the winter, it was 

called Caerlleon ar Wysg. {Tyssilio and Oalfrid.) The Legio 

Secunda Augusta, called also Britannica Secunda» were quartered 

here. (Camden.) 

Llio (n. pr. f.). 

Llio enrwallfc lliw arian 

Ar ikd Llio rhoed Uoweth 

A noblau anr yn ei bleth. — D, Nanmor, 

Llivan. Llyn Llivan (Tyssilio), a lake in Wales, said to be 
near the banks of the Severn, which on the flood ebbs or swal- 
lows all the water that comes into it, and on the ebb-tide vomits 
and overflows its banks. (Tyss,, Brit, MS,) This passage is ill 
translated by G-alfrid and Thompson. 

Lliw and Lyw (fl.), qu. whether Luguvallum ? 

Pell oddjman Aber Lliw. — Llytoarch Hen. 

Lliwelydd (n. pr. v.). Caer Lliwelydd, mentioned in Gor- 
hoflfedd Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd. 

Arglwydd nef a llawr gwawr Gwyndodydd 
Mor bell o Geri Gtier Liwelydd. 

Qu. -whether the Caer Ligualid of Nennius (Cotton copy) ? In 
the Cambridge copy, Caer Lualid. Usher makes it to be Lugu- 
vallia or Carlisle ; but this is not in the Triades, 

Lliwer ap Lly warch HSn. [Llywarch Hen) 

Lliwon, a river. 

A glan Uewod Glyn Lliwon. — TT. Lleyn. 
See Llifon, 

Llobliw. 

Llocrin Gawk, Locrinus, the son of Brutus, the 2nd King of 

Loegi'ia. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 275 

Lie doe yDOch Hid unawr 
Llai crynnai gas Llocrin Gawr. 

Tho8, Gwyneddf i Edwd. Gruffydd o*r Penrliyn. 
See Lloegr. 

Lloddi, qu. whether a man's name ? Marwnad lago ap Lloddi. 
{Taliessin, Arch. BrU,, p. 256.) 

Lloegr^ England, exclusive of Wales and Cornwall; from 
Lloegrin. Saxonum regionem. (K Llwyd.) 

Er ergryd angen rhag anghywir Loegyr 
Ni lygraf fy mawredd, ni ddihanaf rianedd. 

Llywarch Hen. 

Lloegr ap Llienog, in Zlyfr Du o Oaerfyrddin. {Arch, Brit., 
p. 261.) 

Lloegrin (n. pr. v.), Locrinus, the 2nd King of Britain ; 
Llocrin Gawr. 

Llobgrwys, the Loegrian Britons ; also the Saxons since in- 
habiting there. 

Yn y ddaw Lloegrwys drwy Dren. — Llywarch Hen, 

Llofan (n. pr. v.). Llofan Llawdino killed Urien ap Cyn- 
farch. (TV. 38.) See Llawddiffro. 

Llofion ; see Llowion. 

Llogawd, q. d. Lowgate, in Anglesey. 

Llongborth, a place mentioned in Marwnad Gereint ab Erbin 
by Llywarch Hen, where there was a sea-fight between Gereint 
and the Saxons, or a descent by sea, and where Gereint was 
killed. Some take it to be Llanborth in Cardiganshire ; but a 
sea-fight could not properly be there, nor Saxons to fight with. 
Gereint was one of King Arthur's three chief admirals, as 
appears by the Triadcs ; and I should rather think this Llong- 
borth to be Portsmouth, or some such great seaport in the pos- 
session of the Saxons, where a descent was made by this Gereint 
and his fleet, for the battle is plainly described to be on shore. 

Yn Llongborth gwelais drabludd 

Ar vain, brain ar goludd 

Ag ar grann cynrhan madrndd. 

And Gereint, in the same Marwnad, is said to be of Dyfnaiut, 
i. e., Devon and Cornwall. 



276 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Llongddin, in Latin Longidinium. {Edward Llwyd.) 

Lloniaw Sant. {B. Willis.) His church at lianddinam. 

Llonio ap Alan Ffrigan ap Emyr Llydaw. 

Llonwen, or Llofion, or Llonion (n. 1.), a place in Penfro 
noted for barley. 

Llorien. Bwlch Llorien mentioned by Llywarch Hen, where 
Llavur, son of Llywarch Hen, was buried. Qu. whether Lloren 
on the borders of Montgomeryshire ? 

Llowdden, a poet, 1450. 

Llowion, LLonoN, or Llonwen, a place in Pembrokeshire 
famous for barley. {Tr. 30.) 

Llowni (n. 1.). 

Lluarth. Brjm Lluarth. 

Pen bryn cun iawn dydd yr Ion 
Lluarth gwell na CbLaerlleon. 

Rhys ap Oynfrig Ooch. 

Lludd ap Beli Mawr, the 71st King of Britain, just before the 
Roman conquest, whose sons being under age on Julius Caesar's 
landing here, his brother Caswallon was chosen generalissimo of 
the British forces. Mr. Camden (in Middlesex, p. 312, Gibson's 
edition) calls him Luddus, and allows Ludgate to have been 
called after his name. JBut he often allows and disallows the 
same thing. One of the ancient names of London is Caerludd ; 
and the British history mentions a quarrel between his brothers 
and lludd for changing the ancient name of the city. 

\^* Ludgate (all the six gates of London then standing) h Luddo 
rege, omnium antiquissima, cujus nomen etiamnum hodie, supra 
portum incisum extat ; sive Flutgate quorundam opinione, k flu- 
violo subjecto (ut porta Fluentana Romae) nunc k regina Elisa- 
beths, renovata, cujus statua, ab altera quoque parte videtur." 
(Itinerarium Angliw, scriptum k Paulo Hentznero. Breslse, 1627. 
Scriptum a.d. 1598.)— ^.i>.] 

Lluddycca and Lluddocca ap Tudur Trefor. (J. D,) 

Lludlaw, Llwdlo, or Llwydlaw, Ludlow in Shropshire. See 
Dineu. 

Llueddog : see Elen Zueddog, 

Llug, a river which runs by Presteign and Lemster into the 
Wye. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 277 

Llugan. lAanllugan Ynghedewain. 

Llugwy or Lligwy, a river in Anglesey, and a gentleman^s 
seat. A river also that falls into Dyfi {k Hi or lltig and grvy) ; 
from Hug and ivy {E, Zlwyd), clear water. Rhos Ligwy ; Traeth 
Lligwy. 

lihJJ^yLuna, the moon ; in Irish luan ; hence a woman's name, 
Eiluned. 

Llundain and Llundein, London ; wrote in Triad 45 Llun- 
den, q. d. Llongddin, or slup-fort ; and so Llongborth, port of 
ships, is the ancient British name of Portsmouth, which I take 
to be the Londinis of the ancients (though I know Mr. Edw. 
Llwyd and Baxster make it to be Lyme.) The Gaulish name, 
Londres, which is almost literally Llongdref, i, e:, town of ships, 
shews it also to be of that original ; and nothing more plain and 
strong than the Londinium of Antoninus, or, as it is in the Naples 
MS., Longiduno, which is literally Llongddun or Llongddin. In 
Nennius it is called Caire Lunden ; in the Triades, Caer Lun- 
dein ; by Usher, Caer Ludd ; the Londonium and Longidiunum 
of the Romans. Its first name was Tro Newydd, or New Troy ; 
and the inhabitants were called by the Romans Trinobantes ; its 
next, Caer Beli ap Dyfnwal, i. e.] the City of Belius ; its next 
name, Caer Ludd, the City of Lludd ; and its next, Llongddin or 
Llundain. John Major says the Britons call it Londonias ; so 
little did this Scotchman know of our British history. 

Llwch, a lake, and in the Irish lough ; used in Brecknock 
and Caermarthenshire : hence came the name of Llwch Tawe, 
Ll\^ch Sawdde, Llwch Cyhirych, Llyn LlanUwch (qu. Uawn- 
llwch), Ted y Uychau, Llwch Garmon. 

Mr. Edward Llwyd calls this word Gwyddelian British ; but 
this word doth not prove that the Gwyddelian and the present 
British were different languages, no more than the South Wales 
and the North Wales people speak different languages, though 
the names of some things are different among them. It only 
shews they have been different dominions, and that each prince 
chose to have his subjects known by their dialects, when at the 
same time the language of the poets was the same. 

Llwchaiarn (n. pr. v.). There is a church dedicated to a 
saint of this name in the commot of Cedewain, near the Severn, 



278 CELTIC REMAINS. 

called Llanllwchaiarn. Sion Keri, a poet of that neighbourhood, 
who flourished about the year 1520, wrote a cywydd of the 
legend of this saint. He says he was son of Cynvael : 

Mae hap canfod mab Cynvael ; 

and that he was cousin-german of Beuno : 

Gefnder ith rodder o thrig 
Beano dyfal bendefig ; 

and that he had a church at Llam yr Ewig ; that he had been a 
bishop and a soldier ; and that he was an abbot of a bishoprick ; 
that he had heard the sound of bells at the place where he 
afterwards built his church and monastery ; that he made hira 
a shirt of hair which he wore nine months and nine days, pray- 
ing with his knees on the blue stone ; and that there he 
obtained nine petitions ; that the men and castle were his : 

DyQion da dinad oedd ; 
that his land was a sanctuary a^ much as Ynys Enlli : 

Seintwar y w dy ddaiar di. 

In regard to the pronunciation of his name he says, 

Llwchaiam wynn llawchwynn wyd. 
Again : 

Gwellhaech eaog Llwohaiam. 

He also mentions some dark story of a doe that leapt into a pool^ 
without destroying of which his people could not live. 

Ni chaid einioes ich dynion 
Heb roi cwymp ir ewig hon ; 

and there is a parish adjoining called Llam yr Ewig. 

Gair aeth draw gwyrtbiaa a drig 

Lie mawr y w Llam yr Ewig. — S, Keri. 

Llwch Garmon, Lacus Garmon, the haven oif Wexford ; in 
Irish called Loch Garmon. (Ogygia, p. 20.) 

Llwch y Lloi, in Irish Loch Laigh, i, e., Vituli Lacus ; a lake 
in Ulster in Ireland. 

Llwg, qu. whether a river ? Gwaunllwg and Gwenllwg in 
Glamorganshire. See Owentllwg. 

Llw YD, in the surnames of men and names [of places], signifies 
(jrcy colour. G wr LI wyd (literally a grey man) also signifies a vassal 



CELTIC REMAINS. 279 

or tenant, or one of the commonalty poorly dressed in grey, and 
that is not a gentleman ; and it is probable that Leudis, Zeudvs, 
and Leodis, among the French and Saxon writers, which meant 
the same thing, came from this, as also the Saxon lowt or loute, 
a rustic fellow ; and the passage in Chaucer of a leud man must 
be so understood : 

Blessed be the leud man 

That nonght save his belief can ; 

1. e., an illiterate, simple, poor countryman that doth not trouble 
himself with disputes about religion, and knows nothing but his 
creed. I know some learned men (Burton, etc.) urge against 
the authority of the British History, which says that Ludgate 
was so called from Lludd, a king of Britain ; but that Ludgate 
was so called because it was Leodgate, the people^ s gate, for that 
Uod in Saxon signifies the people. Is not this stretching hard, 
and drawing language and sense by the hair of the head to be an 
evidence against an ancient national history that positively says 
It was so called from Lludd ? And without any one author in 
the world to back this evidence, or even common sense, for was 
there ever heard of a gate of a city that was not the people's 
gate ? But if these hot-headed authors were only to consider 
that London had its walls and gates before the Saxons or Saxon 
language had anything to do with giving names to gates there, 
it would save these kinds of lame guesses. 

Llwyd is also used in cognomens: Llyr Llwyd; lorwerth 
Fynglwyd. In family surnames : Edward Llwyd ; Humphrey 
Llwyd ; and by corruption and pride wrote Lloyd, Loyde, Floyd, 
and Flyde. Ithel Llwyd ap Ithel Gethin; Dafydd Llwyd. 
Places : y Berth Lwyd ; Cae liwyd ; Caer Lwydcoed {Tyssilio) ; 
Llwydiarth ; y Ty Llwyd ; y Cefn Llwyd ; y Bryn Llwyd ; CU 
Manllwyd ; y Greiglwyd ; y Garreglwyd, a gentleman's seat. 

Llwydiabth or Llwtddiarth, enw lie ym Mon ag yn Meir- 
ionydd [Nlirefaldwyn — W. JD,] ; q. d. Garth Lwyd. 

Llwydion Sant. The church of Heneglwys dedicated to Sant 
or Saint Llwydion. 

Llwyddog : see Elen Lmyddo^, 

Llwyn, literally a bush or grove, is put to the names of several 
places in Britain; as, Trysglwyn; liwyn Gwryl; Llwyn y 



280 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Graws; Llw3m lorwerth; Llwyn y Piod; liwyn Dyrys; y 
Ilwyn Glas; Derlwyn; Llwyn y Maen; Llwyn Gronwy; 
Llwyn y Gog ; Llwyn Arth ; Llwyn Melyn, a gentleman^s seat ; 
Dyryslw3m; Derwlwyn, a gentleman's seat; Llwyn Deri, a 
gentleman's seat ; Llwyn Dafydd ; Llwyn y Chwilbo. 

Llwyn y Cnottiau, a gentleman's seat. (J". D,) Lloyd. 

Llwyn Dafydd. Gwaith Llwyn Dafydd, a place in Cardi- 
ganshire. {D, ap leuan Du.) 

Llwyn Dolwen, a gentleman's seat. {J. 2>.) 

Llwyn Dyrys, in Egremond, Penbrokeshire. 

Llwyn Egryn, a gentleman's seat in Mouldale. («/'. D.) See 
Llav^egryn. 

Llwyn Gwern, a gentleman's seat, Meirion. 

Llwythlawb, an abbey whose abbot, Gwigene, was killed by 
Cynan ab Owen Gwynedd, a.d. 1168. 

Llwythonwg (n. loci), i. OL Oothi. 

Llwyvain. Gwaith Argoed Llwyfain, a battle fought between 
Mamddwyn, the Saxon general, and Urien Beged, King of Cum- 
bria, with his auxiliary, Ceneu ap Coel, who led the northern 
men, and Owein ap Urien, who was Urien's general, where 
Urien obtained the victory. Llywelyn ap lorwerth fought a 
battle at this place too. (Einion up Gwgan) 

A mi ddisgoganaf cad Coed Llwyfain. — Myrddin. 

Llychlyn, the Baltic Sea. 

Llychlynwyr, Danes, Norwegians, Normans, and all nations 
that bordered on the Baltic. Gwyr Llychlyn Ddu, which the 
Irish called Dubh Lochlonnach, the black nation or black Loch- 
lin men ; and Ffion Lochlonnach (Finlochlunion), or white 
Lochlin men, people of Finland. All these nations were by the 
Britons called Llychlynwyr and Nortmyn. 

Beth OS daw heibiaw bebom 
I'r Traeth Goch lynges droch drom P - 
Pwy a ludd werin, pwl ym, 
Llychlyn a'u bwyall awchlym ? 

Manvnad Tudur ap Gronwy. 

In the year 987 these Danes came and destroyed the religious 
houses in South Wales, and to get rid of them Meredudd ap Owain 



CELTIC REMA INS. 281 

ap H. Dda was obliged to pay them a penny for every man 
within his land, which waa called the tribute of the Black Army. 
{Oaradoc, p. 71.) 

Llychwael ap Bran ap Prydu. 

Llychwr [Leiicarum, is in Glamorgan, east of Llychwr river, 
and called Castell Llychwr, a borough town — /. M.], a river in 
Caermarthenshire (the Leucarum of the Romans, qu. ?); in Eng- 
lish, Loghor. It falls into the sea at Bury, near Worme's Head. 
Aberllychwr. 

Llydanwyn. Elidir Lydanwyn. 

Llydaw (old orthography, Uedaw), the country of Armorica 
in France, part of which now called Little Britain, called in the 
Gaulish tongue Ar y Mor Uchay i. e., on the upper sea. H. Llwyd 
says it was called Llydaw quasi Litoris Gallicani regio. (JBrit, 
DescT,, p. 14, ed. 1731.) But is it not more probable that it was 
80 called by the insular Britons in their dialect for the same 
reason as the Gauls called it Ar y Mor Ucha, from Lied and aw, 
Lledaw, i, e,, on the water-side ? Hence litus, the sea-shore. 

There are diflPerent opinions about the time the colony of 
insular Britons first settled there. Eadulph Niger says in the 
time of Constantius Chlorus ; William of Malmsbury says it 
was in the time of his son, Constantine the Great ; Neunius and 
Tyssilio say it was in the time of Maximus the Tyrant ; but the 
French writers and some English will not allow them to be 
ancienter than the time of Childeric, which was after the Saxons 
came into Britain. All these might be true as to colonies going 
there at these different times, though the first might settle 
there among the old Gauls in Constantius' time. Verfcot labours 
hard to invalidate all but that after the Saxons* coming. 

O Lydaw o draw o drwy mor Hafren 
Hyfriw ei beleidr ymhorthaethwy. 

Prydydd y Mock, i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

Llydaweg, lingua Armorica, 

Llyfeni or Lleveni (fl.) ; hence Aber Lleveni in Meirion ; 
perhaps Llwyfeni. 

Llyfnant river, or Llyfnnant, or Llifnant, the boundary 

between Cardiganshire and Montgomeryshire, falls into Dyfi 

river. 

36 



282 CELTIC KEMATNS. 

Llyfni (fl.), in Caernarvonshire [and in Glamorgan — /. if.], 
at Llanllyfni, a church and parish. Another that falls into the 
Wye, which Camden calls Lleweny, and thinks the city Loven- 
tium was where Ilyn Savathan is. 

Llofn anr ynglan Llyfni wyd. 

Hywel Lafif i Ph. Thomas o Langoed. 

Llyffant (Ffynnon y), a lake in Eryri. 

Llygad Gwr, a poet of Edeiniion. {Marvmad Trahaern.) 

Llygliw. Einion Vychan ap Einion Lygliw. 

Llygod (Ynys), an island near Anglesey, where monks 
resided who were kept in order by mice. 

Llyn. Caer Llyn (Triades); qu. whether Lnncaster, from 
Lune river, now Lancaster, which some write Longcaster. See 
Zleyn. 

Llyn Archaeddon, a small lake on the top of Bodavon 
Mountain in Anglesey. 

Rbed uwch Llyn i'w herbyn hi 
Archaoddon, eiriach weiddi. — P. ap Edmund. 

One would suspect that this mountain was anciently called 

Myriydd Bodaeddon, and not Bodavon, but that the same writer 

says 

Dyfal yngwern Bodavon. 

See Aeddon and Treaeddon. 

Llyn Cawellyn, a lake in Eiyri. 

Llyn Crafnant, a lake in Eryri. 

Llyn Decwyn Uchaf, in Meirion ; a town swallowed up. 

Llyn Dulyn, a lake in Eryri 

Llyn y Dywarchen, a lake in Eryri. 

Llyn Eigiau, a lake in Eryri. 

Llynghedwy ap Llywarch Hen. 

Llynghesawl Llaw Hael, father of Treul DifefyL {Triad. 
No. 5.) 

Llyngwyn (Y), a pool in Radnorshire, where tradition says a 
town was swallowed up. 

Llyn Llanllwch, in Caermarthenshire, where tradition says 
a town was swallowed up. 

Llynlleodd or Llynllo, a place near Machynllaeth ; perhaps 
Llyrdlaeth : as Cynllaetli, Ystum Llaeth. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 283 

Llyn Llydaw, a lake in Eryri ; q. d. Ilwydaw. 

Llyn Llynclys, in Shropshire [near Oswestry — W. D.]; a town 
swallowed up. 

Llynon, a house near Llanddeusant in Anglesey, named from 
a lake Llyn Onn, q. d. Ash PooL 

Llyn Peris, a lake in Eryri [near Llanberis. — W, 2>.]. 

Llyn Tegid, a lake near Bala in Meirionyddshire, called in 
English Pimble Mear, and by Mr. Camden corruptly Plenlyn 
Mear, for Penllyn Mear, it lying in Penllyn, one of three can- 
trefs of Meirionydd, which took its name from the pool. Mr. 
Charles Edwards, in Hanes y Ffydd, fancies it sounds like the 
Greek words Limne Oataigidos, 

The river Dee runs into it, and retains its name on a water 
that comes out of it ; but I cannot answer for what Mr. Camden 
says, that it passes through it entirely and unmixed, carrying 
out the same quantity of water it brought in. If Jeffrey of 
Monmouth had made such a blundering puff as this, he would 
have been knocked in the head for it by Mr. Camden. The 
lake is about three miles long, and about a mile broad ; and 
you may judge whether a small river of three or four yards 
wide can pass through all that water without mixing with it. 

■ 

The river Ex in Devonshire may as easily run over to Normandy 
without mixing with the sea. 

Llyn Teirn, a lake in Eryri. 

Llymonyw. Uyn Uymonyw (Tyssilio) ; probably a mistake 
for Llymonwy (perhaps Lomond Lake in Scotland). It is said 
in that MS. to have in it sixty islands, and sixty rivers ran into 
it, and it had sixty rocks with eagles' nests in them. Here King 
Arthur besieged the Picts and Scots who had fled there after a 
defeat, and starved them, so that the clergy of Scotland came 
and petitioned him to save their lives. 

This river gives name, in Latin, to Levinia, contr. Lennos 
and Lenox, near Dunbritton, and is called by the natives Lea- 
vuin {Ogygia, p. 383), as if you would say Llifwyn, i. e., white 
flood ; but probably Llymonwy is the right name, as rising from 
a mountain called Llumon, if it doth. One river runs out of it. 

Llyk (nom. prop. viri). 

Llyr, the 10th King of Britain ; hence Caer Lyr, Leirchester. 
He is Latinized Leirus, qu. ? The father of Bendigaid Fran. 



284 CELTIC REMAINS. 

LLYit ap Brycliwel Powys. 

Llyr Llediaith, father of Manawydan. {Tr. 14 and 50.) See 
Branwen, 

Llyr Llwyd and Llye Merini ap Einion Yrth. 

Llyr Llyddawc, one of the three knights of war. (TV. 23.) 

Llyr Merini (n. pr. v.). Tr. 69. 

Llyr, a river in Cardiganshire (E, Lbvyd), qu. ? 

Llyr, the sea. Mr. Edw. Llwyd says that llyVy mar, mSr, and 
mor, signified anciently water as well as sea, whence Llyr and 
Leri in Cardiganshire, and Loire in France. {Letter to Nicolson.) 
There is no manner of reason to derive the name of Leri from 
water, no more than any other river. The word was wrote 
anciently Eleri, and the harbour on the mouth of it, Abereleri ; 
a gentleman's seat on it, Glan Eleri. So some other more rational 
derivation must be found. See Eleri. Llyr river might have 
its name from a man, as there were. men of that name, as we 
know several rivers have, as Meurig, Einion. 

Llyr signified also the sea in the time of Myrddin Wyllt, about 
A.D. 570, who says in his Hoiane, 

Er gwaith Arderydd mi ni'm dorbi 
Cyn syrthiai awyp i lawr lAxfr Enlli. 

A nunnery at Llan Llyr (Cywydd i ofyn Ab gan Th... dros 
Annes, Abades Llan Llyr). {Htiw Cae Llwyd) 

DAm Annes sy'n djmnnaw, etc. 
See M6r. 
Llys, a palace, court, hall ; used in composition of names : y 

Gadlys, in Anglesey ; yr Henllys, in Anglesey, a gentleman's 

seat, — Jones; Llys Ednywain ap Bradwen; Llys Maelgwn; Llys 

Mathravel; Llysdin Hunydd, in Tegengl; Llyssin, in Powys; 

Llys Maes yr Henllys, in Llangerniw. 

Llys y Cul, in lai, a township. (J. D) 

Llys Dulas, a gentleman's seat in Anglesey ; qu. whose llys 
anciently ? 

Llys Elis ap Glanmor, near Conwy, on Lavan Sands, over- 
flown by the sea, as tradition has it, and buildings are pretended 
to have been seen unddr water. 

Llysfaen, a parish and church in Caernarvonshire, part of 
Ehos deanery, in Denbighsliire, dedicated to St. Cynfran. {Dr. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 285 

Powel) [" Rhad Duw a Chynfran Iwyd ar y da," etc. — W. 2?.] 
[Llys/aen, a parish and church in Glamorgan, where lived the 
ancestors of Oliver Cromwell. — L M,] 

Llysfasi, a gentleman^s seat near Euthyn. 

Llys Llivon, in Anglesey, the seat of Hwva ap Cynddelw. 
(J. D.) 

Llys yn Llundain (Y), the king's palace in London. 

Gelyn traws ryfel tros Rnfain yd wys 

Tros y Llys yn Llandain. — OynddelWy i Yw. Cyfeiliog. 

Llyswynaf, q. d. Llys Wynaf, a cantref of Powys Wenwyn- 
wyn containing the commots of Caereinion and Mechain uwch 
Coed. Qu. whether hence Gorsedd Orwynion ? {Llywarch Hen,) 

Llyssyn, a place in Powys mentioned in the 9th battle of 
Ilywelyn ap lorwerth. See Cylck Llywelyn, 

Pebyllwys fy lly w yn Llyssyn dref fad 
Am drefred Wenwynwyn 
Clawr Powys, etc. 

Llyw, a river that falls into the Llychwr at Loghor town. 
This, I suppose, was Llywarch Hen's Aberllyw, the British name 
of Leucarum. Another Llyw [falls] into Llyn Tegid. 

Llywarch ap Bran, lord of Cwmmwd Menai in Anglesey, one 
of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, lived in Porth Amal. 
{Mon, Ant,, p. 130, 131.) Bore argent,B, cheveron sable between 
three rooks with ermine in their bills. 

Llywakch Gogh. 

Llywarch Hen (Lat. Lomarchus) ab Elidir Lydanwyn ap 
Meirchion ab Grwst ab Ceneu ap Coel Godebog. (ArchceoL Brit., 
p. 259.) In the genealogical tables, Llywarch Hen ap Elidir 
Lydanwyn ab Meirchion Gul ab Grwst Ledlwm ap Edeym ab 
Padam Beisrudd ab Cenau ab Coel Godebog. A Prince of 
North Britain (Cumberland, says E. Llwyd), an excellent poet, 
and a great soldier, one of King Arthur's chief counsellors. (JV.) 
He had twenty-four sons, and all of them killed in the wars 
with the Irish, Saxons, and Picts, and in the civil wars among 
the Britons themselves. He was buried at Llanfor, near Bala, 
where there is in the window of the church a stone with an 
inscription (/. P. P.). Few Princes besides him and Howel ap 
Owain Gwynedd have described their own wars in verse. He 



286 CELTIC REMAINS. 

was old in the time of King Arthur, and had been drove out of 
his country by the Saxons. Some make him a Cumbrian Prince. 
D. Jo. says, " dyedd Scotland'^ and that five of his sons had 
gained the gold chain, the torques, " Pump o honynt yn aurdorch- 
awg.^' 

Llywarch Hen's sons killed in the Saxon wars [mentioned] in 
his poem : Gwen, Pyll, Selyf, Sandde, Maen, Madog, Medel or 
Meddel, Heilyn, Llawr or Llafur, Lliwer, Sawyl, Ilyngheddwy 
or Llygedwy, and GwSll. He had also Cenllug, Llawenydd, 
Cenau, Urien, Nudd, Deigr, Gorwynion, Dilig, Nefydd, Diwg, 
Mychydd ; and three daughters, Rhyell, Cainfron, and Ehagaw. 

Llywarch Hen, un o'r tri thrwyddedawg ag anfoddawg (Tr.71); 
un o'r tri Uedd unben {Tr, 14) ; Cynghoriad farchog. (Tr, 86.) 

Llywahch Howlbwrch. 

Llyth. Deinis Lyth ap Cadwr. 

Llyth Haiarn. Ilanllythaiam, plwy ; vxdgo Llychaiam. 

Llywel, Brecknockshire, qu. river ? Blaen Uy wel. Selydach 
in Llywel. Trecast^ll in Llywel. Fairs kept there. 

Llyweni, a place in Denbighshire. 

Lie mae gyda Hew ai medd 

Llyweni a boll Wynedd. — D, ap Edmumd, 

Llywri ap Cynan Cilcelph. 
Llywyn Sant o Lydaw. 

M. 

Mabedryd, where Llywelyn ap Torwerth came with an army 
against W. Marshal, Earl of Pembroka Caermarddeusliire, qu. ? 
(Powel, CaradoCy p. 283.) 

Mabgla or Mapglaf ap Llywarch, qu. ? 

Mabinogi [pL -ion — W. i>.], the name of an ancient MS. of 
British history once in Hengwrt Library ; quoted by Mr. Robert 
Vaughan in British Antiquities, Mr. Edward Dwyd mentions 
a British romance under this title. {Arch Brit, p. 262.) 

Mabli verch Davydd Llwyd ap Howel. 

Mabon (n. pr. v.). Llanvabon in Glamorganshire. 

Mabon o'r Creuddyn. 

Mabon ap Dewenhen, the husband of the chaste Emerchret. 
{Tr, 55.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 287 

Mabon ap Tegonwy. 

Mabwynion, a lordship or manor in Ceredigion. Tlie castle 
is called in Powel's Caradoc the Castle of the Sons of Winnion, 
which is a mistake. 

Mawr a wnaf, myn Mair a Non, 

O Bennardd a Mabwynion. — Beio ap leuan Du, 

Mabwys, a house in Ceretica. 

Machawy, a river in Brecknockshire, falls into Gwy. Here 
a great battle was fought, a.d. 1145, called Gwaith Machawy, 
between Gr. ap Llewelyn and Bandulph Earl of Hereford, and 
the English Bishop was killed by Llewelyn. 

A mi ddiBgoganaf Gwaith Machawy 
Adfjdd geloraa rhadd yn rhiw dydmwy. 

Hoiane Myrddin. 
See Gwaith Machawy and Bachwy. 

Mache, a parish, Monmouthshire, qu. ? [Machen or Mechain. 
The inhabitants always say Mechain. — I. M,] 

Machno, a river : hence Penmachno. See Lledr, 

Machraeth or Machreth. Llanyachraeth in Mon and 
Meirion. Lat. Macainivs, qu. ? 

Machutus or Mechell Sant. Llanvechell in Anglesey. His 
life is in John of Tinmouth, the Libr. of Fleury, etc. Machutus 
or Maclou was son of Went, a noble Briton, by his wife Arwela, 
sister to Amon, the father to St. Sampson and to Umbravel, the 
father of St. Maglorius, born in the vale of Llancarvan in Gla- 
morganshire, in the church of the Monastery of St. Cadoc, where 
the Abbot St. Brendan presided, who, after he had brought him 
up, ordained him priest. Hence he passed over to Armorica, 
and turned hermit. ludicael. King of Armorica, forced him to 
be Bishop of Aleth, the see of which, from his name, was called 
St. Malo. Here he was Bishop forty years, and worked miracles. 
A party rising against him, he was obliged to retire to Aquitain, 
to Bishop Leontius of Saintes, and there remained seven 
years. He excommunicated the people of Aleth, and they had 
no rain, and famine followed the drowth. They repented, and 
called him home; and as soon as he entered the land he brought 
them rain, etc. He went to Bishop Leontius to end his days. 



288 CELTIC REMAINS. 

where he died a.d. 630, about 130 year old. {Brit. Sand., Nov. 
15.) 

In the churchyard of Penrhos Lligwy, in Anglesey, there is a 
stone with this inscription: Hic iacit macvtvs ecceti, which 
some think is the grave of this saint. (Mona Antiqua.) So that 
it seems our Anglesey Macutus, to whom the church of Uan- 
vechell is dedicated, was not Machutus, Bishop of St. Malo. 

Machynllaeth, a town and church in Montgomeryshire, in 
the lordship of Cjoillaeth (q. d. Bach Cynllaeth), one of the 
parishes of the deanery of Cyfeiliog. It is probable the river 
Dyfi was anciently called Llaeth (milk), as it should seem by 
the Cynllaeth, and the name of a curve of that river, Carreg 
Ystum Llaeth. The town is situated near the river Dyfi (Dovey). 
Camden thinks it to be the Maglona of the Bomans, where, 
under the Emperor Theodosius the Younger, the prabfect of the 
Solensians lay in garrison under the Ihix Britannice. 

Macmorwch, the name of an Irish prince or general men- 
tioned by lolo Goch, a.d. 1400. 

Q^yrxMBi fujysmant^ bid trychant trwch 
Maccwy mawr a Macmorwch. 

loh Oochy i Syr Roger Mortimer, E. of Marcb. 

Macsen Wledig, the 91st King of Britain. This is Maxi- 
mus the Emperor, or Maximinianus. 

Cy wlad loes moes Mazsen. 

Cynddelw, i Yw. Cyfeiliog. 

Mad. 

Madlb, Bewdley. Madle, i. e,, Bonus locus. ( Vita Sti. David. 
Ep. Menev.) 

Madog or Madoc (n. pr. v.), from mdd, good,i.e., goodly. Seve- 
ral noted Britons in history of this name. Allt Vadog ; Gelli 
Vadog, etc. 

Madog Gloddaith. 

Madog o*r Hendwr. 

Madog ap Idnerth died a.d. 1148. 

Madoc ap Lloegrin was the 3rd King of Brutus' race, accord- 
ing to Tyssilio. 

Madog Min, a Bishop of Bangor, who betrayed Llewelyn ap 
Gruffydd into the hands of his enemies at Buellt. ( W. J. MSS. 

^ Ambushment. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 289 

at Earl of Macclesfield.) But Einiawn was that year Bishop of 
Bangor. (B. Willis.) 

Madog ap Mredydd ap Bleddyn, King of Powys, died a.d. 1160. 

Madog ap Owen Gwynedd, 1169. 

Madoc ap Uthur, brother of King Arthur. (TV. 82.) 

Madogion, the people and land of Madog. The tenants or 
slaves were as much a freehold as the lands. (Gwelygorddau 
Fowys.) 

Madogyn (dim. h. Madog). Gwridyn ap Madogyn. Ty Wridyn 
ap Madogyn, a place in Anglesey. 

Madren verch Gothevyr Frenin ; in another place it is Gwr- 
theym Frenin. 

Madrik or Madryn, a gentleman's seat* near Cam Madrin in 
Lleyn. Wm. Bodvel, Esq. Q. d. Madfryn, ♦. e., Good Hill. 
Hinc John Madrun. 

Maed, or perhaps MM (fl.) ; hence Abermaed in Ceretica, a 
house on the fall of Mad into Ystwyth. 

Mael (n. pr. v.), brother of Membjrr, King of Britain. In 
names of places : Gwrthmael, a gentleman^s seat ; Brychfael ; 
Dinmael ; Cynmael or Cinmael ; Maelienydd. 

Mael, lord of Maelienydd ; called also Mael Maelienydd ap 
Cadfael ap Clydawc ap Cadell ap Rhodri Mawr. («/". D., Geneal.) 

Mael ap Bleddyn o Feirionydd. {MS) Hence Maelienydd. 

Mael o Lydaw. 

Maeldaf (n. pr. v.) : see Traeth Maelgvm. 

Maelderw (n. pr. v.). Gwarchan Maelderw o waith Taliessin. 
The same with Derfael. (E, Llwyd.) 

Maeleri, base son to Ywain Cyfeiliog, lord of liannerch 
Hudol and Broniarth. {J. D) 

Maelgan Sant (neu Baglan or Maglan) Ynghoedalun. 

Maelgwn (n. pr. v.) ; Latinized Maelocunus ; corruptly Mag- 
locunus ; id. quod Cynfael. {E. Llwyd,) 

Maelgwn Gwynedd ap Cadwallon Law Hir ap Einion Yrth 
ap Cunedda Wledig. Maelgwn was first a Prince of Gwynedd, 
and afterwards the 104th King of Britain. He is, for his great 
valour, called by Gildas the Island Dragon. That angry monk 
could not afford him a good word, for Maelgwn held the crown 
as next relation to Arthur; but Gildas was son of Caw o 

37 



290 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Brydyn (i. e., Scotland) ; and Medrod's sons, who were slain 
before the altar by Constantino of Cornwall, were Gildas' 
nephews ; and no wonder he scolds and abuses the other party 
which prevailed. In this Prince's time the famous poets Talies- 
sin and Myrddin Wyllt flourished. In Latin he is called Mal- 
gunus Gwynedus, Malgunus, Malgonus, Maglocunus, Malgon, 
Mailgunus, Mailgon, Mailcunus Magnus (Nennius), Malconus 
Magnus in Vita S. Catod. (B. Vaiighan) 

There are edso mentioned in Nennius some names of persons 
cotemporary with Maelgwn, who it is impossible to make out, 
having been botched by transcribers ; such as Dutigern, who 
stoutly fought the Saxons ; and of poets, — Talhaern Tatanguen, 
Kaieuin (Aneurin), Taliessin, Bluchbar, Cian or Gueinth Guaut 
(Gweydd Gwawd). 

Maelgwyn, or rather Maelgwn. 

Maelgynig, belonging to Maelgwn. {Breiniau Powys^ 

Calchaidd en caeroedd cylcbwy Maelgynig. 

Trydydd y Mochy i Ln. ap lorwertb. 

Maelienydd or Melienydd, and by English writers Melien- 
yth (so called from Mael ap Bleddyn), one of the four cantrefs 
between the Wye and the Severn, formerly belonging to Math- 
rafael or the Principality of Powys, containing the commots of 
Ceri, Swydd y Gro, Ehiwalallt, and Glyn leithon. (Price^s Descr,) 
Camden says it is called Melienydd from the yellowish moun- 
tains and barren 

Mael Mynan ap Selyf Sarph Cadeu (Mael ap Mynygan, sed 

qu. ?) ap Cynan Warwyn ap Brychfael Ysgithrog. 

Maeloegr. 

Tau hyd ymylan Maeloegr 

Biaa*r lie gorau yn Lloegr. 

Maelog Sant. Llanvaelog, Anglesey. Son of Caw o Brydyn, 
and brother of Gildas, Gallgo, Eigred, Howel or Huail, and their 
sister Dona. See Gildas. 

Maelog Grwm, lord of Uechwedd Isa, one of the Fifteen 
Tribes of North Wales, ad. 1172 ; bore argent, on a cheveron saile 
three seraphims or, 

Maelor, lands in Powys Vadog. GrufFudd Maelor, lord of 



CELTIC REMAINS. 291 

Biomfield/ had the two Maelors and Mochuant is Bhaiadr. 
Maelor Gymraeg in Denbighshire, and Maelor Saesnig in Flint- 
shire. {PoweL) See Madoron. 

Maelobon, the two Maelors, two commots in Cantref Uwch- 
nant; from Maelor ap Gwran ap Cunedda Wledig. Maelor 
Gymraeg is in Denbighshire, and Maelor Saesnig is in Flintshire. 
(Note on Price's Description, W.'s edit.) 

Maelrhys Sant Uanvaelrhys in the parish of Aberdaron, qii.? 

Maen, an ancient Celtic word in the names of places, signify- 
ing a stone ; as, Maen Addwyn {Proph) ; Maen Meudwy ; y Maen 
Du'n Llanfair {Tr. 30); y Maen Gwyn, Meirion ; Maen Arthur ; 
Maen Twrog (n. L), i. e,, Twrog's Stone ; Maen Gwynedd ; Maen 
y Cenawon ; Uysfaen ; Bodfaen ; Maen Meudwy ; Llyn Maen 
Meudwy. Maen gwlaw, the manalis or maenlau of the Bomans, 
a stone which they rolled about when they wanted rain. I sup- 
pose a chiystal stone. {Non. ex Varr. et Fulg. LaJbeorie,) 

Ai mwnwgl oU fal maen glaw. 

Maen ap liywarch Hen. 

Maenan, lands in Denbighshire. 

Maen y Chwyfan, a monument or carved pillar on Mostyn 
Mountain, which Mr. Edward Llwyd, in Notes on Camden, thinks 
inexplicable. Cwyfan or Chwyfan was a person's name^ to whom 
a church in that country is dedicated (Llangwyfan); and another 
near Aberffraw, in Anglesey, of the same name. Is it not pro- 
bable that this was a cross erected in memory of that saint ? 

Maen Clochog, a castle in Dyfed, Penbrokeshire, a.d. 1215. 

Maenen, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. [Maenan. — W, i>.] 

Maenerch ap Gruff, ap Gruffudd. Maynyrch, id. 

Maen Gwyn (n. 1.). Ynys y Maengwyn, Meirion. 

Maen Gwynedd, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) 

Maen Modrwy Eluned : see JEluned, 

Maenol. G, 

Maenor Bydvey, a lordship in Ystrad Tywy. 

Maenor Byrr, Pyrrhus^s mansion, a castle mentioned by 
Giraldus Cambrensis, near Tenby in Penbrokeshire, adorned 
then with stately towers and bulwarks ; now in ruins. One of 
[the] three commots of Cantref Penvro. (Price's Descr.) See 
Ynys Pyr, 



292 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Maenor Deilo, one of the three commots of Cantref Bychan, 
Caermarthenshire. (Price's Deser,) 

Maenor Dewi, cburcli and parish in Penbrokeshire. 

Maenor Ruthyn, one of the commots of Pennythen, Mor- 
ganwg. 

Maenor Talafan, one of the commots of Cantref Pennythen 
in Morgannwg. See Talafan, 

Maen SiGL,or rocking stone^ within half a mile of St. David^s. 
Several of these in Cornwall and Ireland, remains of Draidism. 
See Lledr a Machno and Siglfan. See also Peii Machno. 

Maenwyn (n. pr. v.), one of the warlike friends of Uywarch 
Hen. Maenwyn nag addo dy gyllelL See PadHg, 

Maerdy, a gentleman's seat near Corwen. 

Maerdre, in Edeirnion, a gentleman's seat. Castell y Faerdre 
in Dyganwy. 

Maerlys ap Gwyddno. 

Maes, a very ancient Celtic word in the composition of names 
of places, and signifies properly a field of com ; also a field of 
battle. Some critics make the Latin termination magus to 
have signified maes, as Citomagus, Caesaromagus, ete. Maes y 
Geirchen, Caernarvonshire ; Meissir ; Llanvaes, Maes y Llan, 
etc. Cad ar vaes, a field, a battle (Anglesey). 

Maesaleg, the seat of Ifor Hael, the patron of Dafydd ap 
Gwilym the poet; and a lordship belonging to it of that name. 
It was in Glamorganshire in the poet's time, but now is part of 
Monmouthshire. Wrote by some ifassaleg. 

A cherddan tafodaa teg 
A solas ym Maesaleg. — D. ap Qwilym. 
Again : 

Arglwyddiaeth dagiaeth deg 

A seiliwyd wrth Fyssaleg. — D, ap Gwilym, 

Maes Beli. 

Maes Calettwr (u. 1.), Brecknockshire. 

Maes Carnedd, where Owain Gwynedd was buried, as says 
Cynddelw in Marwnad Owain Gwynedd. There is a place of 
tliis name near Dolgelleu. 

Maes Garmon, a battle between the Britons and the joint 
armies of the Scots and Picts, under the conduct of St German, 



CELTIC REMAINS. 293 

Bishop of Atlxerre, who came to Britain to confute the Pelagian 
heresy. (Beds, 1. i, c. 20.) It was, as Usher says, in Flintshire, 
near Yr Wyddgrug. He calls it Victoria Alleluiatica. 

Maes Gwenith, a place in Gwent, famous for wheat and 
honey, mentioned in the Triades (30). 

Maes y Gwig. 

Maes Maoddyn, dan dom Elwyddon. (E. Llwyd) See 
Maoddyn, 

Maes Mawr, ym Mynydd Emrys, Ue gwnaeth Hengist dwyll 
y Cyllell Hirion. 

Maes Mochnant, in lianrhaiadr. 

Maes Mynnan, a gentleman's seat. {J, B) Mostyn. 

Maes y Neuadd, a place in Meirion. 

Maes y Pandy, a gentleman^s seat in Meirion. 

Maestan, qu. ? Gwrgenau Maestan o Benllyn. 

Maes XJrien, yn emyl Caerwynt. 

Maes Uswallt, now Croesyswallt ; in English, Oswestry ; 
so called from Ussa ap Cunedda Wledig. (Price's Descr) [From 
Oswald Mffiseri'elt.— W. 2>.] 

Maesyfed, Maesyfedd, Maeshyfaidd, and Maesyfaidd, the 
town and country of Badnor in South Wales. Mr. Camden says 
that in the middle age writers called this country MagesetsB, and 
mention Comites Masegetenses and Magesetenses, and thinks it 
is the city Magos which Antoninus seems to call Magnos, and 
was the station of the Pacensian regiment under the Lieutenant 
of Britain in the reign of Theodosius the Younger ; and that 
the English name Badnor was formed from Bhaiadr. 

Llew Maesyfaidd gwraidd y gras. — D. H. K. 

Maesyfed Hen (Old Badnor), called by the natives Peucraig ; 
burnt by Bhys ap GruflFudd in the time of King John. (Cam- 
den, Brit) 

Maethlu Sant Ynghaemadog Ymon, Danfaethlu Church, 
Anglesey. 

Mafon or Mabon (n. pr. v.) : hence Bodfafon in Creuthyn. 
See Bhiwabon, 

Magddu Gulfoel o Benllyn. 

Magedawc or Megadoc (nomen loci). 

Gwaith Megadoc {MS.), or, as Caradoc, Magedawc, a battle 



294 CELTIC REMAINS. 

fought between the Britons and Phichtieit (Picts), where Dalar-' 
gan, King of the Picts, was slain A-D. 750. (Oaradoc, p. 16.) 

Maglan. 0, Ilanvaglan. 

Maglocui^e, the Latin name oi Maelgvm,Gwynedd in the cor- 
rupt copies of Gildas. If Gildas understood the British tongue, 
he wrote it in his Latin book Malgo Ghiiiiet in the orthography 
of those days. He was first King of Gwynedd, and afterwards 
supreme King of the Britons. See Traeth Madgivn. 

Magsen, qu. Maxentius ? 

Maig. Trefaig, Hirdrefaig, in Anglesey. See Mate. 

Main Gwynedd, qu. or Maen Gwynedd ? Madog ap Evream 
o Fain Gwynedd. 

Mair, Maria, Mary (n. pr. f.)i Mair Forwyn, the Virgin Mary. 

Malangell verch TudwaL 

Malcawn : see Madgvm. {E. Llwyd.) 

Mali verch Ifan Llwyd. 

Mallaen, one of the three commots of Gantref Bychan in 
Caermarthenshire. (Price's Descr,) 

Malldraeth, a small harbour or tract of sand in Anglesey, 
which took its name from the very dangerous quicksands there, 
and the shifting fords on the river, it having a boggy bottom (a 
maUt evil, and traeth, sand). 

Fe*m gwnaeth ym Malltraeth ym Mon 
Yn gored penwaig irion. 

It gives name to one of the six commots of Anglesey, viz., Cwm- 
mwd Malldraeth ; . and in it stood the seat of the Princes of 
Wales, called Aberflfraw. 

Mallt (n. pr. f ) ; Latin, Matilda or MathiUia. 

Mallt vel Mahallt verch Rhys Gethin. 

Mallteg Sant. Llanvallteg in Penbrokeslxire. 

Mallwch (n. pr. v.). Caerfallwch. {J. D) 

Mallwyb, a church and parish in Merionethshire, q. d. ma» 
Ihoyd, It is dedicated to Tydecho Sant. Here the industrious 
and learned Dr. John Davies, author of the British- Latin Dic- 
tionary and the British Grammar, was rector. He died the 14 
May 1644. {MS.) He published his Grammar, 1620, and his 
Dictionary, 1632, 

Malpas, in Flintshire ; another in Monmouthshii^. 



CELTIC BEMAIKS. 295 

Manawydan ap Lljrr, un o'r tri lleddf unben (2V. 14), cotem- 
porary with Llywarch Hen, pan fu hyd ar Ddyfed. (Tr. 77.) 
See Owgon Owron and Llywarch Hen, the other two. 

Mannod, a mountain in Merionethshire. {E. Llwyd.) 

Manaw, the Isle of Man, probably at first Monaw, t. e., M6n 
in the sea, the other Mon (Anglesey) being close to the main- 
land. If so, the dispute between Humphrey Uwyd and Hector 
Boetius was only about sounds. This is probably the Mona of 
Julius Caesar, unless he was misinformed about the distance of 
Mon from Britain and Ireland, for he places it half way. The 
Latin name of this is Eubonia. See Mon and Ore, 

Manavan or Manavon, a parish in Montgomeryshire^ deanery 
of Cedewain. 

Manau Guotodin, the country in Scotland where Cunedda 
Wledig lived, and was drove out of it by the Scots, 146 years 
before Maelgwn the Great reigned over the Britons in Gwene- 
dota. (M8. Nennivs B. V.) This Manau Guotodin may pos- 
sibly have been pronounced in the British Menai Gododin, it 
bordering on the narrow straits between Ireland and North 
Britain. At this very time that Nennius mentions the.Scots from 
Ireland took possession of Argyleshire. (Usser's Primord.) It 
may be the country of those people called by Latin writers 
Catini or Ottadini. 

Manogan, the 69th King of Britain, father of Beli Mawr. 

Manauon, enw Ue. lerwerth Vanauon (or Manafon) ap 
Einion. 

Maoddyn {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan). Mr. Edw. 

liwyd thinks it to be Mwythig, or Salop ; from the similitude of 

the name, I suppose. But he was certainly wrong, for Pengwem, 

which is the known name for Salop, is mentioned in the same 

elegy. 

Eryr Pengwem pen gam llwyd. 

Maon or Mawan (n. pr. v.). Maon^ father of Llemenig. 

Mar. 

Maiian, qu. ? {Gwdygorddau Powys) 

March am Mheirchion, a Prince of Scotland or some part of 
North Britain. The poets feigned that he had horse^s ears, and 
whatever he touched turned into gold. The meaning was that 



296 CELTIC REMAINS. 

he was a great miser and very rich, and was an ass for suffering 
himself to be cuckolded by his nephew Trystan ap Tallwch. He 
lived in the reign of Arthur. He was one of King Arthur's 
three admirals. See Essyllt and Trystan. 

Marchan ap Cynddelw Gam. 

Mahchen. Castell Marchen, the castle of Morgan ap Howel 
got by Gilbert Earl of Clare, a,d. 1236 ; qxL Carmarthenshire ? 
Coed Marchan in Denbighshire. 

Mabchan. Coed Marchan near Shuthyn. Cefn Yarchan in 
Caermarthenshire. 

Marchan (n. pr. v.) ; hence Coed Marchan. [There is a place 
in Glamorgan called Coed Marchan.-^/. Jf.] Ehys ap Marchan 
had a daughter, Gwenllian, married to Gwaeddgar or Gwaedd- 
fawr, father of Gwernog, father of Efnydd ap Gwernog, lord of 
Dyffryn Clwydd. {J. D) 

Marchell, a river. 

Marchell, merch Teudric, the mother of Brychan Brycheiniog. 
{Ach Gynog), Also a daughter of liis wife of Gwrlyn. Probably 
the founder of the Abbey of Ystrad MarchelL 

Marchell Sant and Marchellyn Sant. The church of Llan- 
ddeusant, Anglesey, dedicated to them. 

Marchell verch Arwystli Gloff ; hence Ystrad Marchell. 

MarchgwN and Meirchion (n. pr. v.), the same with Cynfarch. 
{K Llwyd) 

Marchnant, a river between the lordship of Mevenyth and 
Ysbytty or Ystwyth. [Aber Marchnant, Marchnant falling into 
the Evyrnwy. — W, 2>.] 

Marchog o Byfel, knight banneret. 

Marchudd ap Cynan ap Elfyw, lord of Uwch Dulas and Aber- 
geleu ; his seat at Bryn Ffanigl ; one of the Fifteen Tribes oi^ 
North Wales. Bore gulesy a Saracen's head erased. a.d. 846. 

Marchweithian, lord of Islaled in Denbighshire, lived at Llys 
Lleweni about ad. 740. Bore azure, a lion rampant argent. One 
of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales. 

Marchweithian {Pymtheg Llwyth). . 

Marchwydd, Mr. Edward Llwyd says, is Owyddfarch trans- 
posed. 

Marchwyn.. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 297 

Maeclois, Esgob Bangor ; died a.d. 942. 

Mabculphus, an historian of Little Britain. 

Marcwlff (n. pr. v.), un o'r tair colofn y celfyddodion. 
(Prydydd y Moch, i R. ap Owen Gwynedd.) 

Mared neu Maered (n. f.) ; hence Maredydd (n. pr. v.). 

Mareda verch Gruflf. ap Cynan. 

Maredudd or Maredydd (n. pr. v.) seems to have been made 
from a woman's name, Mared, or one from the other. Camden 
Latinizes it Meredudvs. 

Maredydd, recti Maredudd (n. pr. v.), and Mredydd, and 

Meredydd. 

Targed Vadog Amhredydd.-s-D. Narnnor. 

Margam or Margan, a village in Glamorganshire. Fairs kept 
here. Margam, the seat of the Mansels. 

Margam (Mynydd), a mountain in Glamorganshire^ on which 
there are ancient rakes of mine works. 

Margan (n. pr. v.). 

Margan^ one of the goddesses of the deep. 

Pan yw Margan dwywes o annwfyn, — {Ed, LJwyd,) 

Margem, a village, Glamorganshire. 

Marlais is the name of the river in Carmarthenshire, and 
not Marias, whence Abermarlais^ a gentleman's seat on the aber 
of that river of Glan Gwy (J, D.) ; and aU the poets, who are 
our eternal standards of pronunciation, agree in this. The word 
is marwlais, as mamad is wrote for marwnad, and marddwr, 
neap tide, for marwddwr. 

Mars, the kingdom of Mercia ; also the borders or marches of 
Wales, Gwyr y Mars. 

Marsia, a queen of great Britons [Britain ?], who reigned 
during the minority of her son Seisill, after her husband Cyhelyn, 
the 24th King of Britain. Leland {Script Brit,, c. 8) praises her 
greatly for that the laws made in her reign were caUed after her 
name, as the Moelmutian Laws were called after Dyfnwal Moel- 
mud ; that they were translated by King Alfrid into the Saxon, 
and called the Marsian Law. Others will have it that the Law 
was so called from being the law of the Mercians, Nicolson 
says that Lombardy and all the rest were mistaken in calling 

38 



298 CELTIC REMAINS. 

the Saxon laws Mercenlege, etc., for that lege did not signify law, 
etc. See Nicolson. 

Maesli (n. pr. f.); Lat. Marsilia; Engl. Margery, qiL ? 

Mabthen, qu. whether Marthin or Martin ? 

Martia. O. 

Marwerydd. (Dr. Davies.) See Morwerydd. 

Mabwred verch Madog, or rather Mar&ed or Marvered. 

Mary. G. 

Maryfred, the mother of Llewelyn ap lorwerth Drwyndwn, 

{MS.) 

Mar Ysgvarnawo, Marius Lepidus. (TyasUio.) 

Marwystl vel Marohwystl ap Marchweithian. {Pymtheg 
Llwyth.) 

Maserveth {Bede, L iii, c. 9.), the place where Oswald was 
killed by Penda, King of Mercia, and the Britains. Bromfield 
calls it Marshfield ; the Saxon Chronicle, Maj-eppel^ ; and so 
King Alfred's paraphrase. Leland says there is a church at 
Oswestry (i. 6., Oswald's tree) dedicated to St. Oswald, formerly 
called White Church ; and the English annotator on Bede says 
the Welsh call it Croix Oswald ; which are mistakes, for they 
caU Oswestry Croesyswallt^ which see. Qu, whether the above 
be Maeserwydd ? 

Math ap Mathonwy, hen frenin gynt o Wynedd. (D. J.) See 
Arianrhod. Un o'r trywyr hud a Uedrith {Tr. 31) ; qu. second 
sight ? Hud mab Mathonwy, un o'r tri prif hud {Tr. 32), co- 
temporary with Gwdion ap Don (Tr. 32) and with Gronwy Pefr 
o Benllyn (IV. 35). 

Mathafarn, nomen loci (k mad and tafam), a gentleman's 
seat in Montgomeryshire, famous for being the house of David 
Uwyd ap Ily welyn ap Gruffudd, lord of Mathafarn, in the time 
of Bichard III. This gentleman being a good poet wrote several 
prophecies, in verse, of the coming of Henry V^I, for whom he 
was a great stickler. His wife, who knew he was no prophet, 
asked him how he could venture to advance such things as 
truths. He answered her, " If Henry carries the day, he will 
reckon me a true prophet ; if he loses, he'll hardly come to up- 
braid me for it." Besides these political prophecies we have 
several other pieces of this poet's works extant. His cywydd 



CELTIC REMAINS. 299 

describing Dovey Eiver is a curious piece, and his disputes with 
Llewelyn ap Guttyn the poet are common. 

Mathafarn Eithaf, a place in Anglesey : hence Llanfair ym 
Mathafam Eithaf, a church and parisL Another Mathafarn in 
Denbighshire. 

Mathanen, river (in Morden's map), joins Gwygyr, and goes 
to Cemaes in Anglesey ; but qu. ? 

Mathau, not Mathew. 

Na ddotto Pedr gloan 

Mair a Seinlyn, MarthjDy Matbaa. 

Mathau Prys. 

Mathatark ap Brychan Brycheiniog. 

Mathe ap Cadwaladr. Yid. Matfiau, 

MIthias (n. pr. v. dissyll.). 
I'th was cred Mathias Cradog. — lor. Fyngboyd, 

Mathlu, qu. Maethlu ? 

MATH0LWCH,(n. pr.v.) ; qu. Mothlaius ? {Ogygia, p. 390.) An 
Irish name. Matholwch Wyddel, or Matholwch the Irishman, 
married and abused Branwen the daughter oi Llyr. {Tr, 51.) 
He was a noted Irish enterprising Prince. 

Tegweh gwlad Fatholwch fa 

Galon y Werddon orddu. — lolo Qock, 

Mathonwy. 

Mathraval, the name of the kingdom or principality of 
Powys, after Offa, King of Mercia, drove the Britains from Salop 
oyer Severn ; €md that the Prince's palace was fixed at Mathrafal 
in Montgomeryshire. To this kingdom belonged the country of 
Powys and the land between Wy and Severn. (Price's Deseript) 
A castle built here by Bobert Vepont, a Norman, about A.D. 1204. 

A thrwy efyll Matbraval 

Aur o'r Twr i'r warr a'r til. — leuan Dafydd Ddu. 

M\thravakl Wynya : see Owynfa. 

Mathri or Mathry, a village in Penbrokeshire. Fairs are 
kept hera 

Mathutafwr (n. pr. v.), perhaps Mathuta Fawr (qu. Brito- 
marus), the officer that came with Urp Lluyddawc, a Prince of 
the Cimbrians, to raise auxiliaries in Britain to go against the 
Komans. See Urp Llnyddog, {Tr. 40.) 



300 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Mathygryn. 

Maunguid. Caer Maungaid, in Nennius' Catalogue of Britisli 
CJities ; and Usher hath also Caer Menegyd ; but neither in the 
Triades or Dr. Williams' Catalogue. 

Maxjog. Bryn Mauog, in Caio, Carmarthenshire. 

Maw (fl.) or Mawddach, in Merionethshire : hence Abermaw, 
vulgo Abermo and Bermo ; in English, corruptly, Barmouth ; a 
good small harbour and village. 

Mawd ferch leuan Blaene, and Mawd Wen. 

Mawddwy, a river which falls into Towy, near Llangadog, or 
rather Myddfai, qu. ? 

Mawddwy, one of the two commots of Cantref Cynan, part of 
Powys Wenwynwyn; now the lordship of 

Mawgor, a village in Monmouthshire. Fairs are kept here. 

Mawl ap Madawy, King of Britain. 

Mawgr. 

Mawr, great, large. Llanfawr, a church and parish in the 
deanery of Penllyn, Meirion. Llannor and Llanfawr, in Ueyn ; 
qu. Ilanfor ? Coedmawr or Coedmor, in Arfon ; Llanfawr, a 
house near Holyhead ; y Mynydd Fawr, a mountain in Eryri ; Y 
Ddolfawr, i, e., Dolfor, Cardiganshire ; Maesmawr, i. e., Maesmor ; 
Dinraor; Trefor; Pen Maen Mawr; y Frenni Fawr. Cantref 
Mawr, one of the three cantrefs of Brecknockshire. (Price's 
Descr,) See Bychan. 

Mawr, a river which gives name to Traeth Mawr. (Price's 
Bescr) But qu. ? 

Mawrth, the name of a Celtic Prince, afterwards a god, and 
called by the Eomans Mara, Mavors, Marners. Dydd Mawrth, 
Dies Martis. Mis Mawrth, March. Q. d. Mawrwyrth or Maw- 
rwth ; called also Theuth or Tenth, q. d. Duw Taith, the god of 
journeys. 

Mechain, nomen loci in Powysland. Mechain is Coed in 
Powys VadogjUwch Coed in Powys Wenwynwyn, two commots. 

Ar derfyn Mechain a Mochnant. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Ln. ap lorwerfch. 

Gwaith Mechain was a battle fought at this place by Mredydd 
and Ithel, sons of GrufiF. ap Llywelyn, and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn 
and RhiwaUon, Kings of North Wales. Mredydd, Ithel, and 



CELTIC REMAINS. 301 

Ehiwallon, were killed, and Bleddjm made King of Powys and 
North Wales, a.d. 1068. 

Gwerfyl MecJuiin, a poetess. (Ca/radoc) 

Hence Uanfechain, a church dedicated to Garmon. 

Mechell and Mechyll (n. pr. v.). 

Mechell Sant. Llanvechell, a church in Anglesey. 

Mechell verch Brychan Brycheiniog. 

Mech^d, a river, qu. ? 

Gar elfjdd Mechydd a Macbawy. 

Prydydd y Moch, i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

Mechyll, neu Mechill. Rhys Mechyll ap Rhys Gruc ap yr 
Aiglwydd Rhys. This, it seems, is the masculine of Mechell, 
from hyll and Jiell. 

Medcant, an island on the coast of Northumberland, men- 
tioned in Nennius, c. 65 ; supposed to be lindisfarn. Bede 
(1. iii, c. 16) calls this same island Fame. It is two miles from 
Bamborough Castle. Here was a monastery built by St. Cuth- 
bert ; and here Aidan the Bishop was when Penda attempted to 
burn the city of Bebbanbuig, the regal city of the Northum- 
brians. R. Hoveden says that lindisfarn is by Gildas called 
Medcant in the British, meaning Nennius. 

Medel ap Llywarch Hen. 

Mederai Badellvawr. (Tr. 64.) 

Median ach Eurog Gadam. 

Medrawt or Medrod (n. pr. v.). Medrod ap Hew ap Cyn- 
farch, called Brenhinol Farchog in Tr, 83, was King Arthur's 
nephew, and was left to take care of Britain and of his Queen 
in his absence, while he followed his wars in Gaul ; but Medrod 
hearing of the defeat of Arthur beyond the Alps, dethroned 
Gwenhwyfar the Queen, and took the government into his own 
hands. This occasioned Arthur's return to recover his crown, 
which brought on the civil war and the great battle called Gad 
Gamlan, where Medrod was slain, and Arthur received his 
death's wound. See Ghvenhwyfar and Llew ap Oynfarch, 

Medrod vel Medrawt ap Cowrda. 

Medron, father of Madoc. (Tr, 50.) 

Medwyn, one of the two noble ambassadors sent by Lies ap 



302 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Coel, King of Britain, to Pope Bleutherius to desire to be in- 
structed in the Christian doctrine. (Leland, Script. Brit, c. 1 and 
c. 13.) He says he found the names in the Latin copy of Gralfrid 
Mon. ; but they are not in the British copy of Tyssilio^ nor in 
any of the printed copies of Gkdfrid (I have three of them), nor 
in a very ancient MS. of GalMd's Latin I have upon velliun. 

Medd : see Gardd y Medd, Llannereh y MedcL 

Meddepus ferch Ywain Cyfeiliog ; q. d. Meddwefus, i.«., mead- 
lip, a proper name for a fair woman. 

Meddlan verch Cyndrwyn. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad 
Cjmdylan.) 

Meddygon Myddfal Ehi wallon a'i feibion, Cadwgon, a Gruff- 
udd, ac Einion. Dr. Davies places them in 1280. (Dr. Davies 
in Myddfai) They collected together the empirical remedies of 
the Britons into a book^ at the command of Bhys Gryg, Prince 
of South Wales. I have a MS. of it on vellum. It is wrote in 
the British language, and aU Gralenical, and chiefly empirical, 
there being then no occasion for physicians. 

Megadoc (Gwaith), JfiS, or, as Caradoc, Megedawc, a battle 
fought between the Britons and Phiehtieit (Picts), where Dalar- 
gau, King of the Picts, was slain. {Oaradoc, p. 16.) 

Megdod {Nennius) : see Meivod, 

Megen, Megge or Margaret. 

Meguaid {Nennius) : see M&ivod, 

Meguid : see Meivod. {E, Lhmjdy from Usher's Nennius,) 

Meibionain. Gwlad Feibionain, 

Pan wnelont meirian dadlau bychain 

Anndon a brad Gwlad Feibionain. — B.oi, Myrddin. 

Qu. whether Mabwynion in Cardiganshire ? 

Meidrim, a village in Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here. 

Meichiad (fl). Glan y Meichiad [Nant y Meichiad — W. 2>.] 
in Meivod. 

Meilfeych or Meilyrch (n. pr. v.), Mr. Edward Uwyd says 
it is Brychfael transposed. 

Meic (n. pr. v.), probably ought to be wrote in the present 
orthography Maig : hence Hirdrefaig in Anglesey. 

Meic Mygotwas (father of Anan, one of the three gohoyw 
riain) is in Vaughan*s Index Mogotwas, and explained Armrin, 



1CELTIC REMAINS. 303 

Meivod, a church and parish in the deanery of Poole, Mont- 
gomeryshire. The church is dedicated to Tyssilio Sant. (B, 
Willis,) Mochnant, Mechain, Meichiad, and Meivod^ seem to 
have some afl&nity ; but Meivod is plainly, without any conjura- 
tion (though Mr. Ilwyd could not hit it), compounded of two 
ancient British words, Tnai and hod, which signify the month of 
May and habitation, which is as much as to say summer quar- 
ters. So hafod is compounded of Aa/ (summer) and bod (a 
dwelling-place), and is an ancient word for such summer-houses 
on the mountains where the ancient Britons attended their 
cattle, to make butter and cheese. Bod is a word prefixed to 
the names of abundance of houses in Wales, but more particu* 
larly in Anglesey : Bodorgan, Bodowen, Bodfeirig, etc., etc. 
. Here was an ancient British city of the Britains called in the 
Triades Gaer Mygit. Mr. Uwyd, in his Ifotea on Camden, from 
Usher's Nennitis, calls it Oair Meguid ; and in other copies of 
Nennius, Oavr Metguod ; but I know that in the Cambridge MS. 
of Nennius it is Cadr Megdod, and in the Cottonian MS. Oair 
Meffuaid. So I^m a&aid there is a mistake in printing Mr. 
Uwyd's notes. 

As for the name of Mediolanum, it comes naturally enough 
from Meiddlan, the place of curds and whey, which is of the 
same nature and sense with Meivod and Hafod ; or else it is 
Meddlan, the place of mead, — a drink made of honey, in great 
vogue among, the ancient Britons ; and we have in Anglesey a 
town of that name with the words transposed, — Llannerch y 
Medd, Llannerch being a diminutive of Han. 

Caradoc ap GoUwyn o Feifod. 61an y Meichiad in Meivod. 
[Nant y Meichiad,— W. D.'\ 

Meig ap Cynlas Goch. 

Meigen, a place in Powys ; in Nennius, Ineicen, A battle 
fought here between CadwaUon ap Cadvan and Edwin King of 
Northumberland. On account of their behaviour in this battle 
(it is supposed) the men of Powys got those fourteen privileges 
(Breiniau Powys) which exempted them from many services and 
payments. See Breiniau Powys by Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr. 

Bryn Meigen in Creuthyn, Cardiganshire. Meigen is men- 
tioned by Dywarch Hen in Marwnad CaswaUon. 



.J 



304 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Meigen (Bhts), i, e., Bhys of Meigen, a poet about the year 
1380, whom Dafydd ap Gwilym killed with a lampoon. 

Meilientdd, enw lie. Mael Meilienydd. 

Meilir^ Eryr gwyr gorsedd, and Meilir MeiUrion. 

Meiliw Tawarch ap Esgudaur. 

Meilon. Maes Bhos Meilon, a battle fought here between 
the black nation under Igmond, and the Britons^ a.d. 900. Pen- 
rhos Efeilw, near Holyhead, q. A Penrhos Mellon. (Powel, 
Oaradoc, p. 42.) See Molerain. 

Meilliontdd, a gentleman^s seat. Williams. 

Meini Hirion (Y). About a mile from the top of Penmaen 
MawT, on the plain mountain above Gwddw Glas, in the parish 
of Pwygyfylchi, stands the most remarkable monument in all 
Snowdon : a circular entrenchment of about 26 yards diameter^ 
with several pillars, and these encompassed with a stone wall ; 
several cameddau and graves ; and a tradition of a battle fought 
here between the Bomans and Britons ; the Britons getting the 
day, buried their dead under heaps of stones to secure them 
&om the wild boars. (K liwyd. Notes on Camden, from a MS.) 
See Braieh y Ddinas, 

Meibch Moedwt, {. e., sea-horses, q. d. ships. 

Meirch mordwy uwch mawrdwrf toniar. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

Meibchion ap Bhys ap Bhydderch, a.d. 1074. 

Meirchion or Meibchiawn Gul ap Grwst Ledlwm. 

Meirian Sant. lituiveirian Chapel, Anglesey. 

Meirin^ river. {LL Hen in Marwnad Cadwallon.) Qu. whether 
Merin ? See TwythAval Merin. 

Meirion (n. pr. v.). Meirion ap Tibion ap Cunedda Wledig, 
lord of Meirionydd, had Gantref Meirion to his share in right of 
his grandmother, Gwawl, wife of Edeyrn ap Padarn Beisrudd, 
and mother of Cunedda ; the Irish Scots, children of Glam Hec- 
tor, attempting then to seize on all Wales. (Price's Descr.) 

Meirionydd, a county in North Wales, called by the English 
Merionethshire, and by the natives Meirion, Sir Veirion, Sir 
Veirionydd, and Meirionydd ; in modern Latin, Mervinia, pro- 
bably from Mervyn, son of Bhodri Mawr, part of whose land it 



CELTIC REMAINS. 305 

was ; for Powys is called by the poets Merviniawn, or lands of 
Mervyn ; and by one of the poets, Zleudir Mervyniawn, See 
OalU GadwaUon. But it was called Meirion from a grandson of 
Cunedda Wledig many ages before this, and was but one cantref 
of what is now called Meirionydd ; by Giraldus Cambrensis in 
his Itinerary, " Terra filiorum Conani", the lands of the sons of 
Conan. Neither Camden nor E. Llwyd attempt to give any ety- 
mology of this name. 

Meissib. Dyfiryn Meissir, a place mentioned in Uywarch 
Hen's Marwnad Cjmdylan. [Maesir, Llysfaesir. — W, 2?.] 

Mel. Bodfel ; perhaps pro Mael, as Bodvael. 

Mela (n. 1.). Wynne of Mela. 

Melangell verch Tudwal. 

Melangell is Mihangel, St. Michael [Monacella. — W, 2>.] 
Pennant Melangell. 

Melan, Mediolanum urbs. {Dr. Dames!) Becte Meddlan, 
meaning that in Gaul. 

Melandref, Mediolanum. 

Melchin, an ancient British author, a MS. of whose historical 
works was seen by Leland in the Abbey of Glassenbury, which 
he takes to be ancienter than Myrddin Emrys. He sajrs it 
appeared he was of Cambrian original, and had there studied, 
and had read the Cambrian bards. Our Cambro-British writers 
mention nothing of him under^that name, unless he be Myllin, to 
whom the church of Ilanvyllin in Montgomeryshire is dedicated. 

Mele : vid. BeU. 

Melen (n. pr. v.). EUyll Melon. {Tr, 70.) See Melyn. 

Melgad (n. pr. v.), the same with Cadfael. {E, Llwyd) 

Melgoed. Cefn Melgoed in Cardiganshire, which see. 

Meliden, chapeL St. Meliden. (J5. Willis) Allt Meliden 
gives name to a prebend of St. Asaph. 

Melindref (n. 1.), corrupt for Mileindref,a farm held in villain 
soccage, a tenure abolished by 22 Car. II. Melindref Sawddau, 
in liangattwg, Caermarthenshire. 

Melingwm, village, Carmarthenshire. 

Melirion or Meilirion. 

Melkin and Mewin, names which Capgrave and Hardiuge 
mention as British writers, which seem to have taken their rise 

89 



306 CELTIC REMAINS. 

from bad transcripts of Nennius, for the Cambro-Britons know 
of no such authors or names as Melkiuus and Mewinus. If there 
ever were such authors they were Loegrian Britons ; but Mevi- 
nus is plainly Aneurin, a cotemporary of Taliesin. See MelcMn. 

Meloch, a river (qu. ?) in Penllyn. Uwch Meloch, Is Meloch, 
and Micnaint, are three commots in Cantref Penllyn. (Price's 
Descr.) 

Melsybn, tad Bran. (Llyvxirch He/a.) 

Pwylloi Vran vab y Melsym 
Fy nihol i llosgi fj ffyrn. 

Mr. Edward Llwyd reads it Melhym, (X. K, H,) 

Melwas, brenin Peittwf, a Gaulish name; Lat Bellovesus; 
General of the Gauls in their first irruption to Italy in the time 
of Tarquin the Elder, the 1C5 year of the city. Latinized by 
Galfrid, Melga, who he makes King of the Picts ; but he was a 
Gaul, and King of Poictou. 

Melwas, a Prince of North Britain, that carried away King 
Arthur's wife or concubine. See Gxoenhwyfar. 

Melwe : see OaeW Melwr (n. L), near Llanrwst. 

Melydyn, esgob Caerludd, A.D. 613. Militus. 

Melyn, mab Cynfelyn. (Tr. 36.) 

Melynddwr, a river and dyfiryn in Cardiganshire. 

Mellt, a man's name. A rock, called Maen Mellt, on the coast 
of Lleyn. Aedan, son of Mellt, a nobleman of Wales, died ... 

Mellteyrn, enw He. 

Membyr, the 4th King of Britain, son of Madog ap Lloegrin. 

Menai (fL, Tr. 30), the river or arm of the sea between the 
Isle of Anglesey and Caernarvonshire. Some say from warn, 
small ; but qu. ? Hence Abermenai, the south-west entrance of 
that water. In Nennius, Menei, Menai, and Mene. Gives name 
to one of the six commots of Anglesey. 

Afon Fenai ni threiodd, 

Arian y mab yr un modd. — Huw Cae Lltoyd, 

Menegid {Garadoc), Onegit {3fS,, App. Tyssilio), a place in 
Anglesey where Eoderick the Great fought a battle with the 
Danes in the year 873 ; another, the same year, at Bangole, which 
see. This name is not to be found in Anglesey. These are 
supposed to be Halden and Hungare, two Danish captains, that 



CELTIC REMAINS. 307 

afterwards landed in South Wales. These Danes were called by 
the Britons Llychlynwyr, or Lochlin Men, as they did all that 
came from the coast of the Baltic. 
Meneifion, the people about MeneL 

Yn Aber muner Meneifion 

Yn aniwair yn diwair Deon. — OyndJelw, i Hywel. 

Menew : see Mynyw. 

Menew Hen, RvhvA Vetus. (Leland,) This is a mistake in 
Dr. Davies^ Dictionary, and ought to be read Budus Vetus, Hen 
Venew, Eglwys Hen Fenew, in Cardiganshire. See Hen Fynyw. 

Menvendan, a name on a stone in the parish of Henllan Am- 
goed in Caermarthenshire, which Mr. K liwyd says he has 
never met with in genealogical manuscripts. {Notes on Camden,) 
See Menw and Menwaed, and Manawydan ap Zlyr. {Tr. 14.) 

Menw (n. v.). Hud Menw. {Dr. Davies) 

Menwaed, Arilechwedd, one of the three Cadfarchog, knights 
of war. (TV. 23.) 

Menyw (n. pr. v.), Menw. {Dr, Davies), Menyw mab Teir- 
gwaed, un o'r tri hud a Uedrith {Tr, 31) ; un o'r tri phrif lledu- 
rithawc. {Tr, 33.) A great philosopher cotemporary with 
Arthur. Hud Uthur Bendragon {i, e., Myrddin) a ddysgodd i 
Feny w mab Teirgwaed. {Tr, 32.) 

Merchael ach Eurog Gadam. 

Merchyr or Mercher, the name of a Celtic Prince, afterwards 
a god, son of lou, adored as a god by the Greeks and Romans. 
One of the days of theweek, Dydd Merchyr (i.e.. Dies Mercurii), 
is called after his name by the Britains. Perhaps Marchvrr, from 
his being a horseman^ and messenger of his father ; and from 
thence might come marehnad, a market, because he was the first 
merchant that carried his goods on a horse, — the god of mer- 
chandizing. 

Merddin Wyllt neu ap Morfran, a.d. 635 and 683. Merlinus 
Sylvestris, o Nanc yn 

Merdhyn Embrys, Merlinus Ambrosius, AD. 471. His 

was named -^Idan. Y meudwy a barodd ei alw ef. 

Meredudd, King of N 

Meredudd ap Bleddyn, 1113. 

Meredudd ap Owen, King of N[orth Wales], a.d. 986. Mere- 
dudd ap Owen ap Edwyn, King of S[outh Wales], lOoO. 



308 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Meredudd ap Gr. ap "Rja, lord of Keredigion. 

Merffordi), a commot in the Cantref of Uwchnant in Powys 
Vadog. It is in Flintshire. (Price's Descr,) 

Merfyn (n, pr. v.). 

Merftn Frych, a Owyddd or Irishman, son of Gwyriad {Cara- 
doc, p. 22) of Ireland, married Essyllt^ daughter to Cynan Din- 
daethwy, and was father of Rodri Mawr. His mother was next 
daughter of Cadell ap Brochwel ap Eliseu ap Beli, and so on to 
Gwrtheym, to demand the crown. 

Merfyn, one of the sons of Bhodri Mawr, was made Prince of 
Powys. Giraldus Cambrensis makes him the eldest son; but 
all others make him the third, and Prince of Powys: hence 
Powys Land was called Merviniawn. 

Meriadoc or Meriadog (n. L). Cefn Meriadog, Denbighshire ; 
qu. a region in Denbighshire ? (H. Uwyd, Brit. Descr.) 

Meiriadog (Cynan), a nephew of Eudaf, King of Britain, 
whom Maximus settled in Armorica, in Gaul, A.D. 383. As his 
uncle Eudaf was Earl of Erging and Euas before he got the 
crown, one would expect to find this Meriadog in that country. 
The Triades calls him brawd Elen verch Eudaf; but he was only 
her half-brother, or else her cousin-german, the British word 
brawd signifying in ancient times cousin as well as brother. 
(See H. liwyd, Brit. Descr., p. 14, ed. 1731.) 

Merin, a river in Creuddyn, Geretica, runs into the river 
Mynach. Qu. whether Meirin, river of Llywarch Hen in Marw- 
nad Cadwallon ? Blaen Merin. Twythwal Merin in the poets. 

Merini. Llyr Merini. 

Mers, Mercia, a Saxon kingdom.. Gwyr y Mers, the Mer- 
cians. (JBT' Llwyd.) 

Merthyr Tydvyl in Glamorganshire. 

Merthyr Mawr, a village [church and castle — I. Jf.] in 
Glamorganshire. 

Merviniawn, lands of Merfyn, the third son of Rhodri (Cyn- 
dddw), which was Powys Land. See Oallt OadwalUm. 

Merwerydd. 

Ni foddes mawredd y Merwerydd . 
Tngwaith y Waederw chwerw chweh'dydd. 

Meilir Brydydd, i Gr. ap Cynan. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 309 

Merwydd (n. pr. v.). Gr. op Gwrgan, Gwledd Merwydd. 
(Tudur AM) 

Merwydd Goch ap GoUwyn ap Gellan. 

Merwydd Goch ap TryfiPon ap Mervyn. 

Meryn Sant. Bodferyn Chapel, Ileyn ; qu. gave name to 
Merin fl. ? 

Methlan or Meddlan, commonly called Medlam, in Lleyn. 
(0. S) 

Metguod : see Meivod, (E. Uwyd, from Usher's Nennius,) 

Meyenydd, one of the three commots of Cantref Canawl in 
Cardiganshire. (Price's Descr) 

Mbvinus, corruptly wrote for Aneurin by Leland, c. 2 and 25 ; 
and by John Harding in his historical poem published in the 
time of Henry VI ; and by the ignorant transcribers or pub- 
lishers of Nennius it is wrote Nvevin. See Aneurin. 

Meugan Sant. Cappel Sant Meugan at Beaumaris. {B, Willis.) 

Meugaut ap Cyndaf, giyr o'r Israel 

Meurig, a river which falls into Teifi, and gives name to Ys- 
trad Meurig, a village and the ruins of a castle in a pass between 
mountains in Cardiganshire. This castle is often mentioned in 
Caradoc's History. 

Meurig, Meuric, Meurug, and Mburyg (n. pr. v.); Some 
kings of Britain of this name^ and Latinized Mariua by Galfrid, 
etc., but falsely for Meuricus. Camden makes it Merric^ and 
translates it Meuricus. 

A mwy ddoe i mi a ddng 

Y m6r gar Ystrad Meumg. 

O. Olyn^ i Bys Abad. 

Gorwyr Bhys aur dy wys dug 

Gyda mawredd gwaed Meurug. — D. H. H. 

Gwych y cawn lle'r awn ith wyrennig wledd 
Yn win a mawredd gan lin Meurig. 

D. a/p Meredydd ap Tudur. 

Meuric (Gwys), in Tyssilio {BrtU y Brenhinoedd), a monument 
erected in Westmorland by Meuric in memory of a battle. 
Meurig ap Adda, 1169. 
Meurig ap Arthpoel, 1019. 
MstTRiG, Bishop of Bangor^ died A.D. 1160. 



310 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Meubtg ap Cadell, 936. 

Meurig, King of Dyfed in King Arthur's time. 

Meu^ig ap Gweirydd, the 77th King of Britain. 

Meutur ap Hedd Molwynog. 

Mewyrniawn qtMeirnion. Dyfl&yn Menyrnyaun, mentioned 
in Ilywarch Hen's Advice to Maenwyn. 

Metsctx^ one of the four commots of Cantref Pennythen in 
Morgannwg. 

Mian Ferdic, one of the three red-speared poets ; Cadwallawii 
ap Cadfan's poet. In Mr. £• Ilwyd's book called Avannedig. 
See Afan Verddic, 

MiCNAiNT, a river in the Cantref of Penllyn in Meirion ; also 
one of the three commots of Penllyn. 

Michel, a modem n. pr. v. ; EngL Michael 

Mihanoel, Michael the angel. 

MiLAiN Aradroaeth, a villan in soccage-t^nure. 

Os gwrthodi Uiw'r ewyn 

Fab a'i felyn gndynan, 
Gei it filain aradr gaeth 

A fo gwaeth ei gyneddfan. 

So the poet takes this to be the lowest kind of vassalage. See 
Terra Nativa, 

MiLCHUO, a King of the Picts mentioned by Flaherty, p. 397. 
Qu. whether the same MUchtio that had St. Patrick in bondage 
{id,, p. 472), and the Melchu of Nennins (c. 54), and perhaps 
Bede's Meilochon (L iii, c. 4) ? Nennius says that St. Patrick, 
a Briton, was captive with the Scots, and that his lord was Mel- 
chu, whose swineherd he was. Flaherty says he was six years 
a swineherd in the great valley of Arcail, near the mountain 
Mis, in the north part of Dalriada, at a place called Scirie Arcail, 
which he takes to be the Dalriada in the county of Antrim in 
Ireland ; and says his lord or master was Milchuo, who would 
not release him without a ransom, and one of the hogs dug up 
a lump of gold with which he bought his liberty. 

MiLFFWRDD, corruptly, k Milford. 

MiNCius, a river which watereth the city Mantua in Italy. 
In the Celtic, Myngwy or Mynwy. See Myngwy, 



CELTIC REMAINS. 311 

MiNDDU. Owen Finddu, un o feibion Maxen ap IlywarcL 
See Pehlig, 

MiNWYN (Y), author of a British grammar. {E. Llwyd.) 

MiRMANTUN, in Nennius (c. 21), Caer Cwstaint in some copies, 
Caer Segent or Segunt, which is said to be Caer yn Arvon, where 
Constantios Chlorus is by some said to be buried, by others 
doubted. Some take it to be York, without any foundation but 
a marginal note in one of the copies. In some MSS. of Nennius 
it is called Mirmantun, Mimmaton, Mirmantoniam, Merman- 
turn ; and by Camden read Murimandum. But, after all, should 
it not be read Mui-macTidin, i. e., the stone-walled city ? Nen- 
nius says that Constantius sowed three kinds of seed in the 
pavement of that city, so that the place might never be poor 
(viz., gold, silver, and brass, as the Cottonian copy has it). The 
meaning is, he buried great quantities of Boman coin there, as 
the Bomans did in most places where they settled. 

Mithras, a Persian deity worshipped all over the Boman 
empire and in Gaul and Britain (Stukely's PaUeol), called by 
the Bomans Sol Invietus. There were horse-races instituted in 
honour of the Sun or Mithras, the Mediator or Messias. There 
are no remains or tradition of the worship of Mithras in the 
British, it being no part of the Druidical religion. 

MocHDRE, Montgomeryshire. 

MocHGARN (n. L). Bhys Goch o Fochgam, a poet. 

MocHNANT, a river's name; literally a swift brook: hence 
Uanrhaiadr ym Mochnant. Here is a surprising cataract called 
Pistyll Bhaiadr : hence Mochnant, a country in Montgomery- 
shire. 

Ar derfyn Mecbain a Mochnant. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Lin. ap lorwerth. 

Mochnant dihenchwant erchwynawo gwledig, 
Gwlad Yrochfael Ysgitbrawc. 

CyndddWf i Ywain ap Madog. 

Mochnant is Bhaiadr, a commot of Cantre Bhaiadr, part of 
Powys Vadog. (Powel!) 

Mochnant uwch Bhaiadr, part of Powys Wenwynwyn, a 
commot of Cantre'r Fyrnwy. 

MocHNANWYS, the people of Mochnant. 

Glew glyw Mochnanwys o Bywys beu. — liirlas 0, CyfeUiog. 



312 CELTIC REMAINS. 

MocHNO : see Cots Fochno, 

MocHROS, where Dyfrig had a college for study and devotion. 
See Henllan. 

MOCHUDD (n. 1.). 

MODKON, merch Afallach. (TV. 52.) 

Ceisio medm cais Modron 

OV g^er fraith ar gwrr y fron. — Z>. ap Otoilym. 

MODYB, a governor. 

£f medrws Modyr hennriaid 
Mai inedra modrydaf ar haid. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Bodri ap Owain. 

/. e., he can govern the elders like patting a hive on a swarm of 
bees. 

MoEL, in English, bald ; used in the composition of the names 
of places and surnames of men, and doth not mean Trums, as 
Dr. Davies says. Moel Ehedog ; Moel y Wyddfa ; Moel Wnnio 
or Wynnio ; Moel y Don ; Tal y Foel ; Moel Llwydiarth ; Moel- 
fre ; Moel Sioba ; Y Foel ; Y Voelgoch ; Y Voel-las ; Moelwyn, 
a gentleman's seat and a mountain in Meirion {E. Llwyd) ; Y 
Foel in Ehiwlas {J. D.) ; Idwal Foel, a Prince of Wales ; lor- 
werth Foel, etc., etc. Hence the Vale, a hill near Abergavenny. 

Moel y Glo, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.) 

Moel Enlli, a mountain not far from Dyffryn Clwyd, on the 
top of which there is a military fence or rampire. (Oamden.) 
Probably Moel y Benlli Gawr, who was lord of lal A.D. 450. 

Moel y Donn, a place in Anglesey where there is a ferry 
over the Menai ; corruptly called Bol y Donn. Tal y Voel is a 
place not far off, anciently called Tal Modvre. 

Moel yk Henllys, in Montgomeryshire, where some British 
brass weapons were found in the last century. (K Llwyd.) 

Moel y Wyddfa, the highest mountain in Eirj^ri See Y 
Wyddfa, 

Moel y Fammau. 

Moel Gylan. 

Moel y Mwnd. 

Moel Siabod. 

Moeleri, a base son of Ywain Cyfeiliog. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 313 

MoELGROVE, Penbrokeshire. 

MoBLVRE, a mountain near Cors y Gedol (a mod and bre). 

MoELFRE, a harbour and village in Anglesey. 

MoELFRE, a gentleman's seat. Llwyd's of Moelfre. [LlansUn. 
— W. D.] See TcU y Foel 

MoELFRYCH. leuan Foelfrych. Llewelyn Orach ap y Moel- 
frych. Llewelyn Moel y Pantri. Surnames now wrote Moyle, 
as John Moyle, Wm. Moyle, etc., etc. 

MoELGRWN. Llywelyn Foelgrwn. 

MoBLiWRCH, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) 

MoELRHONiAiD (Ynys), the Skeriy Island near Holyhead 
literally the Isle of Seals. 

MoELTAF : see Maeldaf. 

MoELWYN (Y), a mountain in Meirion. {JE. Llwyd) 

MoELYN (Y) o JFueUt. Llewelyn oedd ei enw bedydd. (Llyfr 
Ache, fol. 117.) 

MoELYRCH. Y Plas ym Moelyrch. {OhdtoW Qlyn) 

MoESEN, Moses. 

MoETHUS. Llewelyn Foethus. 

MoGOTWAS and Mygotwas, in the Triades (74), explained by 
Mr. E. Vaughan Aneirin. See Anetirin. 

Mold, parish in Flintshire, a village and castle ; in "Welsh, 
Yr Wyddgrug, 

MoLERAiN, a place in Anglesey mentioned by Caradoc (Powel's 
edit., p. 42), where, in a.d. 900, a battle was fought between the 
natives and Igmond the Dane. Dr. Powel, in his Notes, says 
that in some copies the battle was caUed Maes Bhos Meilon, and 
that Mervyn was slain there ; but the manuscript Appendix to 
Tyssilio says he was killed by his own men in the year 898. 
This may possibly be Ehos Feilw near Holyhead ; but there is 
no place in Anglesey that sounds like Molerain except Mbdvre, 
which is in another part of the island. 

MoLWYNOG, full, plenteous ; used as a surname ; as, Bhodri 
Molwynog; Hedd Molwynog; Meilir Molwynog. (Englyn, 
Bedd) 

MoN, Tir Mon, Anglesey ; the Moiia of Tacitus ; called also 
Mon mam Cymru, or Mon the Mother of Wales, for its plenty. 
See my notes on Mon in Diet. Dr. Davies. See Anglesey, 

40 



314 CELTIC REMAINS. 

• 

MoN Fynydd, a name of Anglesey to distinguish it from the 
other Hon or Monaw, the Isle of Man, the first being Mbtintain 
Mon, the other Sea Mon, or Mon in the Sea. 

MoR, the sea, used in names of some places and people ; 
as, Uannerch y Mor ; Glan y Mor ; Dinmor or Dingmor ; Ar y 
Mor XJcha, i, e,, Aremorica in Gaul. Morinwyr, i. e,, Morini (k 
mor and Bhin). 

Mr. Edward liwyd says that mor and mdr and m^r anciently 
signified water as well as sea, as does llyr also ; and in order to 
prove this, that Ogmor, the name of a river in Glamoi^nshire 
and in Caernarvonshire, means eogmor, or salmon-water; and 
that Marias, a river in Garmarddenshire, and Morlas, a river in 
Glamorganshire, are of the same origin; and that m^r in the 
word cymmer signifies water, and in mSrhelig or water-willow. 

All these are guesses, but backed by no manner of authorities. 
As such positions as these tend to confound all languages by 
making one word to run through all the vowels, which etymolo- 
gists are too apt to do when they are at a loss for the derivation 
of a word, we '11 see what can be said to the contrary, so that 
every word may keep its own primitive sound, as the wise 
founders of languages certainly intended they should, and as the 
nature of things requires. Ogmor might signify the greatest Og, 
if there is another hard by, or runs into it, that was called Og- 
fach, as Dwyfor and Dwyfach,* near Criccieth in Caemarvou- 
shire ; for mav^r in composition is often pronounced mor, as 
Coetmor for Goedmawr ; Mordaf, a man's name, for Mawrdda ; 
and Mordaf, a river in Shropshire, as Mr. Ilwyd confesses, sig- 
nifies a great brook, which, by the by, means the great Tav, as 
no doubt there is a little Tav hard by [not to my knowledge. — 
W. 2?.]. But the true name of the river which in our times 
they called Ogmore, is Ogwr. So the whole argument has no 
foundation. Glyn Ogwr, etc. 

Mob ap Pasgen ap Uried Eeged. 

M6r Awst, the mouth of the Severn, q. d. Augustus's sea. A 
street in Caermarthen called Heol Awst. 

M6b Mawb (Y), the great sea or ocean. 

M8b Mabw (Y), (this is said to be the only word extant of 
the language of the ancient Cimbrians, produced by Pliny out 



CELTIC REMAINS. 315 

of Philemon, — Morimmntsa), the Dead Sea (Camden) ; and 
H. Uwyd before him, which he doth not own. 
M6k Hafren, the Severn Sea, Bristol Channel. 

O Lydaw o draw o drwy Mor Hafren. 

Prydydd y Moch, i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

M6r Ucha (Y), the upper sea. This was the ancient Celtic or 
Gaulish name of the sea between Gaul and Britain, and the 
inhabitants on that sea-coast were called Gwyr ar y mor ucha, 
which was Latinized AreTnorica. This sea was by the Irish 
called Muimict (Flaherty, p. 403), and by Latin writers Maris 
Ictii; and Calis, its chief sea-port was called Tortus Icdas 
(H. Llwyd, Brit Descr.), naturally enough made out of Forth 
Ucha; and the Armoricans are called in Irish Armuirich. See 
Armorica, 

MORACH MORFRAN. 

Pan fii gyfeddacb Forach Forfran. — Hirlas Owen. 

MoRBEN. Ehisiart Owen or Morben. 
MoRDA and Mordaf (n. pr. v.). Several men of this name, 
both Irish and Welsh. Hence Ilanvorda. 

Llaw Forda rasol Haw Fair drosoch. — Tudur Aled. 

Mordaf Hael, one of the three generous men of Britain. He 
was the son of Servan. (Tr. 8.) 

MoRDAi, a man^s name in Hoianau Myrddin. 

MoRDEiRN (n. pr. v.), rectfe Mordeym. 

MoRDEiRN Sant, yn Nantglyn. I have a poem in praise of 
this saint by Davydd ap Lin. ap Madog. The poet makes him 
a grandson of Cunedda Wledig, and son of a king, and a relation 
of Dewi Sant. His legend is — 

" When many of thy relations of the 20,000 saints went to 
Ynys Enlli, a causeway arose out of the sea, and suffered them 
to go to the island ; and when the sea, after their passing over, 
overflowed the place^ thou went on thy golden-maned horse 
over the waters without wetting a hoof; and from thence thou 
had thy name, Mordeim [the sovereign of the sea. — W. J?.] 
Thou wert a confessor, and thy home is in the valley of Nant- 
glyn, where thou hast a house and a sacrifice (dberth), and thy 
grave is there, and thy curious image which gives health to the 



316 CELTIC REMAINS. 

sick. Thou art a blessed doctor, curing pain, deafness, blindness, 
the mad and dumb, preserving the person's cattle for a year that 
visits thy tomb. Several gifts of wax and gold are brought 
thee." 

The fryers had a share with him of these presents we may 
suppose. 

MoREiDDio or MoRiDDiG (n. pr. v.). 

Oedd rym gwr Moreiddig ynn 
Oedd garw Moreiddig Warwyn. 

Bh. lorwerth^ i Sir W. Vychan. 

MoRFAWR ap Gaden ap Cynan, — an id. Mor ? 

MORFIL or MoRFUL, a parish in Penbrokeshire. 

MORFRAN (n. pr. v.). 

MoRFRAN, father of Myrddin Wyllt. 

MoRFliAN, a poet mentioned by Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr. 

MoRFRAN, mab Tegit, a man so notoriously deformed that he 
escaped in the battle of Camlan fix)m being killed because they 
thought he was the Devil. (Tr. 85.) Morfran eil Tegit. (Tr, 29.) 
See Hanes Taliesin in prose. The poetical story is this: He 
was so ill favoured in his youth that his mother, Caridwen, 
being well skilled in chymistry and philosophy, and intending 
to give him some qualifications of the mind, as he had none of 
the body, gathered all manner of plants which she knew would 
make a decoction of that virtue as to make him a poet and an 
orator. Gwion Bach, the poet, happening to come by, was 
employed to attend the fire of this chymical process, and, watich- 
ing the critical minute, ran away with the virtue of the decoc- 
tion ; who afterwards, by the transmigration of his soul, became 
Taliesin the poet, who, like Pythagoras, remembered himself to 
have been Gwion Bach, Myrddin Emrys, and great many other 
learned men, and all his transmigrations before he came to be 

Taliesin, beginning 

Prif fardd cyffredin 

YdwyfiElphin, 
foolishly called the errors of Taliesin by Nicolson, etc. 

MORFYD. 

MoRGAiN, a woman's name. There was a lady, a noble matron 
of this name, called Morgain le Fay, a relation of King Arthur 



CELTIC REMAINS. 317 

(probably the Abbess of Glastonbury), who conveyed the body 
of King Arthur after the battle of Camlan, and buried it in 
Ynys Avallon. Giraldus Cambrensis says the Britons in their 
songs feigned this Morgain to be a goddess who understood the 
cure of Arthur, who, when he recovers, is to reign over them 
again. (See Sir John Price, p. 131.) 

Morgan and Morgant (n. pr. v.), the same with Cynvor ; Ir., 
Keanmdr ; Arm., Penfras ; and Greathead. {E. Llwyd) 

Pwylla Forgant ef a'i wyr. — Llywarch Hen. 

Neu'r orwydd yngorenw Morgant 
Ar filwyr Prydain pedrydant. 

Prydydd y Moch, i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

Morgan ap Arthal, the 39th King of Britain. 

Morgan Mwyn Vawr, i. e., Great Morgan the Kind ; un o't 
tri rhuddfoawc Ynys Brydain. {Tr. 25.) 

Carr Morgan Mwyn Vawr was one of the thirteen rarities of 
Britain, — un o'r tri thlws ar ddeg. Any one sitting in this 
chariot or chaise, and wishing himself in any place, was there 
immediately. It seems this was a common and free chariot 
kept by this generous man, or some kind of a carriage of that 
nature. 

Morgan Morganwg. Bedd Morgan Morganwg, between Mar- 
gam and CynflBg, where the inscription is of Pumpeius Caranto- 
pius. {Camden and Llwyd) This name was by the ancients 
wrote Morgant. 

Morgant Vychan ap Morgant ap Howel. 

Morganwg, Gwlad Forgan,and Gwlad Morganwg, the country 
called in English, by corruption, Glamorgan, for Gwladmorgan : 
so named from Morgan, a Prince of that country. Camden 
would derive it from m6r, the sea, because it lies on the sea, and 
says that some would derive it from a monastery there. Had 
not the country a name before the use of monasteries ? And 
why is not Penbrokeshire and aU other countries on the sea 
called Morganwg ? And lastly, why should not a national tradi- 
tion take place before Mr. Camden^s guesses ? 

MoRGENEU Ynad, ap Madog. 

MoRGENEY (n. pr. v.), or Urgeney ; perhaps Gwrgeneu. {Cara- 
doc in Edwal ap Meyric.) 



318 CELTIC REMAINS. 

MoRHAiAEN Sant. The church of Trewalchmai in Anglesey 
is dedicated to him. (Br. Willis.) 

MoRiAL ap Cyndrwjm. {Llywarch Ren in Marwnad Cyndy- 
lan.) 

MORIDDIG ap Sandde Hardi 

MoRiEN, a man. Tir Morien, Morien's land. 

Adar Mair o dir Morien 
Dyma sail o Domas Hen. 

D. cup Edmtont, i Domes Salbri o Leweni. 

Marw Morien mur inn. 

Ojlf, Myrddin a Qwenddydd. 

MomNWYR (k Tjvor, the sea ; Bhin, the Shine ; and gwyr, men), 
the people inhabiting between the river Bhine and the sea, called 
by Bede (1. i,c. 1) Morini, A colony of these came over in ancient 
times, and settled about Portland in Dorsetshire, and were called 
by the Britons by a name equivalent to Morini, Bwrdrigmyr. 
See Dwrotriges. 

MoRLAis, river, Ehyd Morlas, where GwSn, son of Llywarch 
Hen, was killed by the Saxons. 

MoRLAis is also the name of a river in Glamorganshire, and 
signifies mawr lais, or great sound ; and it is possible that Cym- 
mer may be a mistake for Cymmar or Cydmar, a fellow ; q. d. 
fellow rivers, or the confluence of rivers. Mirhelyg may be for 
their softness and pliable nature beyond other willows, may be 
called so, as the marrow of willows, which is the meaning of 
m&r in the British. 

MoRLAis Castle in Morganwg, near the confines of Breck- 
nockshire [about three miles north-east of Merthyr Tudful, on as 
bold a situation, on a high hill, as any inland castle in Wales. 
Steepness on one side, and Taf Fechan on the other, and deep 
trenches cut in the solid rock. It forms an irregular pentagon. 
All the works within and without the trench include an acre of 
ground. — W. D!\ 

MoRLAix, in Britanny in France, and the surname of the 
family of Morley, from Morlais Castle in Morganwg (Ji matar- 
lais). See Bhyd Forlas. 

MoRRAN : see Catrvon^an. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 319 

Morris, Maurice, Morice, Moris, is a modem name in Wales, 
as some say from the British Mawr rwysg, but more probably 
from the Latin Mauritius, for it is not to be met with in very 
ancient manuscripts. 

MoRTXJN (n. 1. in Cylchau Cymru), Moreton. Sandde Hardd 
o Fortun. [Ehedyn Mortun^ near Maesir. — TT. D.] 

MoRUDD (n. pr. v.). 

Y mae eryr fal Mdrndd 

A Hew yn Ed a Haw Nndd. — letuin Brydydd Hir. 

Hence Caer Porudd, corruptly Caer Forwyn. 

MoRUDD, the 29th King of Britain. 

MdRUDD^ corruptly Morrudd, the Channel between Britain and 
Gaul ; from mdr, sea., and udd, king ; i. e,, the king^s sea. 

Fy nhafawd yn frawd ar Frython 

O For Udd hyd For Iwerddon. — Prydydd y Moch, 

Bhoist ar gythlwng rhwystr gwythlawn 
Ar For Udd aerfa fawr iawn. 

lolo Ooehy to Edward lU. 
Oelyn fuost i'r Gbilais (i. 6., Calais). 

M6r-Eudd, the Red Sea (Br. Davies) ; the British Sea says 
D. Llwyd ap Llewelyn ap GrufFudd. 

MoRWERTDD. Camden (in Lothien) says that the EiUogium 
(i.e.,Nennius) calls Edenborough Frith Morwiridh ; but this must 
be examined into, for Morwerydd is Solway Frith, and called so 
because opposite to Ireland, q. d. Mor y Werddon. This is a 
slip of Mr. Camden, for Nennius doth not mention Morwerydd ; 
but perhaps it is another Eulogium. Ehun ap Maelgwn landed 
with his fleet after he had chased the fleet of the northern 
princes who, with Elidir Mwynfawr, had come to North Wales 
to claim the crown in right of his wife. So that it could by no 
means be Edenborough, which is on the Grerman Ocean. See 
Fenrhyn Shumydd. See also Camden in the beginning of his 
description of Ireland, where he calls the Irish Sea Morweridd. 
H. Llwyd Latinizes it Mare Virginis or Mare Hibemicum. See 
Fwerddon. 

MoRWYDD, daughter of Urien Eeged. (IV. 52.) 

MosTONE, in Doomsday Book, corruptly for Mostyn in Flint- 
shire. 



320 CELTIC REMAINS. 

MosTUK and Mostyn, nomen loconim et virorum. 

Llaw Daw'n lal lie doe yn nn 

Llew aur feistr a Uoer Fostnn. — WtUam Lleyn. 

ond gressyn, yn bjw 

Na bai Domas Mostyn. — W, Lleyn. 

MosTYN, the name of a place in Flintshire ; and since Henry 
Villus time, as Camden says, is the surname of the family 
that have since enjoyed it. These are his words : ''An ancient 
worshipful gentleman of Wales being called at the pannel of 
jury by the name of Thomas ap William ap Thomas ap Bichard 
ap Hoel ap Evan Vaughan, etc., was advised by the judge to 
leave that old manner, whereupon he after called himself Mos- 
ton, according to the name of his principal house, and left that 
surname to his posterity." (Camden, JRemains, p. 145.) 

MowDDWY, part of Powys Wenwynwyn. Llan y Mowddwy, 
a parish and church in Merionethshire, said to be once part of 
the deanery of Cyfeiliog. St. Tydeoho. See BiTias y Mowddwy, 

MuGNACH GoRR, father of Fflur. 

MuNiciP. Caer Municip [Nennivs), Verulamium, now St. 
Alban's. 

MuR, a wall (Lat mwms), in the names of places. Hendre'r 
Mur, a gentleman's seat, Trawsfynydd, in Meirion; and qu. 
whether Mirmantun in Nennius be not of the same origin, Mur- 
maendin, because enclosed with a stone walL 

Mur Sever, Severus's WalL See Gwal Sever. 

MuRDDiN, i. 6., Caer Vyrddin ; supposed by some of the same 
origin. 

MlJRNACH : see Umach and Caer Fumach. 

Mtjrcastell, a place on the borders of North Wales. (Powel, 
Oaradoc, p. 173.) Thus far came Henry I with all the power 
of England, Scotland, and Cornwall, against Gruffudd ap Cynan, 
AJ). 1113, to Pennant Bachwy; but peace was made. See 
Bachttry, 

MuROTRiGES, Somersetshire. 

MwG Mawrdrbfydd, a Saxon Prince, father of Gwyllty Dra- 
hawg, and son of Ossa Gyllell Fawr, who fought with Arthur in 
Mynydd Baddon, — the battle on Badon Hill, a.d. 520, 0. C. 

MwNCTON, q. d. Monkstown, near Pembroke town. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 321 

MwRETF, a country in North Britain, called also Beget, of 
which Urien Beged, King of that country, took his cognomen. 
See Urien JReged. Here the Scots and Picts had three battles 
with King Arthur. ' (Tyssilio.) 

MwROG Sant. Llanfwrog in Denbighshire and Anglesey; also 
Bodfwrog, a church, vulgo Bodwrog. 

MwsOGLEN or MwsoGLAN (n. 1.), in Anglesey. 

MwTNDEG, I suppose an appellative, for I find it explained 
thus : Davydd i gelwid y Mwyndeg yn iawn enw a hwnnw (the 
author) oedd Lewis Aled. 

MwYNFAWR. Morgant Mwynfawr, 

MwYTHiG : see Amwj/thig, q. d. Amwyddig. 

Mychdeyrn, a prince. 

Myr meddgyni mychdeyrn MecbaiD. 

Cyndddwy i Yw. Cyfeiliog. 
Myddwy river. See Dinfyddwy, 

Myddpai (fl.), falls into Towi, qu. ? 

Myddfai, a village near LlanamddyM in Gaermarthenshire. 

See Meddygon Myddfai. Fairs kept here. 

Myfanwy, vulgo Myddanwy, verch Llewelyn ap Ywain, or 

Mefanwy. 

O fynaig byd rwymgwyd rwy 

O fynor Glaer ,Pefanwy. — Rowel ap EigHian, 

Mytybian, a gentlemcm's seat, Anglesey. 

Mygit. Caer Mygit. (2V.) See Meivad. 

Myllin Sant. UcmvyUin in Powysland. See Melchin. Gam- 
den says he is fully persuaded that this is the Mediolanum of 
Antoninus and Ptolemy; for Millano in Italy, Le Million in 
Xantoigne, and Methlan in the Low Gountries, were also called 
Mediolanum. {Camden in Montgomeryshire.) Mr. Edward 
Uwyd in his notes, after praising Mr. Gamden for his ingenuity, 
disagrees with him, and places Mediolanum at Meivod, three 
miles south of Llanvyllin, a mile below Matliraval, on the north 
side of the river Mymwy, where Dr. Powell had placed it in his 
notes on Oiraldus Gambrensis, before Gamden wrote his Britan- 
nia. Meivod, as Bishop Usher supposes, is called by Nennius 
Gaer Metguod ; but what the words Meguid, Metguod, Meivod, 
or Mediolanum^ might signify is hardly intelligible (says Mr. 

41 



322 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Llwyd) at present ; at leastwise I cannot discern (says he) the 
modem British affords us any information concerning the origin 
of these names. (E. Llwyd, Notes on Oamden, Montgomeryshire.) 
But see Meivod, and perhaps you may be informed. 

Mtllteyrn, a parish, Caemaryonshire. See Edeym, 

Mymbyr or Membyr, a man's name. Caer Fjnoabyr, Coventry, 
{Tho8, Williams.) Ffynnon Fymbyr, a lake near the Gludair, 
within a mile of Troed y Widdfa. The water of this lake runs 
through two other lakes, and so to Capel Curig, and so to the 
river Llugwy. See my map. 

Mynach, a river in Cardiganshire. Pont ar Fjnwujh, the 
DeviPs Bridge. 

Mynaich or Mynych, vulgo Manachod ; in English, monks. 
Llan y Mynych, church and parish, Shropshire. Tir y Mynych, 
a lordship, Cardiganshire. Mynachdy or Monachdy, t. e., mcmk's 
house, places where monasteries have been. 

Mynach Nowmon, or Manach Nowmod, Elidir Mwynfawr's 
counsellor. {Tr. Jf.l.) 

Mynan. Mael Mynan. 

Myngan (n. pr. v.). Cyrchu Myngan o Veigen. {Tr. 63.) 

Mynguy, wrote anciently for Mynwy. 

Mynnau and Mynne, the Alps. Mynydd Mynnau. (2V. 90.) 

Mynogan, or MoNOGAN, or Minocan (as Nennius), the 69th 
King of Britain. 

Mynogi, qu. whether a pr. n. ? 

Am Vadawc mynawc mynw haeloni 
Medel glyw glewdraws maws Mynogi. 

Cynddelwy i Gad. ap Madog. 

Hydraws bydraidd maws a Mynogi. 

Llewelyn Vardd^ i EnUi. 

Mynydawc Eydyn (n. pr. v.), at the battle of Cattraeth. (Tr. 
36.) See Eydyn, 

Mynydd, properly a mountain. Cwmmwd y Mynydd, one of 
the four commots of Cantref Gwent in Swydd Gwent. 

Mynydd Bannawc : see Bannaxvc. 

Mynydd Cadarn (Y), q. d. Montfort. larll y Mynydd Cadam 
a 3000 W3rr a laddodd Drahaem fal y caff&i Eudaf y gorou. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 323 

(Brut y Brenhin.) Gal&id, in the Latin, has it the magistrate 
of a certain privileged town. 

Mynydd Carn, in South Wales, where a battle was fought for 
the Principality of Wales by GrufFydd ap Cynan and Trahayam, 
A.D. 1079, and Trahaem killed. {MeiUr Brydydd) Called by 
Caradoc Mynydd Camo ; but in Oeslyfr, Mynydd Cam. 

Mynydd Fawb (Y), a mountain in Eryri. 

Mynydd Gelli Onnen : see GMi Onnen. 

Mynydd Mihangel, a place in Armorica. See Bedd Elen. 

Mynydd Maon. 

Tin yssjm a rown Mynydd Maon. — Hoian, Myrddin, 

Mynydd y Drymmau, by Neath. 

Mynyw, or Menai, or Mbneu, and anciently wrote Menew 
{E. Llwyd), Menevia, St David's. 

Pennaf i'th famaf i'th fyw 
O Fon hyd yn nhy lynyw. 

R. LLwyd ap Bh. ap Bhiccert. 
See ffen Fynyw. The archbishop's see was removed by Dewi 
from Caerllion. See Ihfhricms. 

Mynwy, Monmouth town in Monmouthshire, on the river 
Mynwy (k man and gwy, says Leland). Fairs are kept here. 

Lloegr wrthryn tra llyn Llwmynnwy. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i L. ap lorwertb. 

Myrngwy, wrote anciently for Mymwy. 

Myrnwy river, anciently Myrngwy. (Maravonia. Dr, PiywdL 
—W. D) See YFymwy. 

Myrddin (n. pr. v.). There were two noted Britons of this 
name. The first was 

Myrddin Emrys, called Emreis . in the Triad 90, a great 
mathematician and philosopher, who flourished about the year 
450. He was a Cambro-Briton, and born at Caer F3a'ddin, i, e,, 
Caermarthen, in Wales. His mother was a nun, and daughter 
to the King of Dyfed or Demetia. His father was probably the 
abbot, or some nobleman, otherwise his mother would have [been] 
prosecuted ; but she Was su£fered to conceal his father, and to 
give out that he was begot by a spirit who lay with her in her- 
sleep. The poets call him Anap y Lleian ; that is, the mischance 
of the nun ; which Dr. Davies, in his Catalogue, mistook for a 



324 OELTIC BEMAINS. 

proper namo, and wrote it An ap y Lleian, and ao haQ Mr. K 
Uwyd^ as if his name had been An the son of the Nun ; bat 
Lewis Glyn Cothi explains this : 

Tad 7 mab nid adnabu 
{Anap ei/am) neb pwj fa. 

JSome Latin writers call him Merlinus Ambrosias, from Aurelios 
Ambrose, as Sir John Prise thinks in p. 10. Kennius' interpo- 
lator confounds him with Aurelios Ambrosius, and calls him 
Embreys Glautic ; but Emrys Wledig is the British name of the 
King Aurelios Ambrosius ; and he says his mother was afraid 
of owning the father lest she should be sentenced to die for it 
But that the boy owned to King Vortigern that his father was 
a Boman, says nothing of his being the son of an Incubus. 
{Eulag, Brit., c. 42.) He says that King Yortigem's messengers 
found him *' ad Campum Electi in regione quae vocatur Olevi- 
sing" Mr. Edward Llwyd owns he *doth not know any places 
of this name (Llwyd's Note) ; but in his Notes on Flintshire 
there is a place of this name mentioned. 

I have met with nothing of his works that I am sure is his, 
except some political prophecies which he wrote, no doubt, to 
serve the turn of the reigning Prince, his great learning and 
knowledge in philosophy, mathematics, and mechanics, having 
acquired him the character of a prophet. These prophecies are 
chiefly in prose. He is often confounded with Myrddin Wyllt 
the poet. He is called Hot or Hod Uthor Bendragon (TV. 32), 
on o'r tri phrif hod. 

He was called Myrddin from the town Oaer Fyrddin, where 
he was bom, which is the Moridonom of Antoninos, and Mari- 
dunum of Ptolomy. The word is derived from myr, the seas, and 
din, a fort, as Dr. Davies says ; but as it is an inland town, I 
take this derivation to be bad, for it is not urbs marUima. But 
qu. whether it was called so from its being the first walled town 
in that country, — Murddin, i. e., the walled fort, — or from the 
river Byrddin ? 

Myrddin Emrys's address in persuading Uthur Bendragon's 
army, on the death of Emrys Wledig, that a comet then appear* 
ing prognosticated a victory over the Saxons, gave him a great 
character among them ; for upon this they believed Heaven 



J 



CELTIC B£MAIN8. 325 

took their part, came to battle with the Saxons, and beat them. 
See lolo Goch's Cywydd y Seren. 

Nennius says that Gwrtheym, on his leaving North Wales 
and his going to fortify himself at Caer Gwrtheym, gave Myr- 
ddin the castle he had built in Eryri, and all the provinces of 
the west, country of Britain : " Cum omnibus provinciis plagse 
occidentalis Britanniss" (Nennius, c. 44.) ; and he and his magi 
(wise men or poets) went to the country of Gwenesi (Gwenwys). 
The King had been excommunicated by Garmon, who hunted 
him from place to place ; and we find a chapel of his (Cappel 
Garmon) even in Eryri, which might be the cause of his leaving 
his castle to Myrddin ; and also the title of being chief poet or 
peniardd (prophet or chief herald, or prif-fardd, as the Triades 
calls him) of the western parts of Britain ; or, as other MSS., 
anvyddfardd, a herald of arms. Penbardd, prif-fardd (poet and 
prophet), were synonymous terms among the Britons ; and the 
arwyddfardd was the herald to treat about peace. 

Nennius could not mean that he gave him the dominion of 
the countries, or else J^here would have been no occasion to give 
him one castle if he had power over all the castles. But he made 
him an arwyddfardd, or herald, for the west part of Britain. 
See Jo. David Rhys' Orammar. 

The second Myrddin was 

Myrddin ap Morfryn {Tr. 70), and generally Myrddin Wyllt, 

by Latin writers called Merlinus Sylvestris and Galedonius ; so 

called because after the misfortune of killing his own nephew, 

son of his sister Gwenddydd, he grew mad, or pretended to be 

so. We have a tradition that his madness affecting him but 

every other hour, 

Awr oi g6f gan Ddnw ry gai 

Awr ymhell yr amhwyllai. — leuan Byfi, 

He was bom in Caer Werthefsm, which is called Tref Myrddin 
ap Morfryn (MS,) ; and it seems he had great property there, 
which he lost in the war between his lord, Gwenddolau ap 
Oeidio, and Aeddan Yradwg, against Bhydderch HaeL This town 
was in or near the Forest of Caledonia in Scotland, from whence 
he was named by some writers JferZi7ii£8 Galedonius; and thence 
arose the mistake of some in attributing some of his works to a 



326 CELTIC REMAINS. 

third Merlin. He flourished about the year 560. See Canon 
CynUaith, 

I have seen abundance of MSS. containing some of this poet's 
works dispersed all over Wales ; and though he wa9 a Pictisk 
Britain, and wrote so long ago, his works are intelligible to a 
person that is tolerably versed in the Welsh. The troubles and 
civil wars in Scotland drove him to Wales ; and we have dia- 
logues in verse between him and Taliessin^ the Gwynethian 
poet. Ymddiddan rhwng M}rrddin a Thaliessin. 

He was buried in the Isle of Enlli (Bardsey), where there was 
a college of Manachod Cwjlau duon, black-cowled monks (Coli- 
dean monks). See Enlli, 

Myrddin. Caervyrddiu, a town in that part of West Wales 
called now, in English, Caermarthenshire ; by the natives, Caer- 
vyrddiu. This is the Muridunum of Antoninus, and the Man- 
dunum of Ptolomy; and Camden says that the copyists of 
Antoninus have confounded two journeys, — one from Galena to 
Isca, and the other from Maridunum to Viroconovium. It gave 
name to Myrddin Emrys the poet and jnathematician, com- 
monly called the Magician ; and Camden,* by way of sneer, calls 
him jra^e«,after Tages the Tuscan soothsayer. &qq Myrddin Emrys. 

It is probable the town and castle was called so from 
being the first waUed town in that country, Murddin or Mur- 
ddinas. Some think from myr, plural of mor, the sea. If so, 
why are not all towns near the sea called Myrddin ? Einion ap 
Gwgawn, in mentioning the taking of Caerfyrddin by Llewelyn 
ap lorwerth, says, " A thrychiad gwerin Caerfyrddin faen*'; i. e., 
the stone castle called Caerfyrddin. Or perhaps so called from 
a brook called Byrddin (if there be such) falling there into the 
Towi, for there are rivers of that name. From Byrddin comes 
Caer Fyrddin. Other derivations are strained. See Byrddin. 

Mtsen : see Moesen. 

Mysetn, a mesne lordship in Morgannwg. (Potoel.) See Afeys- 
cyn, a conmiot. 

Mtvtb, a mountain mentioned by Lly warch Hen in Marwnad 

Gyndylan: 

Bhyddwyu a Myvyr a Berwyn. 

See also Hanesyn Flodeuog, Arch, Brit,, p. 262. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 327 



N. 

Naf or Naw (n. pr. v.). Naf, father of Gwenwynwyn the 
admiral. {Tr. 20.) 

Naich, arglwyddiaeth Tomos ap Roger. 

Naint, river ; qu. Nantes in Gaul of this origin ? 

Nanconwy, from Nant 

Nanheudwy. Here Cadwallon ap Gr. ap C)man was slain by 
Eneon ap Owen ap Edwyn, a.d. 1132. (Powet) Part of Powys 
Vadog. . It is one of the three commots of Cantre' Bhaiadr, the 
other two being Mochnant is Ehaiadr and Cynllaeth. (Price's 
Descr) Castell Dinas Bran is in the commot of Nanheudwy, 
and Chirk Castle, or Castell Crogen, is in the commot of Nan- 
heudwy. (»7. D.) 

O Ddyfnaint, o naint, o Nanheudwy 
0*r tir a fernir wrth y Fymwy. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Ln. ap Qruffydd. 

Nanhoeunain, river. 

Arf eryf eryr Nanhoywnain. — Cynddelw, i 0. Gwynedd. 

Nanhwynain, river and parish in, Meirion. See Nanmor. 
Nanhyfer, a place mentioned by Meilir Brydydd in the year 
1079, in Ireland. 

Pobl anhy faith Nanhyfer. — Meilir Brydydd. 

Also NanhyfSer in Dyfed ; qu. Nevern ? {L. 01, Cothi) [Nevem 
in Scotland.— W, 2?.] 

Nanmor, or Nantmor, or Nantmawr, a river, etc., in the parish 
of Nanhwynain in Meirion. From hence the poet Davydd Nan- 
mor took his name ; and there is a tradition that a disciple of 
his being on his deathbed, Davydd asked him whether he would 
be buried in Nanhwynain or in his own parish, which was a 
great distance ofT. The disciple answered, " I desire nothing but 
to have this englyn cut on my gravestone", which is there to be 
seen to this day : 

Dyma lie *r wyf mewn dam wain yn gorwedd . 
Dan gerrig Nanhwynain 
A pham waeth i wr maeth main 
Bridd na'i gilydd ar gelain. 



328 CELTIC REMAINS. 

There is another river called Nanmor near St. David's, from 
whence the poet Bhys Nanmor took his name. 

Rhys Nanmor o faenor Fjnyw. 

Nannau, Nenau (n. 1.), now wrote Nanney (h nant and gau, t. e,, 
a hollow vdley or hollow brook), the seat of Wm. Vaughan, Esq., 
in Merionethshire, of which county he is Member. 

Nannerch, a church and parish in Flintshire. 

Nant and Nan, an ancient Celtic word signifying in North 
Wales a valley about a river ; in South Wales, a small brook. 
It is found in the composition of the names of places and about 
rivers, the t being melted. Nanmor, Nanconwy, Nanhwynain 
or Nanhoywnain {Af8.\, Nannau, etc. Nant y Deiliau in Meirion. 
Small brooks in South Wales are Nant y Bwla ; Nant Mel, Rad- 
norshire ; Nant Garedyn ; Nant Cwnlle ; Nant yr Arian ; Car- 
nant, Brecon ; Nant y Carr ; Nant Graianog. The poets used 
it for a valley whether there was a river or no. 

A mi'n gynnar yn aros 

Gwen yn y nant gan y nos. — D. ap GvoUym, 

Comant is a small brook. Creunant Chapel, Glamorganshire. 
Hirnant; Creignant. 

Nant, a river of that name. Abemant, Carmarthenshire; 
Cwm ISajit in liannon, Carmarthenshire. 

Nant Glyn, a church and parish near Denbigh ; also a place 
in Anglesey. Pronounced Nanclyn. 

Nant Bai, in Uanvair y Bryn, Caermarthenshire. 

Nant y Niwl, Penbrokeshire. 

Nant y Gallgwn, Gaulbrooke. {Tyssilio.) Gallo Broc, Gallem 
Brec. ( Virun.) 

Nant y Syddion, Nant y Creiau, Nant yr Hudol, run into 
the river Merin in Cardiganshire. 

Nant y Benglog. 

Nant y Cagal, river in Genau'r Glyn. 

Nant y Moch. 

Nant Bran, a river that falls into the Wysg. 

Nant Glas (Y). 

Nant Ffrancon : see Ffranco. 

Nant y Fran, a river in Anglesey. 

Nant Mawr and Nant Bychan, rivers in Anglesey. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 329 

m 

Nant Penkarn : see Fcncam, 

Nant Clwyd, a gentleman's seat in Rhuthyn liand. 

Nant Conwy pi-o Nant. 

Nant Melan (nomen loci). 

Nant yr Arian, or Silver Dale Castle in Cardiganshire. 
(Powel, p. 274, A.D. 1215.) Coginan, I suppose. 

•Nant Mel (nomen loci) in Radnorshire. 

Nant y Cribaxj, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) 

Nassiens, Eling of Denmark, subject to Bang Arthur. (TV. 83.) 

Naw. Gwenwynwyn ap Naw. {E, Llwyd) 

Nedd, river, or Neth, now Neath, in Glamorganshira The 
town is called CasteU Nedd. Fairs kept here. (Abernedd, Pont 
Nedd.) A town and lordship in Morgannwg, a seaport and village. 
The Abbey of Neath is on this river. 

Nefyn, a village in Caernarvonshire. The church took its 
name from 

Nefyn, a woman's name, daughter of Brychan, and wife of 
Cynfarch Hen, a Prince of Scotland {Tr. 52) ; and perhaps a 
river called Nefyn. See Abemefydd. 

Nefydd. Abernefydd, where Elidir Mwynfawr was killed by 
Ehun ap Maelgwn. Perhaps it was Abemefyn, now Nefyn. 

Nefydd Hardd, of Cwmmwd Nanconwy, one of the Fifteen 
Tribes of North Wales ; bore argerU, three javelins sable, Llau 
Nefydd, church and parish, deanery of Rhos, Denbighshire. 

Nefydd, verch Brychan, gwraig Tudwal Bevyr, santes yn 
Uech Gelyddon Ymhrydyn, i, e., Scotland. Hence Llan Nefydd. 

Neffei ap Brychan Brycheiniog o'r Ysbaenes = Spanish 
woman. Vid. FfcMalL 

Negesawc, a courier or messenger. 

Bum yn negesawc. — Meilir Brydn/ddy Marwnad Gr. ap Cynan. 

Neifion (n. pr. v.), qu. Eneas ? See Eifion. 

Y nofiad a wnaeth Neifion 

O Droea fawr draw i Fon. — J), ap Edmund (medd Dr. Davies). 

Ef a yrr nifer i For Neifion. — L, O. Cothi. 

Neinteirch (fl.), q. d. Naint Eirch. [Nant Erch, q. d. Erchyll, 
it being a most romantic, rugged place in Glyn Ceiriog, Den- 
bighshire. — W, J?.] 

42 



330 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Nemesis, daughter of Jupiter and Necessitas, a Celtic Princess, 
whose name in the Celtic might be Anaws, or, as the ancients 
wrote, Anamhis. 

Nemrwth (n. pr. v.), Nimiod. {Sion Ceri.) 

Nemrwth gawr ni mjriaeth gar. 

Nennius, author of the Euhgium. Camden (in Ireland, edit. 
Gibson, 1695) calls him " Ninnius, a very ancient author and 
disciple of Elvodugus, who lived, by his own testimony, in the 
year 830, under Anaraugh, King of Anglesey and Gwinetii". 
But either Camden had a bad memory or had a bad copy of 
Nennius, for in that at Hengwrt, compared with all the copies 
in the public libraries, etc., Nennius says he wrote under Mer- 
vin, King of the Britains. These are his words : " 858 Ano 
DmicaB incarnationis 20 vero 4 Mervini Eegis Britonum " And 
as for Anaraugh, it is the name of no king nor anybody eke ; 
and this Merfyn was Merfyn Frych, father of Eodri Mawr. See 
Ninniaw and Merfyn. Leland says he had seen (with much 
pains) two copies of Nennius which he thinks uncorrupted. He 
takes him to be a Briton from the many British words in the 
History ; that Henry of Huntington had met with the History, 
but was ignorant of the author; and he recites out of him 
Arthur's battles. May not this be the book that Lombard says 
was met with by Huntington at Bee in Normandy ? {ScripL 
Brit, c. 47.) See Samuel Britanntcs. 

Neecwys, a chapel in the diocese of St. Asaph, belongs to 
Mold. See Pen Erchwys, 

Nest (n. pr. f.). Camden says it is used in Wales for Agnes ; 
but it is only a contraction of Onest, i. e., faithful, pure. Lat. 
Nesta. 

Nest vereh Howel ap Ehys Gethin. 

Nest verch Rys ap Tewdwr. 

Nethan. Edryd ap Neddan neu Nethan, qu. ? 

Nethy (fl.), recte Neddi (fl.); hence Abernethy, a town of 
Perthshire in Scotland. Lat. Abemcethum. 

Neuadd, used in the names of places, signifies Lat. atUa, a 
hall ; as, T Neuadd Wen ; y Neuadd Lwyd ; y Neuadd ; Neuadd 
Ma^n Arthur. 



CELTIC BEMxVINS. 331 

Neutu ap Bleddyn ap Gynfyn. 

Neuturvwr vel Neutur Vawr ap Hedd. 

Never or Nevern, rightly Nanhyfer, which see. Uwch Nefer 
and Is Nefer are two of the three commots of Cantref Cemaes 
in Dyfed, (Price's Descr.) 

Newent, qu. ? 

Newcastle, the English name of a town in Pembrokeshire 
[Carmarthenshire], on the banks of the river Teivi ; repaired, 
says Camden, by Ehys ap Thomas, a stout warrior, who assisted 
Henry VII ; and that the English gave it the name Elmlin, as 
he thinks, from elms, for that llivyven in British is an elm ; and 
hence he thinks the Bomans called it Loventium of the Dimetse, 
mentioned by Ptolomy. But if Mr. Camden had known that 
the country thereabouts was called Emlyn (one of the eight can- 
trefs of Dyfed) many ages before a castle was built here, it 
would have saved this lame guess. The Britons call this town 
Y Castell Newydd yn Emlyn, i. e., the New Castle in Emlyn ; 
and the Tirades mentions Glyn Cuwch yn Emlyn before ever 
the Saxons saw this country. This Castle, Ehys, Prince of 
South Wales, took from the Normans a.d. 1215, etc. 

Newport, in Monmouthshire, called by Giraldus Novus Bur- 
gus. Hei'e a Boman road called Julia Strata came, as the 
Necha...[?] says. 

^Nhiniog, or Ynhiniog, or Anhiniog, a manor in Cardigan- 
shire, commonly called Cwmmwd Anhiniog. 

I 'Nhiniog olndogwledd 

Mi af, yno mae f annedd. — P. ap leuan Du, 

NiDAN Sant (ym Mon) ap Gwrfyw. This knocks Mr. Bow- 
lands' Aidan. 

NiNiAW (n. pr. v.). Niniaw, son of Beli Mawr, mentioned in 
BnU y Brenhinoedd to have fought with Julius Caesar hand to 
hand, and to have carried. Caesar's sword from him, which had 
stuck in Niniaw's helmet so fast that Csesar could not draw it 
out. But though Nyniaw performed great feats afterwards with 
Caisar's sword, yet the wound in his head proved mortal, and 
he died in fifteen days, to the great loss of the Britons. The 
name of this sword was Angau Coeh, i. e., literally Bed Death, 



332 CELTIC REMAINS. 

for all wounds made with it were mortal (Tyssilio, Brut y Brenr- 
hinoedd,) 

NiNio ; Lat. Ninnius, qu. ap Cynfrig ? 

NiNNiAN (Saint), a Britain, Bishop of Candidae Casae (Eglwys 
Wen), who converted the Southern Picts as far as the mountain 
Grampus, in the year 412. {Bede.) See Flaherty, p. 414 This 
was in Galloway, which was part of the kingdom of the Cum- 
brian Britons ; and the Saxon name of the place was Witehem, 
where he erected a monastery. Died 432. St. Plebeias was his 
brother. {Brit. Sarict, Sept. 16.) This Plebeias is called by 
Leland Plebenius. 

John of Tinmouth says he was a son of a prince of that 
country, and brought up from his infancy in the Christian faith. 
He took a pilgrimage to Some to Pope Damasus. The Pope 
made him Bishop, and sent him to preach to the infidels in 
Britain. In his way home he called with St. Martin of Tours, 
who kindly received him. Usher says he was called by the 
Scots St. Eingen. This monastery was in the province of the 
Bemicians; in the hands of the Saxons when Bede wrote. 
Leland says that Tudovaldus was King of the Picts at this 
time ; probably Tudwal. 

NiNNiAW, Lat, Nennius, Abbot, as is said, of Bangor is y Coed, 
wrote a history of the Britons in the Latin tongue, entitled, in 
Hengwrt Library, Gildas Nennius' Eulogium Brit Insul. ; and 
in Oxford Library, Gildas Minor. He wrote in the twenty-fourth 
year of Mervyn Frych, which, according to Caradoc, began to 
reign a.d. 817, and was killed in the twenty-six year of his reign 
in a battle with the Saxons. So that Nennius wrote in the year 
841, according to the current account of the year of Christ, which 
shews the Britons had a different account. Nennius makes it 858. 

This man*s name seems to have been Gildas, but surnamed 
Nennius to distinguish him from the elder Gildas, who was a 
North Briton, son of Caw o Brydyn. Some think that Gildas 
ap Caw, about 580, was the author of this Historia Britanum, 
and that it was continued by Nennius, and by Baelanus and 
others since ; and this occasioned the mistake of several writers 
quoting this Nennius for the first Gildas, author of the Epistle, 
and of PoL Virgil calling him the Impostor Gildas, as if it was 



CELTIC REMAINS. 333 

impossible for the Britons to produce two Gildases. There is a 
curious MS. of this History in Hengwrt Library, in Mr. E. 
Vaughan the antiquarian's own hand^ compared with all the 
MSS. in the public libraries of England, etc. Several copies of 
it in other parts of Wales. 

NiWBWRCH, a town in Anglesey, from the Saxon Newburg. 

Noah, the father of all mankind at the Universal Deluge, 
From his name came the Celtic novio, to swim ; and the Lat. 
No^ the Greek Neo, the Armoric noun, the Irish STiavam ; and all 
from the Hebrew Noah, to swim. From hence also came Nep- 
tune ; in the Celtic, Ndbhdhyvn, swimmer of the deep. \N6bh^ 
tonn, swimmer of the wave. — W. J9.] 

Nob. Thus the Welsh poets wrote the name of Noah in one 

syllable. 

Llefain mal Uif Noe am wr. — L, Morganwg. 

NoN or NoNN was the name of the mother of Dewi or St. 
David, whom they call the patron saint of Wales. She was also 
a saint, and the wife of Xanthus, an Armorican, who the Welsh 
call Sant or Csant. Her legend says that she was with child of 
this Dewi, and happened to be in a congregation where a famous 
preacher taught the people, he was instantly struck dumb, be- 
cause Dewi, unborn, a greater man than he, was present. " Non, 
merch Cynyr o Gaergawch ym Myny w, mam St. Dewi." (MS) 

Daw a wnel a Dewi a Non 
£i gael wrth fodd ei galon. 

NoKDDMANDi, NoRTMANDi, and NoRMANDi, in English Nor- 
mandy, a country in Gaul (now France), where the Normans or 
Northmen, called by the Britons Nortmyn, settled under Clovis, 
their leader, about the same time that the Saxons came into 
England, in the beginning of the fifth century. They were Ger- 
mans that inhabited about the Ehine, under the name of Franks, 
from whence France took its name ; and there were Gauls about 
the Seine far before tliis, called Franks. [Pezron.) 

But it seems this country took not the name of Normandy till 
the time of Eollo, about the year 911, who, with more North- 
men from Scandinavia and the coast of the Baltic, wrested this 
part of Neustria, as also Little Bretagne, out of Charles the 



334 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Simple's hands, and called it by the name of their own country 
in the North. Our Myrddin Wyllt, about the year 570, men- 
tions the country of these Northniyn, which he caUa Normandi, 
Nortmandir, and Norddmandi, bordering on the Baltic. 

** Pan ddyfo Nortmyn o iar lydan lynn"; i. e,, when Nartmen 
come from the wide lake. " Pum penaeth o Normandi". They 
bad some country about the Baltic called by the Britons North- 
mandir, for they went under the names of Normans in Charle- 
magne's time, about a.d. 800 ; and why might not that name be 
then 220 year old, and well known among the Britons ? (JdyT- 
ddin.) 

NORTMAIN, Normans. 

Cyfran tonn a glann glasdir gwjlain 
Golnd mor ysgrud ysgryd Nortmain. 

Einion ap Gwgan^ i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

NORTHYMYRLOND, AngL Northumberland. 

Nos ap Hoyw ap Gloyw. 

NowY ap Arthen. 

NuDD (n. pr. V.) and Nydd. {Eywel Swrdwal.) Nudd Hael 
fab SenyUt, one of the three generous men of the Isle of 
Britain. {Tr. 8.) 

Nudd (fl.) or Nyth, wrote by some Nith, a river which is the 
boundary between Galloway and Dumfriesshire ; was of old the 
boundary between the Northimibrians of the Heptarchy and the 
Scots ; and this day the names of places on one side of the river 
are all Saxon, and on the other Celtic. Vide a map of that 
part. Abemudd. 

Nudd, father of Gwyn. 

NuG. Ehyd Nug. {Dr. Davies.) The river Nug rises in Ffyn- 
non Wen, near Hafod y Maidd in Denbighshire [runs by Pentre 
Foelas. — W, JD.], and falls into Conwy near Pant Glas. 

NUR (n. pr. V.) ; Lat. Nurius. 

NwTFRB [the welkin — W. D,\ a very ancient British name. 
Nwyfre of Arllechwedd, father of Lliaws. (TV. 40.) 

NwYTHON (n. pr.). 

Gwr ail flaidd gwraidd gwrhyd Nwython. 

Oynddelw^ Mar. Cad. ap Madog. 
Nydd : see Nvdd, 



CELTIC REMAINS. 335 

Nyf, caariad Peredur ap Mroc. 

Nynias and Ninianus, a most reverend Bishop and most holy 
man of the British nation, because he was brought up at Eome. 
(Bede, 1. iii, c. 4) He preached to the Scots or North Britons. 



0. 

Odkea, a castle in Gaul, mentioned in the British History, 
where Julius Csosar landed in his flight from Britain. He is 
said to have landed at Traeth Morian, probably the sands of the 
Morini. Here he made it up with the Gauls, which had revolted, 
says Tyssilio. See Caesar, Oomm,, lib. iv, c. 13. 

Odor or Oder, the British name of the river that runs through 
Wiltshire to Bath, and thence to Bristol ; in English called the 
Lower -4t;o7i, by a mistake of the first West Saxons, who hearing 
the Britons call it Avon, the common name of all rivers, and 
not knowing the meaning of the word, have retained it to this 
day. Caer Odor Nant was once the name of Bristol. See Bri- 
ikon and Bristol. 

Odwyn. Llanbadam Odwyn, church and parish in Cardigan!» 
shire. 

OsR. Cynfrig Oer ap Meirchion GoL 

Oeth. Caer Oeth ac Anoeth, where Arthur was kept prisoner 
three nights. (Triad,) It was in some part of Britain, for Teulu 
Oeth ac Anoeth are mentioned in Taliessin's account of the 
Tombs of the Warriors of Britain. (Beddau Milwyr Ynys Pryd- 
ain.) See OUadini. Northumberland. Caer Oeth in Ystori K. 
ap Kilydd. 

Oeuroswyd Wlbdio a garcharodd Lyr Iletieith. {Tr. 50.) 

Ofydd (n. pr.), Ovidius, Ovid, the Latin poet. 

Offa (n. pr. v.)^ a Saxon name. Oifa, King of the Mercians. 
Olawdd Offd, a ditch made by Ofla, King of Mercia, between 
England and Wales, to keep off the Welsh who made incursions 
into his land. This was of the same nature with another ditch 
and wall made between Uoegr and Alban, called Gw^l Sever, 
now the Picts' WalL See OlavM Offa, Caer Offa. 

Ogwann, a river mraitioned in Gorhofiedd Gwalchmai, one of 
the rivers that gives name to Deuddwr. See Cegin and Aberdau. 



336 CELTIC REMAINS, 

Ogwen or Ogfaen (fl.) : hence Aberogwen, a village and har- 
bour near Bangor. See Ogwann. 

Ogmore, a manor and castle in Carmarthenshire. [Glamorgan- 
shire. — L Jf.] {JPowd.) Also a place in Caernarvonshire. Mr. 
Edward Ilwyd thinks it to be Eogmor, salt water. Qu. whether 
Ogmawrt See Ogior. 

Ogwr, a river in Glamorganshire, called in English Ogmor. 
Maenor Glyn Ogwr, one of the three commots of Cantref Cron- 
eth in Morganwg. (Price's Descr.) Ogmor Castle is on this 
river. See Ogmore. 

Ogyefan Gawe. (Tr. 59.) 

Gwr hydwf gwrhydri Ogyrfan. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Leweljn ap lorwerth. 

Therefore no giant. See Oogyrfan, 

OiLWY river. (Camden in Monmonthshire.) Morden's Map, 
Olwy. The city of Burrium or Bryn Buga lies between Oilwy 
and Wysc (Camden) 

Olgra or Olgre, a place in Anglesey, in the parish of Llan-» 
ddyfhan. 

Olifer (n. pr. v.). {Trioedd y Meirch, Pr. copy.) Mynydd 
Oliver, in the modem translations, Mynydd yr Olewydd, Mount 
Olivet. 

Oliver Gosqorfawr, alias Gosgorddfawr, i e,, with the great 
guard. 

Olmarch, a gentleman's seat in Cardiganshire. Olmarch 
Dewi, the mark of the foot of Dewi's horse in a stone. 

Olwen (nom. feem,). 

Olwen, merch Tspaddaden Ben Cawr o'r Gogledd, a beautiful 
lady of King Arthur's court. (-D. /. and lolo Ooch.) The poets 
feigned that four flowers sprung wherever she trod. Some say 
that she was Gwalchmai^s mistress ; others, Cyllwch (Culwch) 
ap Cilydd's (Culydd's), mistress; but Lewis Mon,the poet, calls 
her the wife of Gwalchmai See Stori 'r Twrch Trwyth, other- 
wise called Ystori Cyllwch ac Olwen, merch Tspaddaden Ben 
Cawr. Ac felly y cafas Cyllwch Olwen, etc. 

Omtr, the name of a poet and orator mentioned in TyssiHo's 
History of the Britons ; but I am not certain whether he meant 



i 



CELTIC REMAINS* 337 

a British poet of that name^ or Homer the Greek poet, though 
Galfrid translates it Homer. 

Onwt, river in Shropshire, at Onibury; another falls into the 
Wye at Lemster. See Zlieni. Another Onwy runs south of 
Bishop's Castle, and into the Severn. See Trydomoy and Dyfr- 
donwy. [Two Onwys near Crickhowel, — one of them Onwy 
Goed. Ony river near Wistanstow, Salop. — W. J9.] 

Obg, the name of an island in the Triades. {Tr, 3.) One of 
three principal adjacent islands of Britain, the Isle of Man and 
Wight being the other two. The largest of the Orcades or Ork- 
neys was so called, which is probably the plural of Ore. See 
Ereh. 

Orewyn : see Pont Orewyn. 

Orliawns, Orleans in France. 

BoBser Hew fiyrfder holl Ffrawns 

Wyd o Erlyn hyd Orliawns. — Hywel Swrdwal, 

Oronicts and Orion : see Plemmidius and Plennydd, 

Orton or Overton, church and town in Flintshire, near Ban- 
gor is y Coed ; by the Welsh called Owrtyn. 

OsBER. Cynfrig ap Osber, id. quod Osbivm. 

OsBWRN. Llewelyn ap Cynfrig ap Osbwm ap Gwythr larll 
Desmwnt o'r Iwerddon. 

Osc: see Wysg. 

OswALLT. Croes Oswallt, a church and town in Shropshire, 
now Oswestry or Oswaldstree. Some say from Oswald the Saxon 
King ; but see Ussa ap Cynedda Wledig. 

Ottadini, the* name which the Bomans gave to the Britons of 
the country called now Northumberland ; probably the people 
of Gododin, tirhere the great battle of Cattraeth was fought. See 
Oododin Aneurin, In the Triades it is said that Arthur had 
been in prison three nights in Caer Oeth ac Anoeth. Where to 
look for this Caer Oeth I cannot tell, unless it is among the 
Ottadini. See Oeth. 

OwAiN (n. pr. V.) : see Ywain, 

OwAiN, the 35th King of Britain, reigned jointly with Pere- 
dur ; wrote also Iwgein. So Iwgein, Ywain, and Owein, are the 
same, and Latinized by some Audoenus, and by some Eugenius, 

43 



338 CELTIC REMAINS. 

from which Iwgein was formed. Tir Oen, in Ireland, is in 
Latin called Terra Eugenii {Camden.) But the name, in my 
opinion, should be wrote Owain, and formed of and wain, as 
if you would say unsheatJted, i. e,, with his sword always drawn 
and ready ; though Mr. Camden says the Britons will have it 
that this name cometh from King Oemis, father-in4aw to Her- 
cules. But he should have told us who those Britons were. The 
English nation would think it hard to charge them in general 
with any blunder of Camden's, or any particular man ; for as we 
find all our ancient Celtic names significative in our own lan- 
guage without straining, we have no occasion to seek for the 
etymons of them in the language of people to whom the Celtae 
gave laws. So all the Britons should not be charged with the 
fancy, blunder, or opinion, of one Briton. 

Owain Danwyn: vid. Twain, 

Owain Gwynedd ap GruflFudd ap Cynan, Prince of Wales, a 
very great and glorious Prince. He and his brother Cadwaladr 
were eminent for their virtues, strength, beauty, and proportion ; 
humble, liberal, and terrible to their enemies. He died A.D. 
1169. {Caradoc in Gr. ap Cynan.) 

Owain Tudur, or rather Owen ap Mredydd ap Tudur, was 
the son of Mredydd ap Tudur ap Gronwy of Pen Mynydd in 
Anglesey. He was bom about the year 1385, and was brought 
up to the law in London. From thence he went on his travels, 
and being one of the handsomest men in Europe, made a great 
figure at the court of the King of France, where Catherine, the 
daughter of [the King of] France (afterwards Queen of England), 
took notice of him; and after the death of her husband, Henry V 
of England, she married him ; and by her he had children, viz., 
Edmund the eldest, who was the father of Henry VII, King of 
England ; and Jasper ; who were enabled by Henry VI to be his 
lawful half-brethren, and created Edmund Earl of Eichmond, 
and Jasper Earl of Penbroke, with preeminence to take place 
above all earls ; for kings have absolute authority in dispensing 
honours. (Notes on Camden in Penbr.) 

The kings of England, descendants of this Owen Tudur, are 
called Tudors, or the Tudor family, but not rightly ; and Tudor 
was no surname of any family, and family surnames were not in 
being in Owen Tudor*s time. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 339 

OWAIN AP Ukien Reged waa the Prince of Eeged that suc- 
ceeded his father. He was one of the great officers in King 
Arthur's court, (Tr. 9.) Un o'r tri gwyn teyrn. His exploits 
in Stori larlles y Ffynnon are entirely poetical, as in the ring 
given him by Eluned, which had a stone in it that would make 
him invisible if he had the stone. He is foolishly called Owen, 
Segent of Scotland, in a note on Camden fathered on Mr. B. 
Vaughan, and also in Mr. Wynne's edition of the History of 
Wales. 

P. 

Pabell Llywarch Hen, a place in Uanfor, near Bala. (MS.) 

Pabo, a man's name : hence lianbabo, a church dedicated to 
one of that name in Anglesey, and seems to have been founded 
by Pabo Post Prydain, whose tombstone was discovered by dig- 
ging a grave in the churchyard, in the time of Charles n. and 
which was removed into the church, where it now lies. This is 
one of the most noble British monuments now in Great Britain ; 
and has the portraiture of the Prince at full length, with a coronet 
on his head and a sceptre in his hand, with a neat inscription 
on the edge of the stone, the whole very well done and adorned. 

Pabo Post Prydain governed Anglesey about the year 500 
after Christ, and was cotemporary with Uthur Bendragon, King 
of Great Britain, and seems to me to have been Uthur^s chief 
general in the north and west of Britain against the Picts and 
Scots of Ireland, who till then joined against the remains of 
the Boman provincials, at the same time that Uthur disputed 
the crown of London with the Saxons. 

Post Prydain seems to signify chief general, but literally 
pillar of Britain ; and Llywarch Hen, in the following age, calls 
Urien Beged, King of Cumbria^ by the same title : 

Llaiy ndd Uywiai wlad 
Pen Post Prydain ryallad. 

So doth Llygad Gwr call Gr. ap Madog ap Mredydd : 

Post Prydain urddain wrdd gyhnssed 
Penyadur llafnddur llaw egored. 

Whether he got the government of Anglesey by marriage or 



840 CELTIC REMAINS. 

by the king's appointment I cannot find ; probably by the first, 
because on his tomb at Llanbabo in Anglesey he has a coronet 
or diadem on his head, and a sceptre in his right hand, and is 
dressed in princely robes. The tradition in Anglesey is that he 
was a king, i. e., Brenhin Pabo. He was of a noble family in the 
north of Britain, being descended from Coel Hen, commonly 
called Coel Godhebog, priodawr o'r Gogledd, a title given to the 
princes of the North. His father was Arthwys ap Mor ap Cenaa 
ap Coel Godhebog. Pabo's eldest brother was Ceidiaw, father 
of Gwenddolau, Mjrrddin Wyllt's lord and benefactor. (See Afall- 
ennau and PorcheUanau Myrddin.) Pabo's second brother was 
Cynfelyn, father of Oynwyd Cynwydion. Three hundred ysgwyd 
Cyuwydion. The clan of Cynwyd Cynwydion is mentioned in 
the Gododin. Pabo's youngest brother was Elifer Osgorddfawr, 
who was father of Gwrgi and Peredur. See Triades. 

Pabo had a son called Dunawd Fyr, or Dunawd Fur, who 
married Dwywe verch Leenawc. He is mentioned in Tyssilio's 
History to be one of the great men which graced the feast made 
by King Arthur after his conquest of the islands. Dunawd Fyr 
ap Pabo Post Prydain is also called in the Triades one of the 
three pillars of battle of the Isle of Britain. Tri phost cad Ynys 
Prydain. This Post Cad may possibly be some title in the army. 

Deinioel, the patron saint of Bangor, was son of Dunawd Fur. 
Pabo had also a son called Cerwydd, who is celebrated in the 
C&n Brith between Myrddin and Taliessin; and another son 
called Sawl Benuchel, and I think he had a daughter called 
Arddun. There is a tradition at Llanbabo that Pabo and a son 
and daughter of his were buried in that churchyard, over against 
certain faces cut in stones to be seen to this day in the south 
wall of that church, and against one of these faces the above 
mentioned tombstone was by accident discovered in Charles IPs 
time, as I was there informed in 1730, or thereabouts. 

Besides the testimony of the Triades, as aforesaid, in relation 
to this Dunawd, llywarch Hen, the noble northern poet, who 
was an eye witness to the brave actions of his countrymen in 
the war against the Saxons, who bad possessed Deira and Ber- 
nicia, says of this Dunawd, in Marwnad Urien, 

Dunawd mab Pabo in thech. — Llywarch Hen. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 341 

Mr. Humphrey Lloyd in his Description of Britain, sent to 
Ortelius, thinks that Pabo's British name was Patm, which is 
Welsh for the Latin Pavo (a peacock), and that from Pavo came 
Pabo. But the Tricuks, the old genealogical tables, and Lly warch 
Hen's works, compared with the inscription on lus tomb, shew 
that his real name was Pabo, whatever the word may signify. 

HIC JACET PABO POST PBUD COKPORS VIE EL. P. M. A. It is pro- 
bable that the y now wrote in the word Prydain was wrote 
then with two i, which afterwards became an u, and perhaps 
they had an eye on their descent from Brutus. 

Padaeut (St.) Beisrudd ap Tegid ap lago ap Genedawc ap Cain 
ap Gwrgain ap Beli ap Gwrddole ap Dwyn ap Gwrddwyn ap 
Amynod ap Anwedd ap Dawe ap Brychwan, gave name to Llan- 
badam Vawr, Llanbadam Vach, Llanbadarn Odwyn, Llanbadam 
Vynydd. He is mentioned in the Triades (43) : Tri gwynfydedig 
westai Ynys Prydain : Dewi, Padam, a Theilo. So it should 
seem they were all three foreigners, or else how could they be 
called the three happy guests ? 

St. Paternus's life is wrote by John of Tinmouth — that he was 
born of noble parents in Armorica— his father Peiranus, and his 
mother Gueana. Padam founded a monastery at Llanbadam 
Vawr in Cardiganshire ; thence he went to Ireland to visit his 
father who had turned recluse there. There he reconciled two 
kings, who were in war ; then returned to Britain and foimded 
several churches and monasteries, and contracted a friendship 
with St. David and St. Teilo, with whom he made a pilgrimage 
to Jemsalem, and was there made bishop, and after his return 
held his episcopal see at Llanbadam. He lived here 21 years, 
and at the desire of Caradog, King of Armorica, returned home^ 
where he was made bishop of Y annes by means of Sampson Sant. 
Died in the land of the Franks : lus name is found subscribed 
with Sampson's in the third council of Paris, AD. 560. {BrU. 
Sanct, Apr. 15.) 

Pais Padam Beisradd, un o 13 tlws Ynys Prydain. This coat 
would fit no man but Padam himself. See Bluned, 

Padrig Sant ap Alfryd ap Gronwy o Wareddawg yn Arfon 
{MS.) St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland, is said to have been 
bom in the country of Ehos in Dyfed, about the year 373. His 



I 

I 



342 CELTIC REMAINS. 

father Calphumus, a deacon, his mother Concha, sister of St. 
Martin, Bishop of Tours, his grandfather Politns, a priest. 
Others say he was bom in Scotland among the Ystrad Clwyd 
Britains {Ogygia, p. 178). Nennius says his first name was 
Maenwyn, and that he afterwards took him the name of Fadrig. 
Some copies has it Maun or Moun. 

There is a place in Anglesey called Khos Badrig, and also a 
church there dedicated to him called Llanbadrig. It is neajr 
the seaport of Cemmaes, where it is said he took shipping for 
Ireland, when he went to convert the Irish to the Christian 
faith. There is a noted shoal or dangerous shelf of rocks in the 
sea on the coast of Ardudwy in Merionethshire, and runs 
parallel to Caernarvonshire for about twenty miles, called Sam 
Badrig, i. e., Patrick's Causeway, a name given it by the monks 
probably, pretending it to be part of the causeway over which 
St. Patrick passed to Ireland. I find in the Extent of Anglesey, 
Edward III, there were also lands in Anglesey held by the 
title of Owas Padrig, or Patrick's servant, free from any 
services to the prince ; which shows that St. Patrick or his 
followers had certain privileges of keeping servants among the 
freemen independent of the prince. 

He began to preach in Ireland a.d. 433, and died A.D. 493 
(Flaherty, p. 422) ; and died 120 years of age. {Nennius, c. 61.) 

Padran ap Corun ap Ceredig. 

Paladb. Ach baladr, i. e., in direct line or male stock. 

Paladrwisg ap Caynawg Mawr. 

Paluc, Cath Baluc {Tr. 81). This seems to have been some 
name or nickname of a person that was brought up in Anglesey, 
but proved its enemy, as King Edwin, another mentioned in 
the same Triades, is known to be. He is mentioned also in an 
obscure manner in Triad 30, that he was bom at sea in the 
river Menai. There is an herb called Palf y Gath Baluc. 

Pant, a hollow, used in the names of places of that situa- 
tion ; as. Pant Mawr ; Pant y Barwn ; Blaen y Pant ; y Pant 
Gwyn ; y Pant Glas ; Pant y Fedwen ; Caq'r Pant ; Pant y 
Polion. Qu. whether Trinobant (London) might not be formed 
from Tro'n y Pant, i. e., Troy in the Hollow, or Tre'n y Pant, 
the Town in the Hollow. Y Pant uch Pentraeth, Anglesey, the 



CELTIC REMAINS. 343 

house of Cadivor Wyddel, 1140. A place there still called Y 
Pant. Pant y Llyn, Caermarthenshire ; Pant y Persli, a gentle- 
man's seat ; Y Pant T6g ; Pentre Pant ; Pant y Garreg, a gentle- 
man's seat, — ^Vaughan ; Pant y Llongddu^ a gentleman's seat^ 
near Euthyn. {J. B.) 

Panwen Bykddin, in the parish of Ilangadoc above Neath, 
a monument caUed Maen dan Lygad yr Ych, with an inscrip- 
tioa M. Ceritin, etc. See Vertot. 

Paradwts, nomen loci in Anglesey ; i. e., paradise. Powys 
Paradwys Cymru. {Zlywarch Hen,) 

PARC, nomen loci and gentleman's seat. 

PARC Cethin, Caermarthenshire. 

PARC Y Frigan, Anglesey. 

PARC Y Ehun (nomen loci). 

Parchyllan. leuan Vychan o Barchyllan. Qu. Pare y Llan ? 

Paredur or Peredur (n. pr. v.), MS. 

Pascen, mab TJrien, un o'r tri thrahawc (Tr. 28). 

Pasgen. B6d ap Pasgen nen Cysgen. 

Patrick (n. pr. v.), Lat. Patricms, the Apostle of the Irish. 
Nmnim says he wrote 365 Books of A B. C. ; founded 365 
churches ; ordained 365 bishops, in whom was the Spirit of God ; 
ordained 3000 presbyters; and converted and baptized 12,000 
men in tbe region of Conacht ; and baptized 7 kings in one day, 
the sons of Amolgith ; fasted 40 days on the top of mount Eli, 
and obtained 3 petitions. 

He was born, says Flaherty, p. 178, in the country of Alclwyd, 
in a village called Nemthor, in the plain of Tdbum, He was 
three times taken by pirates ; went to Eome, and visited the 
holy solitaries of Italy ; went to Gaul ; studied under German, 
Bishop of Auxerre, and there was made priest ; thence went to 
Eome, and had a mission from Pope Celestine to preach in 
Ireland, and in the year 432 he was made bishop by Celestine, 
and sent a legate, with 20 more, to Ireland. (BrU. Sanct, 
Mar. 17.) 

Patrick's Welsh name was Maenwyn, and the ecclesiastical 
name of Patricius was given him by the Pope when sent legate 
to Ireland, See Nennius, 

He visited the isles of the Tyrhen or Tuscan sea; had a 



344 CELTIC REMAINS. 

staff given him by a monk or hermit, called the Staff of JesTis, 

having been nsed by our Lord. This St. Patrick carried to 

Ireland, and was in great repute there, and one of our British 

bards says of it, 

Ffon a ddanfones lesn 

I Badrig da fenthyg fn. 

He made a third journey to Eome, to tell the Pope what he 
had done, and had several relics given him, which he carried 
to Armach. (Brit Sanct) 

Sam Badrig in Meirionydd is a ridge of foulgrotmd that runs 
about twenty miles to sea, and comes dry at low-water spring 
tides. Bhos Badrig, a place in Anglesey. Purdan Padrig, 
Patrick's Purgatory, in Ireland. 

Patrick was begot in the vale of Bhos in Dyfed, by Calphur- 
nus, a priest, on Concha, sister to St. Martin of Tours. {Ocmden 
in Penbrokeshire. See Lloyd's Brev. Brit.) 

Llanbadrig, a church in Anglesey. 

Paul (St.) of Leon, bishop. He was a Briton, son of Por- 
phius Aurelianus, and kinsman of St. Samson of Dole, and a 
disciple of St. Illtud, at the same time with Gildas, Samson, etc. 

Paulinus, archbishop of York in King Edwin's time, it 
seems, was a Britain, and his first name was Shun ap TJrien 
Eeged. He baptized the nation of the Ambrones or Old 
Saxons, and by his preaching converted many. (N^ennius, c. 63, 
B. V.) Qu. whether Peulan Sant of Llanbeulan ? 

Paun ap Meirchion ap Tanged. 

Paun Post Prydaik, which Mr. H. Llwyd Latinizes Pavo, 
is probably the same with Pabo, which might be formed from 
Pavo. In the Latin inscription on his grave in the church of 
Ilanbabo in Anglesey, he is called Pabo, but in all our books 
of genealogies and poets it is wrote Pabo. Tradition calls him 
Y Brenhin Pabo. 

Y Paun Bach o Wigmor, mentioned in Araith Wgan, was a 
poet noted in his time. 

Paun (Castell), in Elvel (n. 1.), taken by Lord Eys, a.d. 
1195 ; built by one Pain, a Norman, says Camden, rhwng Grwy 
a Hafren. 

Pawl, Saint Paul, as if pronounced in English F^L 



CELTIC REMAINS. 345 

Celfjddodau man ni fo marwawl 
I brofi pob peth o bregeth Bawl. 

Eiti. ap Gwgamrty i Ln, ap lorweriK^ 

Pebid Penlltn, enw gwr, tad Sulwych. 

Pebidiog, one of the eight caiitrefs of Dyfed, containing the 
commots of Mynyw, Pencaer, and Pebidiog. (Price's Descr,) 
The Octopitarum of Ptolomy. {Oamden in Penbroke.) 

Peblig ap Macsen Wledig, Ymerodr Rhufain. 

Peblyc Sant. Llaubeblyc near Caer yn Arvon, the seat of 
Owain Gwynedd, Prince of Wales. 

Hardd i fardd ei fwrdd Nadolyo 
Oedd aelaw gar aelwjd Beblyc. 

Pedolau, horse-shoes. Hoel y Pedolau — he could bend horse- 
shoes. 

Pedrog Sant. He was a native of Wales, of royal extraction, 
in the fifth century. He was twenty years in Ireland learning 
Christianity and sacred letters, and instructed St. Coemgen; 
thence he went to Cornwall, founded a college or monastery at 
Petrockstow or Padstow ; made a pilgrimage to Rome and to 
Jerusalem ; was neighbour to St. Samson. (Brit Sanct.) Le- 
land says when Pedrog came to Cornwall from Corinnia there 
reigned two famous kings in that country, Theodorus and 
Constantinus, who gave him leave to build a monastery near the 
Severn, whose name in the country language was Bosmanach 
(more probably Rosmanach), one Guronus (Gwron), an hermit, 
first lived there, and it appears by an old book in that monas- 
tery of Petrobergi that three holy men who followed Petroc's 
example, are buried there — Credan, Medan, and Dachun. 
Ethelstan afterwards repaired that monastery, and in the time of 
William the Conqueror, a half-brother of his robbed and spoiled 
it. There was afterwards Augustine Canons placed there. 
(Leland, Script. Brit) 

Another Pedrog, A.D. 850, Bishop of Cornwall. (Heylin's 
Help, 116.) See Wws Manaeh. 

Pedrogl (n. pr. v.) Pedrogl Paladrddellt, un o*r tri chyfion 
farchog in Arthur^s court {Tr, 84). Qu. whether Patroclus ? 

Pefyr and Pefb. Goronwy Pefr o Benllyn is mentioned in 

44 



346 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Tr. 35 for the ill behaviour of his soldiers in a battle (at Llecli 
Oronwy in Blaen Cynfael in Ardudwy) with Hew liawgyffes. 
Dafydd ap Gwilym mentions him in his poem of the OwL 
Gwdion ap Don, an eminent philosopher and Prince of Ar 
Gonwy, because a certain married lady admitted of the amours 
of this Goronwy, he metamophosed her into an owl. 

Am denrn i Raru gynt 

Goronwy map Pefr Garanir 
Arglwydd Penllyn howyn hir. 

The meaning is, that he exposed her so that she was ashamed 
of being seen by daylight. Therefore this Gronwy Pefr was 
cotemporary with Gwdion ap Don. Sr. Wm. Pevyr ap Goronw. 
Ehuawn Pefr. (Tr. 9 and 68.) 

• Peibiaw ap Meurig ap Dingad : hence Ynys Beibio juxta 
Holyhead. 

Peibio (n. pr. v.). Ynys Beibio, near Holyhead. Garth Beibio, 
church and parish in the deanery of Pool, dedicated to St. 
Tydecho, on the river Twrch, Montgomeryshira 

Peibron, in Anglesey. 

Peiran or PiRAN Sant. This is he whom the Irish call St. 
Kiaran. Born in Ireland, as Usher says, about the year 352. 
{Brit, Sand) There are no places in Wales that retain his 
name, as I know of, except a mill in Ajiglesey called Melin 
Beiran. [Peiran Sabulo, church of Peiran, buried under sands 
in Cornwall See a small tract by 1841. — W, 2>.] 

Peirio Sant. Ehos Beiiio, a church and parish in Anglesey. 

Peitwn ap Emyr Llydaw. 

Peithyll, a river's name in Cardiganshire, that runs by Gog- 
erthan and into Clarach. See Ystrad Peithyll, 

Pelagius, a Britain mentioned by Bede (1. i, c. 10) about a.d. 
394, who broached some tenets in the Christian Church which 
were not agreeable, which caused a synod to be held to suppress 
him. German and Lupus, two Bishops from France, attended 
the synod, in Britain about a.d. 430. Camden intimates that 
the Monastery of Bangor is y Coed produced him, whom he 
calls the greatest and worst of heretics, for that he perverted 
the nature of God's grace, and infested the Western Churches. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 347 

His doctrine spread itself over Britain and Gaul, that a man 
might be saved by good works only. St. Augustine answered 
him. Some say his British name was Morgan. See his tenets 
in St. August. De Gest. Paloestin,, c. ii, and De Peccat, Orig,, c. ii. 

Pen, an old Celtic word in the names of places, signifying a 
top, head, or end of a thing, and not as Mr. Baxter whimsically 
advances. Penllyn ; Penmaen ; Penrhos ; Pen y Lan in Swanzey ; 
Penrhyn ; Pennant ; Penfro, now Penbroke (Tr, 30) ; Pentir, 
Caemai'vonshire ; Pen y Caerau in Cynwyl Elfed ; Penllech ; 
Penhesgin ; Penhwnllys ; Pentraeth ; Penbol in Anglesey ; Pen 
Machno ; Pen y Chwintan ; Pen Morfa, Caernarvonshire ; Pen- 
boir (see Boir) ; Penbre ; Pentre'rianell ; Pencraig ; Penbedw 
Penllwynau, yn Ilanegwad ; Penwedig ; Penmynydd ; Pen Mon 
Pen Cader ; Pengwem ; Penbre ; Pencoed ; Penhelyg ; Penbryn 
Penardd Halawg ; Penardd (hence Penard in Somersetshire) 
Peniarth ; y Penwyn, i. e., white top, Appenine Mountains. 

Pen y Pabchell, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.) 

Penalun, yn Nyfed, a church where one of St. Teilaw's three 
bodies were intombed. {Tr. 44.) 

Pen ae Lao, rightly Penardd Halawc, a town in Flintshire ; 
Hardin. 

Pen ANT {k pen and nant), Rhys ap Dafydd Penant. 

Penaran. leuan Penaran^ ap lorwerth Voel. [Penaran yn 
Ngheri, ar gyfer Dol Vorgan. — W. D.] 

Penallt (Camden in Montgomeryshire) for Pennal, a village 
and church in Merionethshire, near the river Dovey, where 
there is the ruins of a supposed Boman fort at a place called 
Cefn Caer, which signifies the castle hiU (and not " dorsum 
urbis", as explained in the margin of Camden). In the same 
manner are called seveml other places : Cefn Nithgroen, Cefn 
Treversi, Cefn Cerwyni. See Cefn, 

Penardd, a commot of Cantre Canawl, a part of Cardiganshire. 

I Bennardd a Mabwynion. — D. ah leuan Du. 

Penardd Halawo, commonly called Penar Lag. 

Pencelli, a castle in South Wales, a.d. 1215. (Garadoc.) Sir 
Eoger Vychan o Dref y Twr, arglwydd Pencelli (a pen and galU 
goed cylJ). Hinc Pengelly, an English name, qu. ? Baron Pen- 
gelly. 



348 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Penaewen (nom. foem.), daughter of Culfynawjrt Piydain, and 
wife of Owen ap Urien, noted for her lasciviousness. (TV. 56.) 

Penbedw, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. Mostyn. 

Penbol, a place in Anglesey, near Cors y Bol, in Tal y Bolion. 

Penbre, Caimarthenshire. 

Penbryn, a parish and church in Cardiganshire. 

Penbryn y Barcud, my house in the parish of Llanbadam 
Vawr, Cardiganshire. 

Penbryn in Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here. 

Pencadair, near Brecknock, where Gruffydd ap Llewelyn, 
Prince of North Wales, met Howel ap Edwyn, A.D. 1038, with 
an army of his countrymen and strangers ; gave him battle, 
overthrew him, took his wife prisoner, whom he had brought to 
see the defeat of Gruffydd. But Gruifydd liked her so well, and 
she him, being the better man, that he kept her for his concu- 
bine. {Garadoc in Gr. ap Llewelyn.) Henry II came here with 
a great army against Ehys, but had no battle anno Dom. 1163. 

Pencader, in Llanvihangel Orarth, Caermarthenshire. See 
Cader. 

Pencaer, one of the three commots of Cantref Pebidiog in 
Dyfed. (Price^s Bescr.) 

Pencarn Eiver, called Nant Pencam, in Monmouthshire, 
mentioned by Gir. Cambrensis. Here Henry II, passing the 
ford of Nant Pencarn, discouraged the Britons, who, relying too 
much on their oracle, Merlinus Sylvester, who had said that 
when a strong Prince with a freckled face should pass that ford, 
the British forces should be vanquished. (Oamden in Mon- 
mouthshire.) See Gwasgargerdd Vyrddin, 

Pencarreg. 

Pencoet, nomen loci, qu. South Wales ? (Caradoe,) Gwaith 
Pencoet, where a battle was fought between the Britons and 
Saxons, and the latter defeated. (Garadoc, p. 14c, a.d. 721.) 

Pencraig, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey. 

Penda or PEANDA,King of Mercia,brether-in-law of CadwaUon, 
and his general. ( William Mamsbr.) 

Pendaran (n. pr. v.). Pendaran Djrfed (TV. 30), cotemporary 
with Pryderi mab Pwyll Amwyn. Pen y Darren in Gelli GS.r, 
Glamorgan. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 349 

Pendew, Edynowain Bendew. 

Pendragon, the cognomen of Uthiir, the father of Arthur, 
who, upon the Britons tlirowing oflf the Eoman yoke, exchanged 
the Eoman eagle for a golden dragon in his standard. (The 
Danes and Scythians had before a dragon in their standards.) 
This is the reason Tyssilio [gives] for the name of Pendragon, 
and which is highly probable. Others have had the appellation 
of Pendragon. 

Penegoes, church and parish in the deanery of Cyfeiliog, 
Powys, dedicated to Cadfarch Sant. 

Penerchwys (qu. Nercwys ?), a gentleman's seat, where Lly- 
welyn ap lorwerth, Prince of North Wales, was brought up. 

Handyth vagwyd pefr ymhen Brchw^s 
Yn oreu Cenau Cynan vegys. 

Llewelyn Vardd, i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

Penmon Mawr, falsely by Mr. Camden for Penmaen Mawr. 

Penfras. Madog Benfras ap Gr. ap lerwerth. 

Penfro, q. d. Pen y Fro, swydd Benfro and Sir Benfro (Engl. 
Penbrokeshire), formerly called Dyfed or Penfro Dyfed, the ex- 
treme end of the country of Dyfed ; and in Latin, Demetia. It 
contained eight cantrefs and twenty-three commots. The town 
of Penfro, or Penbroke, hath given name to one of those can- 
trefs, which is called Cantref Penfro, which also is divided into 
three commots, — Coed yr Haf, Maenor Byrr, and Penfro; so 
that there is Sir Benfro and Cwmmwd Penfro, and Tref Benfro. 
(Price's Descr.) 

The town of Penfro (Penbroke) is called by Giraldus Cam- 
brensis the metropolis of Dimetia, He says that Amulpb de 
Montgomery built this castle, in the time of Henry I, with 
stakes and green turf, and afterwards delivered it to Girald of 
Windsor, his lieutenant-general, who was besieged by the Welsh, 
but to no eflTect. Girald of Windsor afterwards married Nest, 
sister of Pr. Gruflfydd, from whom came the Geraldines of Ire- 
land, etc. ; and also Giraldus Cambrensis that gives this account, 
who was Archdeacon of Brecknock. (See Girald, Carribr, and 

Byfcd) 

Paun o frig leirll Penfro gynt. — lorwerth Fynglwyd, 

L c.y Penfro Dyfed. 



350 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Pengakn Llwyd, some mountain where eagles l)red, qu. ? 
(Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.) 

Eryr Penjjfwem Pengam Uwyd. 

Pengoch. Mredydd Bengoch ap Llywelyn ap HoweL 

Pengwern (n. L). There are several places of this name. 

Pengwern, in Cardiganshire. Castell Llanvihangel ym Mhen- 
gwern. {Caradoc in 0. Gwyuedd.) 

Pengwern, in Caernarvonshire. 

Pengwern Bowys was the old name of Salop, now in Welsh 
Amwythig. {£1. E'en in Mar. C^nadylan.) The Princes of Powys 
had their seat here till Ofia, King of Mercia, about the year 784, 
drove them away, who, prevailing on the other Saxon kings to 
join him, threw up a great ditch from sea to sea, which is to be 
seen to this day, and called Claiodd Off ay or Offa's Ditch ; and 
this was to be a boundary between the Saxons and the Welsh. 
Upon which the Princes of Powys removed to Mathravael in 
Montgomeryshire ; but Pengwern was burnt by the Saxons 
when Cyndylan was Prince there. 

Llys Bengwern neud tandde 
Qwae ieaaingc a eiddun brotro. 

Penhernyw, peth o dir Phylip Dorddu, 

Penhescyn, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey. 

Peniarth, enw lie. 

Penisel. Samwel Penisel. (Dr. Davies, Oram.f p. 161). Qu. 
whether Sawl ? 

Penhwylcoed. Caer Penhwylcoed. {Tyssilio.) This is that* 
in Nennius caUed Caire Pensanelcoith ; and by Usher, Caer 
Hwel o goed. This Caer is not to be found in the Triades. 

Penllech Chapel, Lleyn. 

Penllech Elidir, yn y Gogledd, i. e,, North Britain. {Tr. y 
Meirch, 1.) 

Penllech Elidir, ym Mon (Tr. y Meirch^ 1), a place in 
Anglesey, now called y Benllech, at the mouth of the harbour 
caUed Redwharf. See Lledi Elidir. 

Penlloegr, a place in the parish of Uanvair ynghomwy, in 
Anglesey, where there is the remains of an ancient fort of this 
form 



CELTIC REMAINS. 351 

Penllwynog (k llwyn), a cantref in Dyfed. (Powel) 

Penllyn, one of the three cantrefs of Meirionydd, so called 
from fen and llyn, i, e., Llyn Tegid, a large lake near Bala. It 
contains four parishes, viz., Llanyckil, Ilanwllyn, Llanvawr, and 
Llangower. (B. Willis.) See Meloch and Micnaint. Deanery 
of Penllyn, St. Asaph diocese. 

Tudur PenlhjUy a poet. Gwr bonheddig o Benllyn, perchen 
Caergai. {Bd, Jones MS,) 

Pen Machno, a village and church which is dedicated to St. 
Tudclyd. See Machno, fl. 

Penmaen, lands in Denbighsliire. Penmaen yn Ehos. Pen- 
maen, hence Dolbenmaen in Caernarvonshire. 

Penmaen Mawr and Bach, mountains in Carnarvonshire ; on 
the top of the first there is an impregnable fort, corruptly wrote 
by Mr. Camden Penmon Mawr. See Braich y Ddinas. 

Penmon, a church in the east corner of Anglesey, dedicated 
to St. Seirioel. (J5p. Willis,) There is also an island hard by 
called Ynys Seirioel, where there is a chapel which bears that 
saint's name, in English called Priestholme Island, vulgo Preston 
Island. One of our poets mentions this saint's image to be 
formerly in great repute to help the increase of cheese, and was 
therefore made with cheeses in his arms. By this the monks 
got cheese in plenty, in barter for those images. 

Gwas arall a ddug Seirioel 
A naw o gaws yn ei goal. 

St. Seirioel was very fair in the face, occasioned by his often 
meeting St. Cybi at a famous well at Clorach near Llannerch y 
Medd ; for he had the sun in his back in coming and going 
home, whereas St. Cybi had it always in his face, which made 
him very tawny, so that it is proverbial to this day : " Seirioel 
wyn a Chybi velyn " — i. c, Seirioel the white and Cybi the 
yellow. 

Penmon was spoiled by Mactus with an army of Danes a.d. 
969. 

Penmon Mawk, falsely by Mr. Camden for Penmaen Mawr. 

Pen Morfa, a town in Caernarvonshire, AngL Marsh End. 
The church is dedicated to Beuno Sant. 

Penmynydd, a church and parish in Anglesey. In this parish 



352 CELTIC REMAINS. 

there is a gentleman's seat, where formerly the ancestors of 

Owen Tudur lived, who was the grandfather of Henry VITth, 

King of England. The church is dedicated to St. Cradifael. 

Pennal, a place on the north bank of the river Dyfi, where 

there hath been a fort in ancient times, supposed to be Eoman. 

Here was the seventh camp of Ilywelyn ap lorwerth. {Cylch 

Zlywelyn,) 

Pebyllva peir cyfa cerdd 

PeDnal dir engir angerdd. 

It gives name to one of the three commots of Cantref Meirion. 

Pennant, one of the three commots of Cantref Daugleddeu, 
Pembrokeshire. (Price's Descr) 

Pennant Bachwy, where the King of Scots came as an ally 
of Henry I against Gr. ap Cynan, a.d. 1113 ; but peace was made 
between them. It is somewhere on the borders of North Wales. 
[It is near Llanidloes. Biga, Bachwy, Cly wedog, join the Severn 
in one stream, near the town. — W, D^ 

Pennant Melangell, parish and church, deanery of Welsh 
Poole. See Llaiivihangel y Pennant 

Penrhos Cyfeiliog. 

Penrhos Lligwy, a parish in Anglesey ; church dedicated to 
St. Mihangel. 

Penrhos Fwrdios. 

Penrhos y Feilw : see Macs BJios Meilon, 

Penrhyn, an old Celtic word signifying properly a headland 
or promontory, from pen, a head, and rhyn, highland. The name 
of several places in Wales ; as Penrhyn Bangor ; Penrhyn 
Safnas ; Penrhyn Blathaon, Caithness Point, Scotland ; Penrhyn 
Hawstin, in Cornwall ; Penrhyn Penwaed or Penwaeth, Land's 
End of Cornwall. Penrhyn Ehionedd, the seat of the Cumbrian 
princes, Edinborough {Tr, 7). Also a surname, Gruffudd Pen- 
rhyn, Esqr. o Bowys. 

Gmffadd yw i badd wrth em bodd 
Penrhyn ag ef pwy unrhodd. — JSywel GUan, 

See Blathaon, etc. 

Penrhyn Bangor. 

Penrhyn Gwaed, Prmnontorium Sanguinis, the promontory 
of blood. This is the promontory of Cornwall says Humphrey 



CELTIC REMAINS. 353 

lioyd (Brit Descr., p. 33, Edit. 1731), which he thinks to be 
the Antivestiseum of Ptolomy. John Major calls it Penwick 
Streit, i, e,, Pemiici Strata, corruptly no doubt. See Penrhyn 
Penwaeth. 

Penrhyn ar Elays, one of the three commots of Cantref 
Arberth in Penbrokeshire. (Price^s Descr.) 

Penrhyn Rhionedd yn y Gogledd (qu. Ehianedd ?), i. e., the 
promontory of maidens in the North {Tr. 7). This is Eden- 
borough in Scotland, the royal seat of the Northern Britons in 
King Arthur's time, a,d. 520, where, according to the Triadea, 
Gwrthmwl Wledig was propraetor or lieutenant-general under 
Arthur, and Cyndeym Garthwys chief of bishops, and Arthur 
chief tyrant or king (in Brit, teyrn) . This place is also called 
by others Castell Mjmydd Agned, and Castell y Morwynion, and 
Dinas Eiddyn. The great bay and the sea here is called by 
Ptolomy Boderia ; Tacitus, Bodotria ; the Scots, the Forth of 
Frith [Frith of Forth] ; the English Edenborough Frith ; others 
Mare Tresicum (as Nennius) and Mare Scoticum ; and Mr. Cam- 
den says that Nennius (qu. whether JSulogium /) calls it Mbr- 
wiridh, which is certainly a blunder of one side or other ; for 
Morwerydd is Solway Frith on the north side of the land. 
See Morwerydd. 

Penrhys, Glamorgan, Fair kept here. 

Pentallwch. Caer Pentallwch {Nennius) q. d. Pen tal y U wch. 
Thjs Camden thinks to be the town Kirkintilloch, one of the 
garrison towns on the Eoman wall called by Bede Guidi; but 
qu.? 

Pentir, a chapel near Bangor, and a gentleman's seat 

Pentir Ganion, a promontory in Ireland. 

Pentir Gafran, a promontory in Scotland. 

Pentraeth (ikpen and traeih), near Bedwharf in Anglesey; 
Ilanfair Bettws Geraint. 

Meibion Cadifor cyd ehelaeth blant 
Yn y Pant nch Pentraeth. 
See y Pant icch Pentraeth, 

Pentrev, a village, literally chief town. Pentre'rianell 
Pentre'r Bwauau ; Pentre'r Cwn ; Pentre Hobyn ; Pentre Heilin 
y Pentre Du, Cardiganshire; Pentre Bychan, Denbighshire 

45 



354 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Pentre Coed, a gentleman's seat, Oswestry; Pentre Caer, a 
gentleman's seat. 

Pentre Aeron, a gentleman's seat {J. D) 

Pentre Cynerig, a gentleman's seat. (J". JO.) 

Pentre Hobyn, a gentleman's seat — Iloyd. 

Pentre Hyfaidd, a gentleman's seat. («/". 2>.) 

Pentre Madog, a gentleman's seat (/. D) 

Pentre Pant, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) 

Pentyrch, a place in Glamorganshire [and another in Caer- 
einion in Montgomeryshire with a tremendous rock called Moel 
Bentyrch. W. JD.] 

Penwabth, Penwaedd, or Penwaed (n. pr. v.). Penrhyn 
Penwaeth Ynghemyw, the extreme part of Cornwall to the 
south (JV. 2). 

Penwedig, one of the four cantrefs of Cardiganshire, possessed 
by the Normans in 1116, as most of the country was. Castle 
of Penwedig belonging to Howel ap 0. Gwynedd, 1151. 

Penwellt, one of the three commots of Cantre'r Clawdd, 
between Wy and Severn. (Price's Descr) 

Pbnwyn, the cognomen of a man. 

Penyfed, a gentleman's seat in Eiddionydd. {J. D.) 

Penystrowallt, rect^ Penystrywaid. See Tstrywaid. 

Penystrowydd, or Penystrywed, or Penystrywallt, qu. 
church dedicated to St. Gwrgi ? (B. Willis,) 

Pbnythen or Pennstthen, one of the four cantrefs of Mor- 
ganwc. (Price's Descr,) 

Perdix, the name of an ancient British prophet mentioned by 
Leland, on whom he has bestowed a large chapter. (Leland, 
Script Brit,, c. 9.) He prophesied in the time of Ehiwallon, the 
13th King of Britain, and is mentioned by Ponticus Virunnius 
in his Epitome of the British History, who says a large Perdix, 
meaning the bird partridge, prophesied in the Temple of Diana ; 
and perhaps the prophet's name in the British might be Pettris, 
which might give rise to the story. But our writers in the 
British make no mention of such a person. Time has swallowed 
him up, though Virunnius met him somewhere. 

Peredur, mab Efrawc. {Mdbinogi) 

Peredur, mab Elifer Gosgorfawr, and father of Gwgawn Gwr- 



CELTIC REMAINS. 355 

awn. {Tr, 14.) Peredur and Gwrgi were both killed in battle, 
A.D. 584. {Aer, Camhr,) Qu. whether killed in the battle at 
Gwanas ? See Beddau Hirion, 

Peresgri, nn o dair gwraig Bry chain Brycheiniog. It is likely 
this was the Spanish woman. Vid. Neffei. 

Perfarch ap larddur. 

Perfedd, one of the three commots of Cantref Penwedig, Car- 
diganshire. Another in Y Berfeddwlad, the middle 

country : so Perfeddbwynt. 

Enwaf y Cwmmwd einym 

Perfedd hyd Wynedd da ym. 

Beio ap leuon Ptf . 

Pergwmlys, a house near Neath, Glamorganshire. 

Porthiant a fa i'r lluoedd 

Pergwmlys pnr ag ami oedd.— Jfiitc Oae Llwyd, 

Perif (n. pr. v.), the same with Priaf, says Edward Ilwyd ; 
Priaf is Priamus. 

Perif ap Cadifor, a poet, an. 1180. 

Peris Sant. Llanberis, a church in Caernarvonshire. Caer 
Bens, in the Triades, is the same with Caer Peris in Nennius, 
which Usher makes to be Porchester. So also Galfrid. {Th. 
Williams,) 

Perith, a town in Cumberland ; q. d. Pen rhudd, as Camden 
guesses. 

Perri. Harri Perri, author of a treatise of Ehetoric in the 
British tongue, published an. 1580. 

Perselau, Preseli, Parseli, Pryseu, or Pkebelau. Mynydd 
y Preselau, a mountain in Penbrokeshire. 

Person. Ithel Berson ap Ithel Vychan. 

Perth, a bush, is found in the composition of the names of 
places ; as, Perth yr Aur ; Perth Eirin ; T/n y Berth ; y Berth 
Lwyd ; y Berdd Ddu, a gentleman's seat. Perth, a town and 
shire in Scotland 

Perwefr, nom. foem. {H. ap Ow, Gwynedd.) 

Perwyr, daughter of Ehun Ryfeddfawr. {Triad) 

Perydr ap Eniudd Bach ap Brochwel. 

Peryddon (fl.), ancient orthography Periton. Lat., Fluvitrs 
Peritonis. (6?a//:,l. vii, c. 3.) M. B. K In both the Paris editions 



356 CELTIC BBMAIKS. 

of Galfrid (fol. 54) the river is called Fluv. Perinoris ; but in 
ComrQelinus' edit., Perironis ; falsely for Peritonis. In my Latin 
MS., Perironis and Peridonis. See Dyfrdwy, 

Peteona: see Gallgo. 

Petrual. Cefn y Petrual in lianfair Dalhaeam. Hhos 
Petrual, a common a mile and a half from Carnarvon town. 

Petrual Clwyd. {Dr. Davies,) 

Peulin (qu. ?) ap Heulyn, q. d. Apollo, son of the Sun. 

Peulan Sanfc. Llanbeulan church in Mon : qu. whether Beu- 
lanus (Nennius) or Paulinus ? See Elfod. 

Phelipa, gwraig Fleddyn ap Ithel Vychan o DegaingL 

PHICHTLA.ID or Ffychdeyd, wrote also Phichti, and not Ffychti, 
the Picts (in Scotland pronounced Pihts or Pites), a colony of 
northern people which I take to be Cimbrians from the Cimbric 
Chersonese, and who settled among the northern Britons about 
the Orkneys, and mixed with them. They painted their bodies 
as the Cimmerians and other northern nations did. According 
to Tyssilio's Brut they came there in the reign of Meuric ap 
Gweirydd, about 70 or 80 years after Christ, under Eodric their 
King, A.D. 72, says H. Llwyd {Brit, Bescr,, p. 47), from Scythia, 
whom Meuryc fought and killed, and erected a stone with an 
inscription at Gwys Meuric (not West Maria, as some people 
dreamj. 

The subdued people, says TyssQio, had leave to live about Cath- 
ness (probably in the Orcades), and they took them wives from 
Ireland, the Britons refusing to give them any. (But it seems 
this is a mistake, for they were soon mixt with the Britons, and 
lost their own language, if it was not Celtic before they came ; 
for the Cimbrians are supposed to be Celtse.) Because of their 
alliance with the Gwyddyl (or Irish), or the Gallwyddyl of the 
Hebrides, Tyssilio calls them Gwyddyl Phichti, t. e., Irish Picts ; 
and the Triades also makes them to be the second colony of 
invaders of Britain, under the name of Gwyddyl PhichtL Tys- 
silio owns he had no materials to write the history of the 
Gwyddyl Phichti, nor the Gv^ddyl iawn, i. e., the Pictish Irish, 
nor the right Irish ; therefore he proceeds with the British his- 
tory. The Irish historians call the Isles of the Hebrides Inse 
Call, i, e., the Isle of the Gauls. Probably these were some of 



CELTIC REMAINS. 357 

the first planters of Britain unmixed, which the other Britons 
called Gwyddyl, or wild men ; and the Irish, in their language, 
called them Gallgaoiihd (FlaJierty, p. 323), as if a Briton would 
say Galhvyddyl, i. e,, wild Gauls. 

Engl Gallwyddel gwnaon eu rhyfel. — Frif Qyf. Taliessin, 

Tyssilio bringing the Picts fipom Scythia, and calling the land 
given by Meuryc ap Gwerydd Scotland, seems to favour the 
opinion of the Scots coming from Scythia ; and that Scytiaid 
and Scwytiaid were the same, i, e., Scythi and Scoti. The book 
of the Culdee of St. Andrews, quoted by Usher (Prim,, p. 579), 
says all Britain had received the Christian religion before the 
Scots and Picts came. This he took from Tertullian probably. 
But Fordun, the Scotch historian, says they came here before 
Christ's incarnation. Buchanan tells you the very year the 
Scots came to Britain, that it was when Alexander the Great 
took Babylon. (Buchanan, Ber. Scot in Bege, 1.) Tyssilio, in 
the reign of Carawn (Carausius), says that for the good service 
the Ffychteyd (Picts) did him against Eomans and provincial 
Britons, he gave them all the country called in his time TsgoU 
lond, where they remained to his time among the Britons ; i, e., 
he gave them leave to live all over the country, among the 
Britons ; and by this means the North Britons came to call 
themselves Brython, or painted men, as Myrddin Wyllt doth, 
{Hoian^ Myrddin.) 

The South Picts were converted a,d. 412, and the North Picts 
about A.D. 560. (Lloyd's West, Ch., p. 50, from Bede, Adamna- 
nus.) Now, according to Lloyd, all the people of the country 
now called Scotland were called Picts. Those to the north of 
the great Grampian Mountains called North Picts, and those to 
the south called South Picts. Where were the North Britons 
then, if they were not Picts, or mixt with the Picts ? But the 
language was British, as appears by Myrddin the Caledonian's 
works ; and it will appear in this book that the names of places 
in the north are also British. See Mar, Buchan, Cathenes, Aber- 
deen, Strath Nevern, Erch, Glen Elg, Glenshiel, Lochaber, Aber- 
nethy. Boss, Dalwhinie. (See Edward Llwyd's Letter.) 

The modem Scotch history says the Picts came here a good 
wliile after the Scots (Dav., Gamer,, p. 5 and 207) ; but Bede says 



358 CELTIC REMAINS. 

the Britons came first into the island, next the Picts, next the 
Scots. Ammian. Marcellinus mentions the Picts and Scots re- 
pulsed by Theodosius, and he wrote about a.d. 378 ; and no author 
mentions them before the time of Vespatian, about which time 
Meuiyc was King of Britain as aforesaid. Eumenius, in his 
Panegyric to Constantius^ about the year 296, is the first Boman 
that mentions the Picts. They lived first in the Orcades (-ff. 
Z.) ; the Attacotti in the Hebrides. The Picts divided into two 
people by Eumenius, the Dicalidones and Yecturiones, Deau 
Celyddon and 

Phili or Phily : see FfM. 

Philyb and Philyp ; English, Philip. (6r.) Phylip Dorddu. 

Phivion ap leuan Colier o Harddlech. Qxl whether English 
or Welsh ? 

PiccYLL. Howel Piccyll ap Davydd o Faelor. 

PiciHERNES, near Holyhead. 

PiCTWN. 

PiLWM, in Anglesey. 

Pill ap Cynan ap Gwrydr Goch. 

PiSTAlR, qu. Llanbistair ? 

PiSTYLL, a fall of water (from piso) ; so PistyU Bhaiadr Moch- 
nant is a vast cataract on the river Mochnant in Montgomery- 
shire. Pistyll, near Nevyn. 

Plant, children or issue. Plant Llywarch Hen; plant Cunedda 
Wledig,etc.; the descendants of such men. This is thebegiiming 
and foundation of the clans in Scotland and Ireland, as Mr. 
Edward Llwyd observes. See his letter to Mr. Davies of Han- 
nerch, where he makes the Irish a colony from Britain, and he 
calls them C. Britons, because in Irish the words where we in 
Wales use P, they change into C or K : ken, a head, for pen, 

PlIs, used in the names of places, and signifies a gentleman's 
house, hall, or seat ; and Plasdy, a slated house, to distinguish 
it from a thatched or farmhouse. Plas y Ward ; Plas lolyn ; 
Plas y Ciyg ; y Plas Coch ; y Plas Gwyn ; Plas Canol ; Plas 7 
Brain ; Plas Madog in Ehiwabon ; y Plas yn Uanvair ; y Plas 
yn Amlwch ; y Plas Candrj'U ; yr Henblas ; y Plas Bach ; Plas 
Power ; Plas Hofa ; Plas Ehoscolyn ; Plas Maen Gwynedd ; y 
Plas Isaf ; y Plas Uchaf. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 359 

Plemmydius, a British poet mentioned by Leland, who he 
supposes to be very ancient; but as nothing remains of his works, 
nor of Oranius and Gildas, two other smcient poets in the same 
place named, he attributes it to the havoc and destruction made 
by the Picts, Scots, Irish, and Saxons. He quotes Lilius Greg. 
Giraldus of Ferrar, who mention these three celebrated British 
poets. (Leland, Script. Brit., c. 10.) In one of our British poets 
I find the first two mentioned : 

Plennjdd ag Orion plennant 

Oi plwy ddysgeidiaeth yw plant. — 8r, W, Glyn, 

But as Lilius Greg. Giraldus is but a modem author, who died 
but in the year 1552, 1 am apprehensive these are corruptions 
of some British names of well known poets; for how could a 
stranger know more of our poets than we do ourselves ? And I 
am also of opinion that Oronius is nothing else than Goronwy, 
of which name we have had several noted ancient poets, as 
Goronwy Ddu o Fon, Goronwy Gjrrriog, etc. ; and that Sir Wil- 
liam Glyn got his Plennydd ac Orion out of lil. Gr. Giraldus as 
well as Mr. Leland, for I believe they were all three near co- 
temporaries. What British name is like Plemmydius I cannot 
teU. 

Since I wrote the above I find in Ponticus Virunnius what 
Mr. Leland had not taken notice of (and Ponticus Virunnius 
wrote about A.D. 1490). He says the ancient Britons were noted 
for poets, philosophers, and orators, among whom he names 
Plenydius and Oronius ; for so it should be read, and not Pleny- 
dius Oronius. Who can this Plenydius be but Bledynius, i, e., 
Bleddyn Vardd ; and Oronius is, no doubt, Goronwy. See Pont. 
Virunnius, 1. i. 

Plenlyn Meab (Oamden), corruptly for Penllyn Mear, called 
by the English Pemble Mear. See Llyn Tegid. 

Plennydd : see Plemmydius. 

PoLiON. Pant y Polion, i. e., Pant Paulin, at Caio in Caer- 
marthenshire. {JS. Llwyd) 

PoLLYN (n. pr.), Paulinus. 

Pomona, a large island among the Orcades. 

Pont, a bridge, in the names of places in Wales ; as. Pont y 
Gwyddyl ; Pont y Pwyl or Pwl, in Monmouthshire. Tal Hen- 



360 CELTIC REMAINS. 

bont, a gentleman' 8 seat in Llejmt Tal y Bont ; y Bont Vaen, 
Glamorganshire, Cowbridge; Ehydpont in Anglesey; y Bont 
DdiL Pont ar Fynaich, Pont ar Gamddwr, signify the bridges 
on the rivers Mynaich and Camddwr, etc. Pont Ehyd y Cleifion, 
Badnorshire, a village, and fairs kept. T Bont Goch. Pont 
Nedd Fechan, a village in Brecknockshire. Fairs are kept here. 
Y Bont Newydd in Caernarvonshire. Pont Neuf, in France, of 
the same sense. 

Pont Orewyn, abridge on the river ; qu. Irwon ? (Powel, 

Caradoc, p. 373) ; probably Pont ar Ewyn ; or ar Irwon, near 
Buellt, where, in a wood just by, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last 
Welsh Prince, was slain by treachery of a Bishop of Bangor^ 
Madoc Min. (JD. J,) Others say Einion was then Bishop of 
Bangor, in great favour with Edward I. 

Pont Wilym. 

Pool : vid. Welsh Poole and Trallwng. 

PoRECS, the 19th King of Britain. 

PoRECS ap Coel, the 46th King of Britain. 

PoRTH, river. Aberporth, Blaen Forth Gwithen, Cardiganshire. 

PoRTH Cerddin, a haven in Dyfed. {E, Lhvyd) 

PoRTH Y Casul, a little creek, some say, on the sea-side, near 
Celynnog in Arvon, where it is said the cloak landed of its own 
accord, which Gwenfrewi sent by the tide as a present to Beuno, 
and the water was so compliant to it that it came quite dry. 
(Tradition.) 

Forth Cleis, a small creek on St. David's Head, Pembroke- 
shire, where Grufifydd ap Cynan landed with his Irish auxiliaries 
anno Dom. 1079. 

[Forth Cleis, one of the gates of Bangor Iscoed. — W, D.] 

Forth Dinlleyn, a harbour in Ileyn, Caernarvonshire, See 
Tinlleyn. 

Forth Eurawg. 

PoRTHFAWR Gadw, father of Cadreith. {Tr. 15.) 

Forth Largy, Waterford. (Camden in Waterford.) 

Forth SinicrIn, a place near Caerllion ar Wysg, where a 
curious coflSn, etc., was found. (E. Ilwyd, Notes on Camden.) 

Forth Skeweth. (Camden, Britannia, in Monmouthshire.) 
Marianus calls it Forth Skith, and says Harold built a fort 



CELTIC REMAINS. 361 

there in the year 1065, which the Welsh immediately, under 
the conduct of Caradoc, overthrew. (Camden,) Eect6 Porth 
Yscewyn. See Tscewyn. 

PoETH Wyddno yn y Gogledd (Triad), one of the three princi- 
pal seaports in the Britains' dominions after the Saxon conquest 
of Loegria, the other two being Porth Wygyr and Porth Yscewyn. 
{Triad 5.) 

Porth Wygyr ym M6n (Tr, 5), one of the three principal 
ports in Britain, probably Beaumaris. See Givygyr river. 

Porth Ychen, near Llanelian in Anglesey, where Elian landed 
in his voyage from Rome, with his men and oxen and team 
(wSdd) and all his effects. (Om, Qwyn in Elian's Leg. N. 3.) 

Porth Yscewyn : see Yscewyn, etc. 

Porthaethwy, the ferry to and from Anglesey, near Bangor ; 
recti Porth Ddaethwy, or Daethwy's Port, as appears from Din- 
daethwy, one of the six commots of Anglesey, which signifies 
Daethwy's fort or castle. 

Porthaml, in Anglesey (q. d. Portus Bmilius ?) ; also Porth- 
ami on the river Wysg, 

Blodan gwyr dean blodeayn Porthaml 
Wrth ymyl y Peutjn. — Rhis, lonoerth, 

PoRTiNLLANE, rightly Porthdinlleyn, a harbour in Caernarvon 
Bay. See Lleyn, North Wales. 

Post Prydain, an epithet given to some great generals of the 
Britons who fought valiantly against the Saxons on their first 
coming to Britain. Urien Eeged hath this epithet also given him 
by Ily warch HSn : 

Llary udd llywiai wlad 

Pen post Prydain ryallad, etc. — Mar, Urien Beged, 

And Gr. ap Mad. ap Mredydd by Llygad Gwr : 

Post Prydain nrddain wrdd gyhyssed 
Penyadur llafndur llaw egored. — LI, G. 

See Pdbo Post Prydain. 

Pothon (Y). Davydd ap y Pothon o Benllyn. His right 
name was Davydd, a grandson of Bhiryd Flaidd. 

Powell. David Powell, Doctor of Divinity, vicar of Ehiw- 
fabon in Denbighshire, published Giraldus Cambrensis' Itinera^ 

46 



362 CELTIC REMAINS. 

rivm Cambrioe and Ponticus Virannius with notes, and also 
Caradoc's Chronicle of the Princes of Wales with some addi- 
tions, in which he hath shewed great learning and a considerable 
knowledge in our antiquities. 

Po^s, wrote also Py wys, and not Pow^s or Powis, once a 
principality of Wales, and about A.D. 1190 divided into Powys 
Vadog and Powys Wenwynwyn. It once extended eastward to 
the rivers Dee and Severn, with the country between Wy and 
Severn, and in a line from Broxen Hills to Salop ; but after 
making Offa's Ditch, and the Saxons and Normans gaining the 
plain country towards Salop, it extended from Pulford Bridge^ 
north-east, to the confines of Cardiganshire at Llangurig, souths 
west ; and in breadth, from the west part of Cyfeiliog to Els- 
mere, east Uywarch H6n admitted to Powys after his expul- 
sion by the Saxons from his country, calls it Powys Parad^ys 
Gymiy. 

Ynys Bowys in Llangranog, Glamorganshire. See Dinas 
Bywys, [Denys, daughter of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. — W. D!\ 

PowTS Castle, anciently two castles within the same walls. 
The Lord of Powis and Baron Dudley. {Camden.) Built^ or 
begun to be built, by Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, A.D. 1109. 
Camden caUs him a renowned Briton because he sided with the 
King of England. 

Gwenwjn yn amwyn am dir breiniawl 
Po^ys ai diflfwys a'i glwys a glyw ei bawl. 

Ein, ap Gtrgavm^ i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

Dwyn y byd yma dan bwys 

Dwyn byw dynion o Bowys. — H. KUan. 

Powys wen wlad Vroohfaol.— CynddelWf i Yw. Cyfeiliog. 

Powys Vadog contained Cantref y Barwn, Cantref y Rhiw, 
Cantref Uwchnant, Cantref Trefred, and Cantref Ehaiadr. (Price, 
Descr,) 

Powys Wenwynwyn contained Cantref y Fymwy, Cantref 
Ystlyc, Cantref Uyswynaf, Cantref Cydewen, and Cantref Cynan. 
(Price, Descr.) 

Pbadwen (n. pr. v.). 

Pradwen imp para* dyn yw. — 0. Ghcynedd. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 363 

Prawst (n. pr. foem.). Prawst veroh Elisseu oedd fam Gynan 
{MS,) a Llywelyn ap Seisyllt. Trawst, says Caradoc in Edwal, 

Pbedur, the 31st King of Britain. 

Predur Tbirnoo. 

Prestetonb, in Doomsday Book^ Cheshire, corruptly for Prys- 
tatyn, a village in Englefield, manor of Shuddlan. 

Priaf (n. pr. v.), Priamus. Sibli Ddoeth oedd ferch i Briaf 
frenhin. (MS,) — Br&uddwyd a Phroplvyydoliaeth Sibli, 

Priodawr, an ancient Celtic word, literally proprista/rivs, 
Coel Godebog, priodawr o'r Gogledd. Elidir Mwynvawr, priod- 
awr o'r Gogledd. {MS,) These were Northern Britons who 
had great property in North Britain ; and this term priodarvr, 
or proprietor, seems to be a local word among the Pictish 
Britons ; whence priodi, to marry, is to make a person one's 
property; from hence, perhaps, praetor. Anciently wrote jprio^, 
priotatvr. See Owledig and Oavyr, 

Prydain, Prydein, Pryden, one of the ancient British names 

of the Isle of Britain. Camden's account of the name of this 

island is this, — that the Greeks called it Albion {Pliny) ; that 

it seems to have been so called by the Greeks in a fanciful 

humour, from Albion the son of Neptune, as Perrot and lil, 

Giraldus have before observed; that the British poets call it 

Inis Wen (Selden, Annot Polyolb,, p. 20) ; that Orpheus, in his 

ArgonatUics, if they be his, call the island next Ireland, White 

Land. In the old Parodia against Yentidius Bassus it is called 

Insula CertUi, i, e., the green or blue island, — Glas Ynys, which 

has an affinitv with the old name Clas in the Triades, So 

Claudian says of it, 

cujns vestigia verrit 

Gceralas. 

Prosper Aquitanus calls it the Roman Island, and Gildas hints 
at that name ; that it was a presidial, but never proconsular ; 
that the name Samothea, from Samothes, sixth son of Japhet, 
is borrowed of Annius Viterbiensis' forged Berosus ; that it is 
probable the natives were called Brit or Brith in the old bar- 
barous language, by a Greek verse which passes under the name 
of Sibyl (see M)rrddin'3 Ghwibleian) ; that Procopius calls this 
island Britia ; that in ancient inscriptions set up by the Britons 



364 CELTIC REMAINS. 

themselves we read Brito^ Britones> Brittus ; that the Saxons 
called the Britons Bpitraj-, particularly Witichund^ through his 
whole History, useth the word BritsB ; and the word Brith^ in 
the ancient language of this island, signifies anything that is 
painted or coloured over with various colours ; that in the names 
of almost all the ancient Britons there appears some imitatioB 
of a colour, as Cogidunus, from coch, etc. ; that Isidore says 
Britannia came from a word of the inhabitants. So Mr. Camden 
concludes Britannia came from Brith and Tania, a Greek word, 
found in an old glossary, for a region (which Gasaubon is not 
satisfied with, and says it is a mistake of glossographers for 
tainia, a slip of land). Lucretius and Gs^sar have named it 
Britannia, and they are the first of the Latins [that] make men- 
tion of it. 

This is all Mr. Gamden says of it ; and Gasaubon, in the room 
of Brith-tania, would have the name come firom the British word 
brydio, to warm, to boil, because the seas boil and are more out- 
rageous than other seas ; but this hath no foundation in truth, 
for they are not warmer or more outrageous. 

Mr. Humphrey Lloyd derives it from Pryd Cain, qu<m Pryd- 
ain for softness ; but Gamden says cain is a Latin word, candi- 
dvs, though Pezron would make candidvs come from the Geltic 
cain, Gamden, in first inhabitants, says the Greeks called this 
island ^perawiav ; so he thinks Eliot's Tlpvrcafeia seems impro- 
bable. Every man for the honour of his country. Goropius 
Becanus says the Danes gave it the name of Bridania^ t. e.. Free 
Dania, — a poor antiquary, not knowing the Greeks called it 
Bretania. Bodin supposes it took its name from the Spanish 
word Bretta, earth. But where was the Spanish tongue when 
the Greeks called it Bretania ? Great Bodinus Forcatulus, from 
Brithin, a kind of drink among the Grecians. {AtheTiceus.) Others 
from the Brutii in Italy ; and some pedants, from the brutish 
manner of the inhabitants, (Camden, vi, in Notes on Camden, 
p. vi.) 

According to the most ancient Irish antiquities [antiquaries ?] 
Britain was so called from Brittan, son of Fergus Fitz Nemech, 
formerly called Inis Mdr, agreeable to Aristides' Insula Magna, 
whereof Selden in if are Clausum, (See Ogygia, p. 11, 12, 66, 
170.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 365 

Our British* traditions say it was called by one Brutus Ynys 
Brtit, i. e., Brut Ynys, and hence Britannia ; and afterwards 
Prydain by Prydain ab Aedd Mawr, who conquered it. 

Pkydelaw Menestyr Gwallgofiad, one of the oflacers that 
came with Elidir Mwynfawr in his North Wales expedition 
against Bhun ap Maelgwn. (Tr, if. 1.) 

Fryderi ap Dolor Deini oDdeifr a Brynaich (Durham, qu. ?); 
wrote also Pryder. He was one of the strong cripples. (2V. 21.) 

Pryderi, mab Pwyll Amwyn, un o'r tri gwrddfeichiad (TV. 
30), arglwydd ar saith gantref Dyfed. Tir Pryderi in Bro GadelL 
{D. ap Oioilym,) Pan ladded Pryderi yn Arfon a Gwrgi yn 
Ngwanas. {M8. D. Jones,) 

Ydd wyf prydems fal Pryderi. 

Einion ap Qtocdchmai, to Nest ferch Howel (probably 

daughter of Howel ap Ow. Owynedd). 
See Mahinogi. 

Prydu ap Braint Hir ap Nevydd ap Geraint. 

Prydwen, the name of King Arthur's shield. {Tyssilio.) 

Prydydd, the common acceptation of the word now is a poet ; 
but it seems to have been, among the ancients, the title of a 
branch or class of the bards whose business it was to keep an 
account of time in verse. The word is derived from pryd, time ; 
and prydydd is literally a chronicler, as darllenydd is reader, 
sgrifennydd, a writer, etc. Prydu, among the poets about the 
Norman conquest, was to sing and record praises. So Gr. Gryg 
to D. ap Gwilym. 

Sir John Price, in his Defence of the British History y guesses 
that the name of the Druides might come from the word Pry- 
duides, by which he means poets or bards ; but his pryduides, 
though ingenious enough, is a made word from prydydd, pi. 
pi'ydyddion, and hath nothing in it of Druides. 

Prydyn, a name given to North Britain or Scotland by the 
provincial Britons and Eomans when inhabited by those stout 
Britons who would not yield to the Boman yoke, and were called 
painted Britons, or Picts, who are there still, mixed with the 
Irish Scots, etc. In the Notitia, Britannia Minor. 

.Prys Dolffyn, nomen loci in Mona and Flintshire. 

Pryseddfod or Prysaddfed, nomen loci in Mona. 



366 CELTIC REMAINS. 

• 

Pbys Iorwekth, nomen loci in Mona. 

Prystatyn or Prestatyn, a commot and castle in Tegengl, 
A.D. 1167. {Oaradoc; Price's Bescr,) 

Prysgaga or Prysgageu, in Cardiganshire. 

Prysglwyn, nomen locL 

Pryslygod, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) Lloyd's. 

Prysefel, nomen loci in Mona. 

Prysor. CasteU Prysor in the parish of Trawsfynydd, sup- 
posed by Mr. Edward Ilwyd to have been built by the Bomans, 
but gives no reasons for it. {Notes on Camden,) 

PuLESTON, enw lie, qu. ? John o Puleston ; hinc Pilstwn. 

PuMLUMON Mountain, rightly Plymlumon, fipom plwm, i.e,, 
lead, with which that country abounds; a high mountain on 
the east border of Ceretica. [Pumlumon, five standards or five 
beacons. — L M.] 

PwLL is a British word used in the composition of the names 
of places in Wales and Cornwall ; signifies a pool of water. 
PwU y Crochan ; PwU PUlo ; PwU y Tarw, etc. 

PwLL river. Aberpwll, near Moel y Donn, Caemarvonshire. 

PwLL Halog (nomen loci). 

PwLL Cynffig, in Glamorgan, a town swallowed, as tradition 
has it. 

PwLL Gwyngyll, a place in Anglesey ; hence Llanvair PwU 
Gwyngyll, church and,parish. 

PwLL Cynan, the west boundary of Morganwg, or lordship of 
Glamorgan, when taken by the Normans. {Dr. Fowel, p. 122.) 

PwLL GWTTIG (n. 1.). Here a battle was fought by Trahaem 
ap Caradoc, King of North Wales, with Rhys ap Owen with all 
the power of South Wales, where Ehys and his brother Howel 
were defeated, and at last taken and killed, to revenge the death 
of Bleddyn ap Cynvyn, a.d. 1075. {Oaradoc in Trahaem.) 

PwLL Ceris (nomen loci) : see Ceris. 

Pwllheli, a seaport in Lleyn, Caernarvonshire. Qu. whether 
Pwll Eli, and that the river from the west was called Eli ? 

PwLL Ffanogl, a creek in the river Menai in Anglesey. 

PwMTFRED {MS,), Pomfret. A dorresid ei ben gerUaVr Pwm- 
ffred. 

Pwyll (n. pr. v.). 



CELTIC REMAINS. 367 

PwYLL Amwtn, father of Pryderi. {Tr. 30.) 

PWYLL GWTDDEL (n. pr. V.). 

PwYLL Pendefig Dyfed ap Casnar Wledig. {MaJnnogi.) 

PwYLL or Y PwYL, Poland. {R. Vaughan) 

PwYLiAiD, Polanders. 

PwYTH Meinlas, where Caesar first landed in Britain. 

Pybyb ap Caper ap Puder ap Stradwar ap Pandwlph ap Cyn- 
wlph. 

Pyctas, the name of certain light skiffs, or scouting vessels 
(or, as we now call them, tenders), among the ancient Britons 
mentioned by 11. Vegetius {Be Be MilU., 1. iv, c. 37). They had 
about twenty rowers, and attended the bigger sort of pinnaces, 
or, as now called, men of war. Their sails, and even the saUors' 
clothes, were dyed of a sea-green, that they might approach the 
enemy imdiscovered, and so make sudden attacks and intercept 
transport, etc. This word, in some copies of Vegetius, is wrote 
pictas and picates; and in the old French translations of Vege- 
tius it is picaces and pigaces ; and it is Godeschalius Stewechius' 
opinion on this place, that they were called pincas, for that as 
this day in Britain and Holland such vessels are called pinks or 
een pinke. What a beating about the bush there is here about 
the name of a kind of vessel ! The English and Dutch, who are 
Germans, may lay claim to the word een pinke, but the ancient 
British tongue hath it not. Vegetius was a Constantinopolitan, 
and lived about the year 386, just on the decline of the Boman 
empire in Britain ; therefore he must mean these British ships 
of war belonged to the Northern Pictish Britons who infested 
the Soman or Southern Britains with their shipping. (Selden, 
Mare Olaus,, p. 229.) What is more natural than for a Koman 
to call the small craft of the Picts, which were really coloured 
sea-green, pyctas i The Bomans in Britain (or, if you please to 
call them Southern Britons who were really Boman) called them 
so ; and they also called those stout Northern Britons who 
refused the Boman yoke Pidi, because they painted themselves, 
though these Britains called themselves in their own language 
Brython, as appears by the works of Myrddin Wyllt, who was a 
Caledonian Pict» and whose poems are imderstood to this day in 
Wales, where he ended his days. There is no great conjuratiou 



368 CELTIC REMAINS. 

then to find that Fyctas or Pictas was a British Latin or bastard 
Latin name given by the Eoman party to the tenders or privateers 
of the Pictish Northern Britons who gave them so much trouble. 
The very account of their dyeing their sails and clothes shews 
it. Vegetius says the Romans observed these Britons called 
them Pictds ; i. e,, the provincial Britons called them so in Latin, 
which was the common language then among the Eoman Britons, 
or else a mongrel mixture of Latin and British. 

Pydew, a draw-well, an appellative for water in the name of 
some places. Pydew, in Creuddyn, etc. 

Pyll, a son of Llywarch Hen, killed in battle : hence Pylli, 
nomen loci in Cardiganshire. Pyll, father of Gweir. {Oaradoc^ 

Pymer, King of Loegria in the time of the Pentarchy and 
confusion, the 20th King after Brutus. 

Pyr, the 67th King of Britain ; Latinized Pymis. Maenor 
Byrr ; and Ynys Byrr, Caldey in Penbrokeshire, from Pyr, abbot 
of a monastery on that island. 

Pywyk Lew ap Bwydeg. 



R. 

Ragat, a place in Meirion. See Oaer Beged. 

Ranullt (verch Reinallt brenin Manaw) oedd fam Wladua 
verch Gr. ap Llewelyn ap lorwerth Drwyndwn. 

Reget : vid. Mwreyf and Urien Beged. 

Regni, a people of Loegria. 

Regnum, qu. Yr Hengwm ? 

Reinallt ap Meuric ap Rhys. 

Reiol (Plas) Ynghaerd^: qu. an id. palace royal? 

Reweniov, in Doomsday Book, Cheshire ; corruptly wrote for 
Ekyfoniog. " Robertus tenet de rege Ros et Reweniov'', i, e., Rhos 
and Rhyfoniog. 

Read Vach : see Bhaiadr Bach, 

Rhaeadb, a cataract (from rhtto, qu. rJmaddivfr, i, e,, roaring 
water). 

Rhaolan, a church and parish [and castle — Wl D.] in Mon- 
mouthshire. Y Llys yn Rhaglan; Neuadd Rhaglan; et hinc 
denomin. Robert Rhaglan. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 369 

Rhaiabr, a cantref in Powys Vadog, containing Moclinant is 
Ehaiadr, Cynllaeth, and Nanheudwy. (Price, Dea'cr,) 

Bhaiadr Bach ap Asser neu Arseth. 

Bhaiadr Gwy, a town in Eadnorshire, on the river Gwy ; i, e,, 
the Cataract of Gwy. The castle built by Lord Eees, a.d. 1178. 

Ehaudr Mochnam' : see Pistyll Bhaiadr. 

Ehain ap Brychan Brycheiniog. Mae iddo deml ym Manaw. 

Rhat ap Asser ap Hedd Molwynog. 

Ehedyn. Mynachlog yr Ehedyn or Yr Hedyn, the ruins of 
a small monastery or cell of monks on the land called Bryn y 
Oe/eiliau, near Bettws Llanfihangel in Eryri, on the river Conwy. 

Ehedynog Velen (Y), nomen loci in Caernarvonshire. Ehed- 
ynog is Feliceus, See Tal y Bhedynog, 

Eheged or Beget (n. L), a country in the north of Britain ; 
Latin, Regedia. (E. Zlwyd,) Called also Mwreyf, where, in the 
time of Uthur Bendragon, Urien Eeged was Prince. His son, 
Owen ap Urien Eeged, was one of King Arthur's great oflBcers. 
His country was given to Urien ap Cynfarch by Arthur, says 
Tyssilio. This Mwreyf is called by Galfrid Murefrensium. 

Gwae Reged o heddy w. 

Llywarch Hen, in Urien Beged's Elegy. 

Tir Eeged. (Grorhofifedd ff. ap 0. Owynedd) 

Ehei, or Bhai, gwraig Gyrthmwl. {Llywarch EeUy Marwnad 
Cynddylan.) 

Eheidiol (fl.), in Cardiganshire, rises in Plumlumon, and, 
taking in several rivers, falls into the sea near Aberystwyth. It 
is wrote also Eheidiawl. 

Llewychedig Uafn yn Haw reddfawl 

Yn lladd dy wrthladd i wrth Lys Bheidiawl. 

Einion ap Gwgan^ i L. ap lorwerth. 

Eheiniad : vid. Owyndda Rheiniad, {Tr, M. 1.) 
Eheon and Ehyd Been. 

Nend gweigion Arfon is Rheon Byd. 

Qwilym Ddu^ to Sir Gr. Llwyd. 

Bhial, enw Ue yn swydd Fflint. 

Bhiarot Y Eram, some noted king-at-arms or herald^ to 

47 



870 OSLTIO REMAINS. 

whom (it was remarkable that) two Princes, Llew Llawgyffes 
and Gwdion, applied for names and arms. (TV. 77.) In Trioedd 
y Meirch, No. 5, this man is Bahawt eil Morgant. 

Shidian. Llanridian, Glamorganshire. There are fiEiirs kept 
here. 

Ehiengab, daughter of liuddocca ap Cariadog Freichfras. 
{J. R) 

Rhiengar, verch Brychan, mam Geinydr Sant. 

Ehieinwg : see Ereinwc. 

Ehin, river, the Rhine in France. Morrinwyr, the Morini, 
that inhabited between the Rhine and the sea. 

Mn film jn nhre'r Rhin 
Yn darllen Ilyfran Mjrddin. 

Ehineri (n. pr. v.). Rhineri fab Tangwn, one of the tri gwrdd- 
faglawg ; qu. strong crooks ? 

Ehionydd (n. pr.). Penrhyn Rhionydd yn y Gogledd, where 
the north coronet or talaith (diadem) was wore under the crown 
of London. {Tr, 2.) Edinburgh. See Din Eiddyn, This is the 
same with Penrhyn Rhianedd and Castell y Morwynion, t.e., the 
Castle of Virgins. Penrhyn Rhionedd, the seat of the Princes 
of Cumbria. {K Llwyd,) 

Rhibyd Flaidd, a noted warrior in the time of Owein Gwyn- 
edd. Prince of Wales. He was lord of Pennant. {Oynddelw, i 
Eiryd Flaidd.) 

Pnodawr Pennant pennaf achelwr 

Uchelwyr vodrydafc 

Mae yn vlaidd am car, etc. — Oynddelw. 

Llin Bind glendid glander. — 0. LL M. 

Vid. Garmon a Blaidd, 

[Ehisgae, in Monmouthshire, the Welsh Gotham, He hynod 
am ffyliaid. Odid nad prydyddion ydjoit oil y trigolion, os gwir 
y chwedlau digrifon y siaxedir am danynt. Un o honynt yw 
lolo.— /. M.] 

Rhitta Gawr, a Prince mentioned in BriU y BrerJdnoedd. 
He seems to have been a freebooter or pillager on the marches 
towards Scotland. The story is, he had a cap made of the beards 
of the princes or great men he had conquered, which be had 



CELTIC REMAINS. 371 

flayed and sewed together ; and had left room for the beard of 
Arthur to crown it, as he was the chief of kings. So in a bravado 
he sent a message to Arthur to flay his beard, and to send it 
him, or else to come and fight him hand to hand, end whoever 
should get the day should have the other's beard and cap. 
Accordingly King Arthur accepted the challenge, and gained the 
prize. (Tymlio.) This and some other passages in the British 
history, where there is mention of the word caivr, was by Galfrid 
into Latin translated {ffigds) a giant, whereas the meaning of 
the word among the ancient Britons was a prince or a man of 
great power ; and by being ridiculously worded, hath given them 
the air of fable ; whereas it is no more improbable that Arthur 
(the Prince of the Britons that had been lately Eoman provin- 
cials) should fight Rhitta, a Pictish Prince, in a single combat, 
than that the great Canute, who was King of Sweden, Norway, 
and Denmark, should fight Edmund Ironside the Saxon in sight 
of both their armies ; and a challenge of this nature hath been 
in the time of Henry VIII, between the King of Prance and the 
Emperor of Germany. 

Rhiw, an ancient Celtic word in the composition of the names 
of places in Britain. It signifies high ground qr side of a bank. 
" Cadw dithau'r rhiw", says Llywarch Hen to his son in the 
battle ; i.e., keep the upper ground. Ehiw Gyferthwch yn Eryri 
(TV. 30) ; Ehiw 'r Saeson, Montgomeryshire ; Ehiw Leding ; 
Ehiw Arthen. In the Greek, rhion (fiu)v) signifies the top of a 
mountain or promontory. In the Latin, rupes is a steep bank 
or rock. 

Ehiw (Y), a cantref in Powys Vadog, containing the commots 
of lal, Ystrad Alun, and Hope. 

Ehiw Dydrnwy. 

A mi ddisgoganaf gwaith Machawy 
Adfydd geloraa rhydd yn Bhiw Dydrnwy. 

Hoiane Myrddin. 

Emw Felen [Llywarch Hen), a mountain or high land near 
Llangollen, where Gwell ap Llywarch Hen was buried. 

Ehiw Eeddgain, mentioned by Einion ap Gwgawn in Canu i 
Lywelyn ap lorwerth. 

Ehiw Hirieth, a gentleman's seat (J. D) See Hirieth afon. 



372 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Ehiw'r Hyddod. {6. Olyn, i Hywel.) 

Ehiw Tanad, the house or monastery of Ehys Abad Ystrad 

Fflur. 

♦ Awn hyd yno a'n dilyno i 

A'n rhaid tjno yn Khiw Tanad. 

O. Glyn^ i Bys Abad. 

Ehiw y Caws. Aberrhiw y Caws. 

Ehiwabon, rect6 Ehiw Fabon, a town in Denbighshire; ■ 

church and parish, vicarage. See BMw, \ 

EhiwalaIiLT {Price's Descr,), one of the commots of Cantref 
Melienydd, between Wy and Severn. Qu. whether Ehiwlsdlt ? 

Ehiwallon ap Cunedda, the 13 th King of Britain. 

Ehiwallon ap Dingad. i 

Ehiwallon Wallt Banhadlen, one of the tri deifniog Tnys 
Prydain. {Tr. 10.) 

Ehiwallon ap Urien, yn ymladd a'r Saeson. {Tr, 49.) In 
some battle this Ehiwallon fought with the Saxons. His men 
tied their feet together by pairs, resolving to die or keep the ' 

field. {Tr. 49.) See also Serigi. j 

Ehiwallon Eurhualog. This Ehiwallon and the other two 
Eurhualog, or golden-fettered (which were Ehun ap Maelgwn 
and Cadwaladr the Blessed), were so taU that no horses high 
enough could be got for them without their using a kind of 
stirrups made of gold chains, and a pan of gold for the knee. 
{Tr, 22.) I 

Ehiwddolion, a place between Bettws and DolMryddelen* 
Here is a stone called Carreg yr Ysgrifen, with these letters, as 
D. Jones says, luz. 

Ehiwedog, rectfe Ehiw Waedog, in Meirion. 

Ehiwlallt, nomen loci, (i. 0. Cothi.) 

Ehiwlas, a gentleman's seat, Meirion. 

Prysur hael Prys o'r Bbiwlas. — leuan Tew. 
Ehodni Eiver. Aber Ehodni, and not Hodni, which see, qu. ? 

Bhif lenan ddwylan ddeiliad 

Ehyd jnglynn Bhodni yngwiad. 

Llewelyn Oock y Bant, 
Aber hydr-aer Ehodni. 

Pnjdydd y Mochy i Lywelyn. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 373 

Glyn Ehodni, one of the four commots of Pennythen in Mor- 
gan wg : so there may be Hodni and Ehodni. 

[Bhodni, a liver of Glamorgan. Olyn Ehodni in Glamorgan. 
— /. M.] 

Ehodri, generally translated in Latin Eodericus (n. pr. v.). 

Ehodri Mawr, or Eoderick the Great, King of Wales, famous 
for dividing Wales between three of his sons. He was son of 
Esyllt, daughter of Cynan Tindaethwy. He was killed in a 
battle with the Saxons in Anglesey, a.d. 876 ; and also Gwyriad, 
his brother. 

Ehodei Molwynog, son of Idwal Iwrch, son of Cadwaladr, 
King of Britain, who reigned in Cornwall and Devon about 
thirty years, smd tiU about the year 750, and then was drove by 
the Saxons to Wales. He was father of Cynan Tindaethwy. 

Ehodygeidio, the parish of Ceidio, in Anglesey. See Ceidio, 

Ehoddvyn, the river Ehone in Gaul, in Latin Ehodanus, k 
rJiedec, says Camden. What river doth not run ? 

Ehoddwydd. Castell y Ehodwydd in lal, built by 0. Gwyn- 
edd, A,D. 1149. 

Ehoddwydd Arderyd, a place in Scotland, where a great 
battle was fought in the civil war between Ehydderch Hael and 
the more northern Picts and Aeddan Fradwg. This battle was 
seventeen years after the death of Arthur, a.d. 557 {Aer. Oamh.), 
when all Britain was in confusion. It was occasioned by a trifle 
mentioned in the Triades, Hoiane Myrddin, etc. 

Ehoet ap Donet ap Tudwal. 

Ehomani, the Eomans. 

Teymedd anrhyfedd eu cynnyfeddi 

Gwyddyl a Brython a Rhomani. — Hoian, Myrddin, 

Ehonabwy (n. pr. v.). Breuddwyd Ehonabwy. {Zly/r Coch o 
Hergest) 

Ehonech, Island {Capgrave in the Life of St. Cadoc) ; perhaps 
Caldey. Qu. ? 

Ehon Gymynian, the name of King Arthur's glaifov billhook, 
which broad hatchet, and hi^ sword called Caledfwlch, and his 
shield on his shoulder, called Prydwen, are his arms described 
by Tyssilio, in his first battle against the Saxons. 



374 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Ehonwbn, the Saxon Princess called by Verstegan Rowenna, 
but by the Triades Rhonwen. It is remarkable that Kennius 
doth not give us her name, and only says she was the fair 
daughter of Hengist, and that she served King Gwrtheym with 
wine and strong drinks till she made him drunk, and he was 
with love of her; but Verstegan proves, out of Utilapius, a 
German, that she was not Hengistus's daughter, hut his niece ; 
and one of our British poets says as much, and that she was the 
daughter of Hors : 

A Bhonwen ferch yr hen Hors 

T rhiain, ferch yr hen Fors. 

She is also, by the British poets, called the general mother of 
the English, whom they call HU Bhonwen and Llwyth Shonwen 
and Plant Shonwen. 

A chrog Lwyth Bhonwen wrth ganghenuan 
Ac ennyn tewyn yn eu teiaa. — L. 01. Cothi, 

Drwy dal yr arth drwyadl wenn 

T tr^onnir Plant Bhonwen. — D. LI, ap LI, op Oruffydd. 

Jo. Major {Eist. Scot.) calls her Bonouen. 

BHds is a British word used in the composition of several 
names of places in Britain. From hence comes Boss, a town in 
Herefordshire; and Boose, a cantref in Penbrukeshire, inha- 
bited by Flemings; and abundance of places in Wales and 
CornwalL The word signifies, at present, a wet, splashy, heathy 
ground, and so Dr. Davies also translates it. Such grounds are 
Rhos Vadog, Bhos Lligwy, Ehosdre Hwfe, Bhos y Gaer, Bhos 
Widol, Bhos y Bhiw, Bhos Gellan, etc. But anciently the word 
Bhos had another sense, and signified something like the Latin 
ni8, a plain, inhabited, arable country. Such are the countries 
before mentioned, of Bhos in Penbrokeshire, Bhos in Hereford- 
shire, and Bhos in Denbighshire. Llanelian yn Bhos ; Llan- 
drillo'n Bhos ; Eglwys Bos, etc., churches and parishes in that 
district or deanery. Bhoscolun, or Colyn, or, as some say, Colofn. 
Bhosaur, Bhossir, or Bhoss]^', Newborough. Bhosbeirio Church, 
Anglesey. Boss-shire in Scotland. Bhosnant in Dyfed. (Irish 
History, etc.) 

[ISiivs, in Glamorganshire, is a fine plsdn, very fertile, and 



CELTIC REMAINS. 375 

may be esteemed not only one of the best parts of the county, 
but of the islcmd of Britain. Bh4b8 is masculine ; BJids, femi- 
nine. — /. M.] 

Ehos, a cantref in Penbrokeshire, called by the Flemish inha- 
bitants Boose. It contains three commots, XJwch Dulas, Is Dnlas, 
and Creuthyn, (Price, Descr,) 

Bhosmanach, a place in Anglesey, near Dulas; so named, 
probably, from monks, being near the famous collegiate church 
or monastery of Elian Sant. See Bosmanach and Pedrog. 

Ehosser, I suppose the same with Soger. (J)r. Dames, p. 162.) 

Bhossiel, Bochel in France. 

Bwrw Bhossiel ar win melys 

Ni fwriwyd trai ar ford 'Rhjs.'^Hywel Dq/ydd, 

• ^^ 

Bhosstr, Bhosir, Bhossir, Bhosvair, Bhosaur, Bhosair, and 
Ehoshir, Newborough in Anglesey. The Englyn produced by 
Mr. E. Llwyd in his notes on Camden's Anglesey proves nothing, 
which shows how little Mr. Llwyd knew of the poetry of the 
Britons, and their rules to secure the language. The word 
Bhossyr doth not come within the cynghanedd to make a proof 
Cantref Bhossyr, one of the three cantrefs of Anglesey, contain- 
ing the commots of Tyndaethwy and Menai (Price, Descr.) 

Bhual, a gentleman's seat. (J. D) 

Bhuawn Pefyr ap Gwyddno, un o'r tri eurgelein. {Tr, 63.) 

Bhud, qu. ? Sc. 

Bhudd (red). Gwgon Gleddyfrudd. 

Bhydd Fedel Frych (n. pr. v.). 

Bhudd Fedel rhyfel rhyferthwy. — Yw, CyfeUiog. 

Bhttddallt. Gruffudd or Bhuddallt, ap Madog Vychan ap 
Madog GrupL 

Bhuddlad Sant. Uanrhuddlad (in Anglesey) Church. 

Bhuddlak (& rhvdd and llan, q. d. red place) ; hence the 
English name Butland or Buddyland. Bhuddlan Tegeingl is the 
town and castle of Bhuddlan in Flintshire, first built by liew- 
el}m ap Sitsyllt, Prince of Wales, says Camden. The monastery 
began to be built ad. 258. {M8,y but qu. ?) At Bhuddlan, in 
Flintshire, was made the Welsh Statute of Butland in the time 
of Edward I. 



37B CELTIC REMAINS. 

Ymladd Ehuddlan, A.D. 795. Caradog, King of North Wales, 
waa slain by the Saxons, {CaradoCy p. 20.) 
Wrote also Eutglan in old MSS. 

A Bntglan yn rhutlaw amgant. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Ln. ap lorwerth. 

Mr. Camden, in his Britannia, after his description of JRhudd- 
Ian, gives us the following surprising account ; surprising, indeed, 
to come from an author who is so apt to charge others with 
ignorance and fabulous accounts : 

" Below this Castle*' (says he) " the river Clwyd is discharged 
into the sea ; and tho' the valley at the mouth of this river 
does seem lower than the sea, yet it is never overflown ; but by 
a natural tho' invisible impediment, the water stands on the very 
brink of the shore, to our just admiration of Divine Providenca" 

One would think that Mr. Camden was asleep when he wrote 
this, or else that an itch of relating wonders where there are 
none is natural for the describers of countries. This is worse 
than Giraldus Cambrensis' one-eyed fish and floating island 
(Oamden in Caernarvonshire) ; or, indeed, any of Gralfrid's or 
Nennius' wonders, for they don't apply their wonders to the 
false admiration of Divine Providence. 

Did any river ever run up hill ? K not, why then should he 
think that the Clwyd did ? But if to the contrary, if the river 
Clwyd ran down to the sea, through that surprising valley, as all 
rivers naturally do, must not the valley be higher than the sea ? 
Then where is the wonder that the sea should stop at high- 
water mark in this, no more than in the mouth of the Thames ? 
An author that is so inaccurate in his philosophy is not to be 
relied upon in relations of this kind. To account for this blunder 
of Mr. Camden, he stood on a hill when he observed the valley 
about Vorryd ; and the high waves of the sea beating upon the 
shore, and rolling back as if some invisible hand had drove them 
and the sea towards the Isle of Man, making an angle nigher 
the level of his eye than that of the valley, he concluded, for 
want of skill in optics, that the valley was lower than the sea. 
So his eye deceived him because he made no use of his reason. 
But enough of this. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 377 

Bhuddlan Deifi. From rhudd, red, came also Bodrhyddan, 
a gentleman's seat near Rhuddlan. 
Bhuddlan (Bwlch), in Perfedd, Cardiganshire. 

Yn Rhnddlan degfan Deifi drachas Eingl 
Yn Rhnddlan Degeingl teg a threfi. 

Prydydd y Moch^ i Ld. ap lorwerth. 

Rhuddlwm Gawr, some lord or man of power, cotemporary 
with Coll ap Collfrewy. (Tr. 32.) Hud Rhuddlwm Gawr a 
ddysgodd i Coll mab Collfrewy. {Tr, 32.) 

Ehuawn. Bedd Ehuawn. Bedd Ehuawn Pefr. 

Hyd Gkiwmwy vudd rhwy ar fedd Rhnawn. 

Manonad Trahaeam, 

Rhuddnant, a river in Cardiganshire, runs into Mjmach. 

Rhufain, Boma, Rome. 

Rhtjfaon ap Cunedda Wledig, who gave name to Rhyfoniog. 
(Price, Descr) 

Ehufawn Pefr (n. pr. v.). Cyfoeth Ehufawn Pefr. (Araith 
lolo Ooch,) 

Ehufawn Pefr, mab Deorarth Wledig, was one of the tri 
gwyn teym Ynys Prydain. {Tr. 9.) 

Ehug or Grug. Llanrug, Caernarvonshire. 

Ehun Baladr Bras, the 8th King of Britain, son of Ileon. 
In his time Caer Paladur, since called Caer Septon (Shaftsbury), 
was built, where a man called AccioU foretold what would happen 
to the Britons ; and this man was afterwards by ignorant Latin 
writers called Aquila, and they feigned that an eagle uttered 
those prophecies ; and so they were, after them, in the Eomans' 
time, called by the Britons Prophwydoliaeth yr Eryr o Gaer 
Septon, neu'r Brophwydoliaeth Fawr, t.e., the Great Prophecy. 
The Britains paid as great a regard to these prophecies as the 
Bomans did to the Sibylline Oracles, and the very fate of the 
nation often depended on them, as appears by Cadwaladr and 
Alcm, King of Armorica, consulting with this prophecy whether 
Cadwaladr should return to his kingdom or no, after a vision or 
a dream he had seen, where an angel ordered him to go to 
Bome. See Leland, Brit. Script, c. 5 and 6. Leland, following 
other Latin authors, writes him Eudubrasius Luelli filius, and 

48 



378 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Budibracius ; and ignorant transcribers have ridiculously called 
him Hudibras and Budhudibras ; and it requires a spirit of pro- 
phecy to find out, i¥ithout other helps^ that this was Bhun 
Baladr Bras, i.e., Bhun with the thick spear, as all our writers 
in the British tongue call him. 

Bhun ap XJrien Beged was the name of Paulinus, Bishop of 

in King Edwin's time, whom he baptized before he under- 

' took to preach to the Saxons. He took the name Paulinus at 
Bome. Bede (L i, c. 9) says Paulinus was ordained Bishop, A.D. 
625, by Justus, and he was sent by Eadbald, King of Kent, with 
Edelbuig his sister, who married Edwin, King of Northumber, 
to take care of her religion, Edwin being a pagan {Bede) ; and 
he converted and baptized Edwin. (Nennias, a 65.) 

This Bhun ap Urien was brought up in Bome, and was sent 
by Pope Gregory, in company witl^ Mellitus, Justus, and Bufinus, 
to assist Augustine ; and, being master of the British language, 
was a proper person enough. 

In one copy of Nennius it is Bimin ap Urb,t.e., S. Paulinus ; an- 
other, Bim mapUrb; another. Bun mapUrbgen (L.Ooit); another, 
Bunmap Urbgen ; another, Sanctus Paulinus; another. Bun mep 
Yris Bechen. Is it not surprising that Dr. Gill, the annotator 
on Nennius, should be so ignorant as to read this Bun map Urb- 
gen=Bomanus UrbigensB ? Had he not read in Nennius, in the 
very chapter, that Hussa fought with four British kings, Urb- 
gen, Gwallawg, Bhydderch, and Morgant ; and that Urbgen and 
his sons had fought valiantly with Deodric of Northumbria? 
And doth not every man, the least acquainted with our British 
affairs, kncfw that Urien, Gwallawc, Bhydderch, were Princes 
then on the borders of Scotland ? See Myrddin Wyllt's works, 
and Ilywarch Hen's, and the Triades ; and they all speak it 
aloud, Llywarch Hen, in Marwnad Urien, mentions this Bhun 
which Mr. Edward Ilwyd mistook for Bhun ap Maelgwn, not 
knowing that Urien had a son of this name. 

Bhun ap Predur, the 42nd King of Britain. 

Bhun, mab Einiawn, un o'r tri thrahawc, probably ab Urien. 

Bhun, mab Beli, un o'r tri rhuddfoawc. (jTr. 25.) 

Bhun Byfeddfawr. (TV, 74.) 

Bhun ap Maelgwn Gwynedd; hence Caer Bhun, and not 



CELTIC REMAINS. 379 

Goer Hen, as some people dream. Bhun ap Maelgwn succeeded 
his father in the kingdom ; but the Saxons gaining ground, he 
fixed his court at Diganwy. He being not born in wedlock, 
EUdir Mwynfawr (priodawr o'r Gogledd), a Prince of North 
Britain^ landed at Redwharf, in Anglesey, to claim the crown, 
and was killed at Abernefydd in Caernarvonshire. His relations 
in the north came with a strong fleet, and landed at the Eifl in 
Caernarvonshire, and burnt the country from thence to Hergyn, 
Khun gathered the power of Grwynedd, and met them, drove 
them to their ships, followed them to Forth Ewerydd (Solway 
Frith), and defeated them, or made up matters with them; 
so that his assistance was required, with his victorious army, to 
expel the Scots and Saxons who encroached upon them. In 
this afifair he was employed with his army so long, and in enter- 
tainments and debaucheries after his conquests, that his sol- 
diers' wives, grown impatient of so long an absence, and pos- 
sessed with the spirit of jealousy, as they came to understand 
their husbands preferred other women to them, took their own 
slaves to their beds, and contracted new marriages. On Bhun's 
return home with his army they had some difficulty to recover 
their own habitations ; and in retaliation for their losses, ser- 
vices, and shames, to his own immediate neighbours and sub- 
jects, the people of Arvon, he gave certain privileges, to be seen 
to this day in our ancient MSS. of the law, called Brdniau 
Owyr Arvon. This was about the year 570 or 80. 

Bhuocutm (Ynts), Tanata Insula vel Butupina. The castle 
built by Gweirydd, King of Britain. (M8) [Bhyothym, Isle of 
Thanet— JT. D.] 

Ehuon and Ehufon (n. v.). — Dr. Davies, 

Bhuthun or Ehuthyn, English, Buthin, a town and castle in 
Denbighshire ; now called a lordship of Bhuthun, which is Dy- 
ffryn Clwyd, containing three commots. Metenor Bhuthun, a 
commot of Cantref Pennythen, Morganwg. Bhuthun, a lordship 
in Glamorgan. {Dr. Powel, p. 122.) 

Bhutupy (Ty8sUio),thG seaport where Vespacian first attempted 
to land in Britain, which I take to be Bye in Kent. But is 
Bichborow in Kent (Cafnden) ? where there was a common 
passage over to Porth y Morinwyr in Gaul (Portum Morinoro- 



380 CELTIC REMAINS. 

rum — Pliny), called also Gressoriae. Caznden thinks this to be 
Bolougne. 

Bhwth. Llewelyn ap Cynfrig Rwth. 

Bhwtdbts Sant, said to be an Irish saint, built a church in 
Anglesey, Llanrhwydrys. 

Ehybrawbt, un o-r tair gwraig Brychan Brycheiniog. 

Ehychwyn Sant. Uanrhychwyn, Caernarvonshire. 

Ehychwyn Farfog, o Fodolwyn yn KhSs. Ehychwin, ait 
Dr. Da vies. 

Rhychwain, o Fodrychwain : qu. an id. ? 

Bhtd^ used in names of places, and signifies a ford. Rhyd 
Nug (n. 1.) ; Bhyd Gariadog in Mon ; Rhydcors, a castle in South 
Wales ; Rhyd yr Efail ; Rhyd Fadog ; Y Forryd ; liechryd ; 
Rhyd y Cerrig Gwynion ; Rhyd Foyr, Carmarthenshire ; Rhyd- 
wygyr ; Rhyd y Gyfartha, Anglesey ; Rhyd y Carw, a gentle- 
man's seat. {J. D) 

Rhyd Foblas. (Zlywarch Hen.) 

Ar Rhyd Forlas y lias Qw^n.—Ll Hen. 
See Marias. 

Rhyd Gogh (Y), a place frequented by wood-rovers in the 
time of leuan Sew [Tew ?], who wrote in praise of them for 
their civility to some telynorion, 

Rhyd ye Halen, in Ffestiniog parish. Qu. whether on the 
river Halen or Elen ? 

Rhyd Helyg, or Rhyd Helyg ar Wy, Willowford upon Wy. 
(Price, Descr.) 

Rhyd Owain, a gentleman's seat. (letban Deulwyn) 

Rhyd Pencarn : vid. Pencam, 

Rhyd Rheon. Cynadl Rhyd Rheon. {Afalle7iau Myrddin) 

A gread adar gar Gaer Rheon. — Hoi, Myrddin, 

Rhydion ap Eidol, the 64th King of Britain. 

Rhydodyx, or Rhyd Edwin, a gentleman's seat, Caermarthen- 
shire. 

Rhydwygyr, a place in Anglesey, on the river Gwygyr. 

Rhydychen, Oxford; Galena or Caleva; Lat. Rhedycina; 
should be in English called Oxenford, and not Oxford. [Owse- 
ford, from Isis, the river. — W. D."] 



CELTIC REMAINS. 381 

Rhydd, or Rhudd, or Ruthyn ; hence Llanrhudd or Uanrhydd 
Church (St. Meugan), Denbighshire. (B. WiUia) 

Rhydderch (n. pr. v.), a very ancient name ; Latinized Rode- 
ricus ; but I think wrong, for the name is derived from rydd, 
&ee, or at liberty, and erch, terrible. See Nennius in Hussa. 

Rhydderch ap Rhydion, the 65th King of Britain. 

Rhydderch Hael, a Prince of the North Britons about the 
year 560 {Tr. 46) ; i.6., Rhydderch the (Jenerous or Free. He 
is often mentioned in Myrddin Wyllt's works, and also in the 
2Via£fe5,46,74 The civil war between him and Aeddan Vradwg, 
another northern Prince, was occasioned by a trifle, — such a 
trifle as a lark's nest {Tr, 40) ; un o'r tair ofergad, i.e., one x)f 
the three trifling wars. 

Dysgl a Qren Bhydderch was one of the thirteen rarities of 
Britain. The meat and drink that was required in this dish 
would be there in an instant, so he kept an open house. I sup- 
pose this was his great common hall dish, which was kept in 
memory of his generosity, where there was nothing refused that 
was desired or called for. Vide Eluned. 

As Rhydderch HaePs palace was at Alclud, a city of the 
Stratclwyd Britons, by Tr. 6, and Myrddin in the Forest of 
Celyddon, it seems that was in Rhydderch's territories. All to 
the Grampus Mountain was called Caledonia ; from hence Cul- 
loden, where the battle was fought. 

Angharad Ton Felen, merch Rhydderch. {Tr. 74) 

Rhyddry, parish, Glamorganshire. [Rhyd-tref, plwyf y Rhyt- 
tre, vulgo. — L Jf.] 

Rhyddwyn or Rhuddwyn,* a mountain. {Arch, Brit, p. 262.) 
Rhyddwyn a Myvyr a Berwyn. 

Rhyfoniog, or Rhyvonioc, one of the five cantrefs of Berfedd- 
wlad, containing the commots of Uwchaled and Isaled in Den- 
bighshire (Price, Deacr) ; so named from Rhufawn ap Cunedda 
Wledig. Rhyvonioc was seized upon by Egbert, King of West- 
sex, A.D. 817, and destroyed the country as far as Snowden ; and 
a battle fought near Beaumaris, at Llanvaes. 

Rhygenydd or RmaENYDD (n. pr. v.). Dysgl Ragenydd Ysgol- 
haig, one of the thirteen rarities of Britain. This is also attri- 
buted to Rhydderch. See Eluned and Bhydderch Hdd, 



382 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Ehyqyn. Coed y Rhygyn, a house in the parish of Traws 
Fynydd in Meirion. 

Ehymni, river (Camden, Britannia), and Rhymny. 

Rhyothym (Ynys), the Isle of Thanet. Rhiothim was a Prince 
in Armorica on the first coming of the Franks to GauL Vid. 
Vertot. 

Rhts (n. pr. v.) ; Latin, Rhesus. {Dr. Dames.) Noted poets 
of this name were Rhys Groch o Eryri ; Rhys Meigen ; Rhys 
Nanmor o Faenor Fynyw, an. 1460. Soldiers : Sir Rhys ap 
Tomas, that brought in Henry VII ; Rhys ap Tewdwr ; Rhys ap 
Gruflfudd, Prince of Wales. In some MSS. it is wrote Rhfts. 
Rhys Gryg, called also Rhys Vychan ap Rhys ap Tewdor Mawr. 
See Meddygon MyddfaL 

Rhts, son of Gorboniawn, the 37th King of Britain. Camden 
writes it Rhese, and he says they think it derived from Rhesus 
in Homer. Rhyswr, in British, is a hero. 

Rhystoo, enw Ue, Brecknockshire. (0. LI. Moel.) 

Marohog yr Tstog ar iau 
Mae dy Iwyth am daleithiau. 

v. ofp LI. Moelf i Gad. ap Gr. o Rystog. 

Rhtsttd (Sant) ap HoeL Llanrhystyd in Cardiganshire, 
where was a castle built by Cad. ap Gr. ap Cynan, 1148. 

Rhywawt ail Morgan, un o'r tri gogyfurdd, {Tr. 89.) One of 
the three trifling poets. {Tr. 18.*) Probably the same name with 
Reuchidus in Nennius^ c. 65. A Bishop in Nennius' time, but 
not the same person. 

RiCAKT ap Einion ap Cynfrig. 

RiGUALLON, wrote anciently for Rhiwallon {E. Hwyd), to 
retain the etymology from rhi and gwaUon. So Myngwy for 
Mjmwy (it myn and gwy). 

RoBYN ap Gr. Goch. It is not the same with Robert nor Rot- 
bert. Hence Robinson. 

RoELENT, in Doomsday Book, corruptly fol* Rhuddlcm in Flint- 
shire. " Hugo Comes de Lege Bodent ibi tempore Regis Edwardi 
jacebat Englefield ; castelli c[uod Boelent vocatur et caput est 
hujus terrsB ; ad hoc manerium Boelmt, jeu^nt h88 Barewichss'', 
etc. This about the year 1083. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 383 

BOGIADE, a manor in the county of Monmbuth. 
RoRE (n. pr. f.), daughter of Usher, iin o'r tair gwrforwyn, i.e., 
hermaphrodite. (JV. 64.) [JKAare, a virago, in Glamorgan. — I.M^ 

EOTBEBT, qu. ? 

EowLiNG ap Grufifudd ap Dafydd. 

EuG, a gentleman's seat, Merrion. 

EuTHiN, one of the mesne lordships of Morganwg. {Powdl.) 

Eymny Bridge, the east end of Morganwg on the river Ehymni. 
(Dr. Pawdl) 

[Tthymni Eiver divides Oihwyr in Glamorgan from OwaurUlwg 
in Monmouthshire. It is otherwise called A/an Eleirch, and the 
parish and village oi Ehymni called most commonly Treddeirch. 
—I. M.] 

Rympyn (fl.) in South Wales {Powell), where Mredydd, King 
of South Wales, was slain by Caradog of Gwentland and the 
Normans, a.d, 1069. {Caradoc in Bl ) Camden (in Glamor- 
gan) says from remny, divide, meaning rhannu, 

[Rhympyn is the same as the Ehymni, and stiU so called in 
the survey and records of Rhymni alias Rompney manor. There 
are many places of considerable antiquity on the river Eymney 
or Ehymni, viz., on the east or Monmouthshire side, in Eymney 
parish, an ancient British camp, very entire. Near it the ancient 
Monastery of Eenesham ; higher up, Llanjihangel Fedwy ; above 
that, Mechain parish, village, and castle. On the west or Glamor- 
gan side we have Ehathy the Eatostabius of Ptolomy ; higher up, 
Zlan Udeym, where Edeym ab Gwrtheym Gwrthenau founded 
a monastery for three hundred monks, or saints as they were 
caUed. Further up there is Llanfedwy. The church, now in 
niinsr, was dedicated to St. Medwy or Medwinus. In this parish v 
stands Ehiw-perra Castle, rebuilt by Inigo Jones, a fine house. 
Still further up is Bhydtre, where are still open some old Eoman 
mines, above the GaerffiXi or Senghenydd Castle. Still higher 
up, Oelli Goer. Above this, Marchnad y Waun, a market village, 
Llancaeach Castle, Capel Gwladus, etc., etc. The river runs 
through a fine country, abounds with salmon, etc. — /. if.] 

Eythmarch (n. pr. v.). (Powel, Caradoc, p. 156.) Qu. whether 
EhyddmMch, Archbishop of St. David's, son of Sulien, Bishop, 
i.e., Julian, an. 1078. 



384 CELTIC BBMAINS. 



s. 

Sabel, pro Isabel, qu. ? 

Sacsonia, the country of the Saxons. 

Sadwrn, Lat. Satumus, a Prince of the CeltsB, from sad, firm 
or steady, and divm, a fist But Sadwrn or Satom doth not 
signify strength in the Celtic (as some will have it), except in 
this sense. See Ainsworth. 

Sadwrn Sant Uansadwm, a church in Anglesey. See 
Satumin. 

Sadwbn was a famous hermit at Henllan, to whom Deifyr, a 
hermit at Bodfiari, sent Gwenfrewi to be directed to go to 
Gwytherin. (Life of St, Winifred.) His name is Latinized 
Satumius (//wcr.) for Satumin. 

Saeran Sant. Church at Ilanynys, Denbighshire. 

Saeran ap G^raint Saer o Iwerddon. 

Saerym (n. pr. v.). 

Mjn Saerym Sant a Seirioel. — Gr. ah Meredydd. 

Saeson or Saesson, Saxons. Saesonach (leuan Tew). Now 
English. 

Saethon, a gentleman's seat in Caernarvonshire. Qu. from a 
river of that name ? 

Saethydd, a cognomen ; as, Cadwgan Saethydd. («/". D.) 

Sainclere Castle, in Caermardenshire, a.d. 1189. 

Saint or Seint, a river by Caernarvon town, which some say 
is the Segontium of the ancients. Nennius, in his CcUaloffue, 
hath Caer Segeint, as Usher hath also from him. Afon y Seint. 
Mr. E. Llwyd says it is Afon y Sant, from Peris Sant ; but Segon- 
tium waa before Peris was bom. 

Sais, an Englishman or Saxon. An English wood-rover or 
thief is also called by the poets Gwyddel ; i,e., either wild man 
or woodman ; which is the name also given an inhabitant of Ire- 
land, for the same reason at first probably. It was also used as 
an appellative to those, it seems, that understood English, as 
Rhys Sais o Faelor ap Ednyfed ap llywarch. When a Saxon 
had cstrried Elltyd^s wife big with [child] into a wood, and killed 

her, 

Gwedi'r Sais a'r gwaed a'r sann, etc., 



CELTIC REMAINS. 385 

he proceeds, 

E a'i gwyddai y Gwyddel^ etc. 
.See Ysgodog, 

Saisneg, the English tongue. 

Seisnigaidd, Anglified. 

Ralbri, enw He. Sr. Thomas o Salbri, qu. ? 

Sallawg. Caer Sallawg. {Myrddin) See Caer Sallaiog, 

Samson Sant, Bishop of Dole in Gaul. His acts published by 
Mabillon and the BoUandists. He was born in South Wales 
about the year 490. His father was Amon ; his mother, Ann ; 
both of noble extraction. Brought up by lUdud in his Monas- 
tery of Llan Illtud, in Glamorganshire, about the year 512, was 
made Abbot of the Monastery of St. Pyr in Caldey Island, 
called Ynys Byrr; about 516 went to Ireland; about 520 waa 
made Bishop by Dubricius of Caerlleon, but had no see. Thence 
he went to Armorica, where he founded several monasteries ; and 
the chiefest was at Dole in Britanny, which became a bishop's 
see. Some say he lived to a hundred or hundred and twenty years 
of age ; but Mabillon thinks he died about the year 565. His 
name is subscribed in the Council of Paris, A.D. 557. Some say 
he had been Archbishop of York, and was succeeded by another 
Samson at Dole, which had been Archbishop of Menevia. (Brit. 
Sancty July 28.) Leland says his uncle was Umbrael, and his 
father Ammonius Venetus, i. e., Ammon of North Wales. 

Samuel Britannus. [Leland) He was a friend of Nennius, 
and by whom Nennius had been instructed as well as by Elbo- 
tus. He has made many additions to Nennius' History, which 
explain it. Leland concludes he was a monk, for that few others 
had learning in those days. (Leland, Script Brit, c. 48.) In 
some copies of Nennius he is caUed Samuel Beulan, and pro- 
bably may be that Peulan to whom a church in Anglesey is 
dedicated, Llanbeulan, The History was probably published, 
after Nennius' death, by this Samuel Beulan, and that in England 
or Scotland ; for I am certain the copies we have of it in the 
Cottonian Library and Oxford Library were not done in Wales, 
as plainly appears from the 53rd chapter, where Mac is put for 
Mob to the pedigree of Gwrtheyrn, where, in our ancient British 
MSS., the letter M is only put for mah, a son ; as Pascent m. 

49 



386 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Vortigem is made there Mac Pascent Mac Vortigern, etc. Seve- 
ral of Beulan's notes or interpolations are also lame and useless^ 
and it is a pity we have not the author in his native simplicity. 
This Beulan in some copies is falsely wrote Beularius. 

Sandde (n. pr. v.). 

Sanddb Bbyd Angel escaped with life from the battle of 
Camlan. He was so fair and like an angel that his enemies 
would not hurt him- {Tr. 85.) 

Sandde Hardd, o Fortyn, tad Moriddig. 

Sandde ap Llywarch Hen, killed in battle. 

Sanffraid or Sanffred, ferch Cadwtheg Wyddel, q. d. Saiit 
Ffred, i.e., St. Brigit, an Irish lady and a nun; in English, 
St. Brides ; and the Virgin of Kildare. Her British legend, from 
lorwerth Fynglwyd, is this : That she was a nun, and daughter 
of Diptacus, a Duke ; that on her entering a nun, her step- 
mother's leg was cut ofiF, but on her request a leg and foot grew 
in its place. She extracted honey out of the stone for a poor man, 
A ploughman broke his plough, and she gave her distafif, which 
made him a chelydr [chwelydr] for his plough. The butter turned 
to ashes; and the ashes again, in her hand, turned into butter, and 
ale enough in two basons. That she gave to the village aU the 
cheese of the mayor's house ; and though the cheese were given 
away, there was not one wanting. That she understood the 
fifteen prayers ; and in case of hard rain she would throw her 
white sheet on the beams of the sun. That she came from Ire- 
land over sea, and swam to Dyfi ; that she made of rushes, in 
Gwynedd, the fish called hwyniaid (smelts) ; that she went to 
Bome, from Patrick's country, to see Peter ; that she turned the 
Mayor of London into a horse; that she released the baker's 
wife ; and between her and God bound the Devil It concludes : 
Da Ffred fwyn dyffryd fenaid. — lor. Fynglwyd, 

This copy is short of what I have seen elsewhere, where there is 

Y dydd y ceisiodd dy dad, etc. 

That when her father proposed her in marriage to an Irish lord 
of which country she was, her eyes dropt out of her head, and 
then she was sure no lord would have her ; but she cunningly 
took them up again, washed them, and put them in their places, 
where they fitted as well as ever ; and to prevent any further 



CELTIC REMAINS. 387 

solicitations, where her virginity was concerned, she and her 
maids went to the sea-side, and with her knife she cut a green 
turf for each of them, instead of ships, to carry them over the 
channel to Wales, where they landed at Forth y Cappel, near 
Holyhead, where she built a chapel on the top of a small bank 
at her landing-place, whose ruins are there still, on the left hand 
as you go to Holyhead from the bridge. From thence she went 
to Glan Conwy, and built a church called still after her name, 
LlansanfirM. Here she performed a miracle by taking a hand- 
ful of rushes, and throwing them into the river of Conwy. They 
turned into fish, which to this day they call there brwyniaid, 
q. d., rush-fish, because they smell like rushes, which in Welsh 
is brwyn. These are called in London smelts ; in the country, 
sparlings ; and according to this legend, this is the original of 
that fish which is to be found in plenty in the river Conwy. 
So here is a new creation. See Nennius, Brigida. 

Cappel St. Ffraid, near Holyhead [in ruins, — W. DJ] ; Ilan- 
sanffred, in Mechain ; Ilansanffred, in Cardiganshire ; Llansan- 
fired, in Glyn Ceiriog ; LlansanfPred, in Glan Conwy ; Ilansan- 
ffred, in Glyn Dyfrdwy. 

Sanna verch DyfnwaL {Caradoe, p. 182.) Qu., a contraction 
of Susannah ? 

Sannan Sant. Uansannan, rectory and vicarage, church and 
parish, in the deanery of Ehos, Denbighshire. St. Senan was of 
noble parents in Ireland, and Bishop in Ynys Cathaigh, in the 
mouth of the river Shannon ; a friend of St. David ; and died 
in tiie same day. 

Sannan Eiver. Abersannan in Caermarthenshire. (E. Uwyd's 
Notes,) 

Sant, properly a saint. 

Sant (n. pr. v.), Lat. Xanthus, was the father of Dewi ap 
Sant, Archbishop of Wales. See Dem. 

Sarn, a causeway, used in the names of places, as, Sam Wallog, 
Sam y Bwch, Sam Badrig, ridges of rocks or stones in Car- 
diganshire Bay ; Sam Drippiog ; y Samau (n. 1.) ; Sam, a gentle- 
man^s seat in Whittington parish ; Tal y Sam Grin, a village in 
Cardiganshire ; Bwlcb Tre Sarnau, Anglesey. [Samau, in 
Deuddwr ; Tal y Sarn, in Carmarthenshire and Carnarvonshire. 
— W.R] 



388 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Sabn Elen, a military way of pitxjhed stones, leading through 
the mountains near Ffestiniog in Meirion; supposed by Mr. 
Camden to be made by Helena, the mother of Constantine the 
Great. Mr. Edward Uwyd, in his Notes on Oamden, says, 
besides the place here mentioned, this way is to be seen at one 
end of Craig Verwyn, where it is called Ffordd Gam Elen 
Lueddog, i.e., the crooked way of Helen the Great or Puissant 
See Llueddog and Llvryddog. Another Ffordd (or Sam) Elen 
at lianbadarn Odwyn in Cardiganshire. Also a great part of 
the road from Brecknock to Neath is called Ffordd Elen. In 
the parish of Ffestiniog, from Ehyd yr Halen to CasteU Dol- 
wyddelen, this road is called Sam y Ddual, which is aboat three 
miles ; and some think that Pont Aber Glaslyn and Gymwynas, 
in Caernarvonshire, is part of the same road. (E. Llwyd, Notes 
on Camden in Meirion.) Another Sam Elen in IleyD. See 
Dolwyddelen. 

Sarn y Ddual, in the parish of Ffestiniog ; part of the mili- 
tary way of Sarn Elen, which see, 

Sarphle, a gentleman's seat {J. D.) [in Llanarmon Dyfifryn 
Ceiriog.— JF". JD.] 

Sarsiniaid, the Saracens, descendants of Abraham, perhaps 
from Sarah. They were hired soldiers to the Bomans in the 
time of Aurelian and Probus, i.e., aji. 270. {Ainswortk.) They 
afterwards, under Mahomet, overran Syria, Egypt, Persia, Spain, 
Sicily. Their name is still retained in Barbary ; but the Turks, 
their comrades, revolting, they were driven to the East {Ains- 
worthy 

Saturnin (n. pr. v.). In an ancient MS. of Dr. Thos. Williams 
I find that Morgan ap Saturnin reigned over the Britons, and 
succeeded Urien ap Cynfarch, who, he says, succeeded Maelgwn. 
In the churchyard of Uansadwrn, in Anglesey, there was dug up 
a gravestone, in my time, with an inscription which I copied, but 
have it not now by me. It was in Roman characters, and begun 
thus : '' Hie jacit Sanctus Saturninus et uxor ejus." But the 
name Saturnin is not used in Wales, and I suppose was a Loe- 
grian or Koman name. Cynfarch also was a Pictish nama 

Morgan Fawr mab Sadymin. — Cyfoesi Myrddin. 

llansadurnin, in Deheubarth, See Sadiom. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 389 

Savathan (n. 1.), Saveddan, Savaddan, and Saveddam, in 
Camden. 

SxiVATHAN (Llyn), in South Wales, two miles east of Breck« 
nock. (J. D. Ehys, Gram.) 

Sawddwy or Sawdde or Sawddfai, a river which fells into 
Myddfai, and both into Towi, near Llangadog, Caermarthenshire. 
Llanvihangel MyddfeL Pont ar Sawdde. See Myddfai, 

Sawell, fl. {Llywarch Hen,) Dr. Davies mistakes this passage 
of Llywarch Hen, and makes Sawell to be a chimney : 

o wng ag o bell 

Pyll pwyll tan trwy Sawell. 

But the preceding stanza, 

Pyll pwyll tan trwy Lifon, 

shews the mistake. 

Sawyl (St.) or Sawel. Llansawyl in Caermarthenshire. 

Sawyl (aL Sawl) Benisel, a King of Britain, the 66th, about 
100 years before Christ. 

Sawyl or Sawl Benuchbl ap Pabo Post Prydain, un o'r tri 
thrahawc Ynys Prydain. {Tr. 28.) 

Sawyl ap Llywarch Hen, buried at Llangollen. {Llywarch Hen,) 

ScHiuiAU, in Doomsday Book, corruptly for ^Sgeifiog. See Ys- 
geifiog. 

ScHLYDACH, in Uywel, Brecknockshire. 

Sedd Gyfedd ap Gwyngad ap N6s. 

Sefnyn (n. pr. v.), a poet, an. 1260. 

Segeint : see Saint, 

Segontium : see Saint, 

Seinlyn Sant. 

Mair, Seinlyn, Marthyn, Mathea. 

Seikt : see SairU. 

Seirioel Sant ap Owain Danwyn. See an account of him iu 
Penmon, 

Seirioel (Ynys), Priestholm Island near Beaumaris. See Pen- 
mon, [Llys Elis ap Clynnog. — W, D,] 

Seisill ap Grwst, the 15th King of Britain. 

Seisill ap Cyhelyn, the 26th King of Britain. 

Seisyll ap Owain, the 60th King of Britain. 



390 CELTIC REMAINS, 

Seisyllt. 

Seithbnin Frenin, o Faes Gwyddno, a oresgynnodd mor ei dir. 
{Ach. Saint) He was father of Tudno, the founder of Llan- 
dudno in Creuthyn. In Englynion Beddau Milwyr he is men- 
tioned : 

Bedd Seithenin synwjr wan 

BihwDg Maes Kenedir a glan. 

Seithwedd (n. pr. v.). {Tr. 64.) 

Selattyn, parish and church in the county of Salop. 

Selb, Selau. Mallt verch Howel Sele ap M. 

Seledd (n. L). Bryn Seledd and Cwm Seledd ; perhaps from 
Selyt 

Selef. Cantref Selef, one of the three cantrefs of Brecheiniog. 
(Price, Descr,) Also one of the commots of said cantref. Bryn 
Selef, in Ilansanfi&aid, Denbighshire. 

SeleMion. Caer Selemion in the Triades (Catalogue of Cities) 
is Caer Selemon (alias Elemon) in Nennius ; but where it lies I 
cannot teU, unless it is Chelmsford in Essex, the Cssaromagus 
and Conovium of the Romans. {Ainsworth.) A river Chelmers 
there. Caer Selemion is the city of the people of Selem or Selyf. 

Selyf (n. pr. v.). This name is translated Solomon ; but I 
think it should be Selimus. Selyf SeirflFCadeu. (BreiniauPoivys.) 

Selyf ap Cynan Garwyn, un o'r tri aerfeddog. (Tr. 65.) 

Selyf ap Ilywarch Hen. {LL E'en.) 

Selyf Ben Sywedyddion, un o'r tair colofn celfyddydion 
{Prydydd y Moch, to Eodri ap 0. Gwynedd), i.e,, Selimus, chief of 
astronomers. 

Senny, river. See Dysynni, 

Sennyllt (n. pr. v.), the father of Nudd Hael. 

Senghenyth [now Caer Phili — W. D,\ a lordship in Mor- 
gannwg, one of the four commots of Cantref Brenhinol, Mor- 
ganwg. 

Senghenydd Castle, given by Llewelyn ap lorwerth to John 
le Bruse. 

Septon, Septwn. Caer Septon, Shaftsbury. {E, Llwyd, Th, 
Williams, and Oalfrid:) 

Servan (n. pr. v.), the father of Mordaf Hael. {Tr. 8.) 

Seri. Caer Seri [Triad, Catalogue of Cities); in another copy. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 391 

Caer Siri ; the same with what is called in Nennius Caer Ceirit. 
Qu. whether Cirencester in Gloucestershire ? 

Serigi Wyddel, a General or Prince of a body of Irish that 
made a descent on Anglesey in the time of Caswallon Law Hir, 
father of Maelgwn Gwynedd, about an. 514. Caswallon fought 
them at Cerrig y Gwyddyl, near MaUtraeth (see TV. 49), and 
killed Serigi with his own hand at Llan y Gwyddyl, which is 
the Irish church at Holyhead. (Price, Descr.) The natives of 
Holyhead shew the grave of Serigin Wyddel, as they call him. 
Camden says the Britons were beat ; but he is always kind to 
the Britons. This battle was so obstinate that Cadwallon's men 
tied their legs by pairs with their horses^ Mialau (I suppose 
bridles), with a resolution to stand the field to the last man. 
{Tr. 49.) 

Severus, the 80th King of Britain. This is the Emperor of 
Bome died and buried at York. 

Sgottiaid, falsely wrote and pronounced for Ysgwydiaid, 
which see. 

Sgotland, and Scotland : see Ysgotlond and Hsgottland, 

SiAMAS (n. pr. v.), James. 

SiARLES (n. pr. v.), Charles. 

SiATT Eedynvre ap Cadvan liwy Coed. 

Sibyl (n. f.), a common and proper name. It is also pro- 
nounced sometimes Sibli, as Sibli Ddoeth, or the wise, meaning 
the Prophetess. It seems most nations had the Sibyl, a pro- 
phetess of that name or appellation. Myrddin WyUt, the Pictish 
poet, quotes the British Sibyl by the title of Chwibleian and 
Chwimbleian, as if the word was formed from lleian, a nun, 
vestal virgin, or priestess. 

Ef a ddywaid chwibleian chwedl anrbyfedd. 

noianau Myrdditu 

SiBB, Cheapside. Sioppau SiSb. By this it seems this name 
is British. 

SiEFFRAi Fynwy, Galfridus Arthurius, otherwise called Mon- 
emuthensis ; first a Benedictine monk, afterwards Archdeacon of 
Monmouth, afterwards Bishop of St Asaph, about an. 1150. He 
translated the History of the Britons out of British into Latin, 
from a copy given him by Walter Archdeacon of Oxford, which 



392 CELTIC REMAINS. 

he brought from the Britons of Armorica. But as he was not a 
perfect master of his subject, nor was acquainted with the British 
historians and poets, he hath not done it justice ; besides a very 
great fault in making some additions of his own^ which he niixt 
with the original ; so the Latin book is not to be depended on. 
The Brut copy is common in Wales ; but the name of Galfrid, 
the translator^ entirely unknown, except among antiquaries. See 
Brut y Brenhinoedd. 

SlERLWY. 

A gwyr a meirch ag anr mwy 

Gida Siarlys goed Sierlwy. 

Hyxcel Cilan, i Or. Peiirhjn. 

SiERON, St. Jerome, Hieronymus. 

Owr siriol geirian Sieron 

Gorhofikidd Syr Graffadd Sion. — leuan Tew. 

SiGGAi, in Llantwyt, Glamorgan. 

SiGLTAEN, a rocking stone. These are remains of Druidism 
found in Cornwall and Wales ; one of them near St. David^s ; 
another at Pen y Gogarth, near Conwy. 1 suppose there was 
one also at Maen y Chwyfan by its name, which see. One 
between Penmachno and Bettws, and between the rivers Lledr 
and Machno. See Lledr. 

SiLiAN. Tresilian in Cornwall. Mr. Stukely calls it the 
Castle of Silvanus, and thinks that Silvanus was father of Carau- 
sius, and that Carausius had a son called Silvius or Silvanus. 
{Palceograpkia.) 

SiLiN Sant Some say it is St. Giles. 

Silin g^yr Cant re Selyf. — Hywel Dafydd. 

Llansilin, a church and parish (vicarage) in Denbighshire. Here 
the famous song writer, Hugh Morus, lived. Nature never 
shewed herself stronger where there was little or no learning or 
other advantages than in him. His attempts in heroic poetry did 
not answer. 

SiLOD verch Iank)ni, arglwydd Ffrangton. 

SiLURiA : see Iselwyr. [See Sylhoyr below. Essyllwyr ; their 
country, Essyllwg, Bro Essyllt, and Tir Essyllt. — /. Jlf.] 

SiLUKES {Camden), Iselwyr or Low Men, one of the three dif- 
ferent nations of Wales, — the Silures, Dimetse, and Ordovices. 



CELTIC RExMAINS. 393 

The Silures, as we gather from Ptolomy's description of them, 
inhabited Deheubarth, i.e., Herefordshire, Radnorshire, Breck- 
nockshire, Monmouthshire, and Glamorganshire. 

SiLUS or SiLius, Lat. Julius, the father of Brutus, the first 
founder of the British empire. His name was not Sylvius, as 
some would have it. Vid. British copy of Tyssilio. 

Silvester Giraldus Cambrensis was of a noble family in 
Penbrokeshire, not far from Tenby, and born there. He was 
secretary to King Henry, and tutor to King John his son, and 
sent to Ireland, where he wrote the History of Ireland, much 
involved in darkness (says Leland). He was Archdeacon of 
Brecknock, afterwards Archdeacon of St. David's, and elected 
Bishop there. He attended Baldwin, the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, the Pope's legate, through Wales, to raise contributions 
for the war in the Holy Land, and wrote his Journey through 
Wales {Itineraria Camirice), and also a topography of Wales, 
with a map, with several other learned works. He lived above 
seventy years, and died at St. David's, and was buried there. 
See Leland's Script. £Ht, c. 196. 

He was no friend of Galfridus Monemuthensis, his contempo- 
rary, the translator of the British History, having some personal 
pique to him, which he vents with some passion against the 
history published by him. In one place {Top. Gamhr., c. 8) he 
calls it the fabulous history of Galfrid, upon a very slight oc- 
casion, having himself followed the chief things which are 
esteemed fabulous by the enemies of that history. But nothing 
shows the personal pique more than the trial he says was made 
of the Briton history of Galfrid, by a spirit which was at St. 
David's, who judged him fabulous. [Hist, Cambr.y L i, c. 5.) It 
should have been proved that this judge was not one of the 
imps of the father of lies. 

SidN, or Suon, an ancient British fort on the top of a mountain 
north of Conwy town, called Caer Siion, or, in the English 
orthography. Sewn. This was the seat of Gwalch Gorsedd, 
where Maelgwn (or, as others say, his father CaswaUon) went 
to judge between the poets and musicians. He lived at Diganwy 
in Creuthyn ; caused the poets and harpers to swim the river 
Conwy. The harpers' instruments were spoiled ; therefore the 

50 



394 CELTIC IIEMAINS. 

poets, whose tools could not be damaged, carried the day. {lor* 
werth ap Beli to the Bishop of Bangor, an. 1240.) 

SioR, George. This word is pronounced as the English Shore, 
The British tongue hath not the sound of the soft G. Llan Sant 
Sior, St. George's in Denbighshire. 

SiRl : see SerL 

SiRWEBN ot SuRWERN, a place in Cardiganshire. {D, ap leuun 
JDu.) See Syrwern, 

SiSiL verch Arglwydd Herbert. 

SiSLi (nom. foem,), Cecilia. 

SiTSYLLT (n. pr. v.). Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt, Prince of Wales. 

SiWAN or SiWEN, dim. of Susan (n. f., Ceretica). Si wan verch 
Arglwydd Herbert. [Joanna or Joan, in Glamorgan. — /. M.] 

SiWDA (n. pr.), qu. Judah or Judas ? 

A Duw o Iwyth Siwda Ian. — Hywel Strrdwah 

Skeweth : see Forth Skeweth 

Snowden (n. pr.) : vid. Wyddfa and EiryH. 

SoLVACH, a harbour and village in Penbrokeshire. 

SoNLLi. Llewelyn Sonlli. Llwyth Sonlli. Qu. whether a 
river ? 

Spey, a river in Scotland. {Major.) 

Stil. Dwyn Stil Yngharad verch Mredydd ; t.«., to draw the 
stile or pedigree. 

Stinan Sant, i.e., Justinian. Cappel Stinan is on the sea- 
coast in Eamsey Sound, and Cappel Devanog on the island oppo- 
site to it. See Devanog. This Justinian was hermit and martyr ; 
and his acts are in Capgrave, Aug. 13 ; and born in Armorica. 
Being a priest, he came to Great Britain, and went into a boat ; 
committing himself to the waves, he landed at Limenus, an 
island (now Ramsey), where he found a holy solitary, Honorius 
(Ynyr), son of Tefrawc, a British Prince, who invited him to 
stay there, which he did, on condition he would send on shore his 
sister and maid, who had a cell just by there ; and this was done 
to avoid scandal. St. David, who was then at Menevia, desired 
his friendship ; he lived there many years, but at last was 
murdered either by his servants or pirates. Leland says he was 
slain by picaias. A church was built to his honour on the oppo- 



CELTIC REMAINS. 395 

site shore. (Brit. Sanct, Aug. 13.) There is the ruins of a 
chapel on Ba-nasey Island, called Cappel Devanog ; and another 
opposite to it, on the mainland, called Cappel Stinan. 

Strat and Strath are found in the composition of names of 
places in Wales and Scotland, in Latin and English writers, 
which are the same with the British Ystrad ; but not the same 
meaning with the Latin Strata, a paved way, as some will have 
it. It signifies a vale or bottom through which a river runs ; 
and perhaps was formed from ys and traed, a frequented place 
or place of feet, in the same sense as we say in English a foot- 
way or footpath, or to get footing in a place. 

In Wales there are : Ystrad Peithyll ; Ystrad Meurig ; Ystrad 
Cyngan ; Ystrad Marchell ; Ystrad Alun ; Ystrad Ty wy ; Ystrad 
Clwyd ; Ystrad Enni ; Ystrad Fflur. In Scotland : Strathem ; 
Strathbogie ; Strath Dovern or Dovran ; Strathy ; Strathawin ; 
Strathnavem. 

Strad Clwyd : see Ystrad Clwyd, 

Strad Marchell : see Ystrad Marchell, 

Strad Pythyll : see Ystrad Peithyll, 
- Stradwen verch Cadfan ap Cynau ap Eudaf, wife to Coel 
Godebog, mother of Cenau, Dyfyr, and GwawL (Price, Descr.) 

Stradwer ap Pandwlph. 

Str\dweul (n. f.), qu. whether Stradwen ? Strad weul verch 
Cadvan ap Cynan ap Eudaf. (E. V., Notes,) 

Straith, vallis (Camden) ; but Straith and Strath and Strat, 
as Strad Clwyd, etc., corrupted from Ystrad, 

Stratalyn : see Ystrad Alun. 

Strat Conqen : see Ystrad Cyngan, 

Stratfleur : see Ystrad Fflur, 

Strat Meyric : see Ystrad Meurig or Meuryg, 

Striqul or YsTRiGUL river in Gwent. Glyn Strigul Castle. 
(Price, Descr,) This Castle is near a river which falls into the 
Wysg, between Bryn Buga and Caerllion. 

Suddas, Judas Iscariot. 

SuLHAERN (n. pr. v.). Gruflfudd ap Sulhaern. (Caradoc, p. 186.) 

SuLiEN ap Ceryn, the 48th King of Britain. Sulien Arch- 
bishop of St. David's, a.d. 1087 ; probably Julianus. 

Sulien Sant o Lydaw. 



396 CELTIC REMAINS. 

SULUS (n. pr. v.), Julius. 

Bratns ap Salus syth. — J. K, 

SuLWYCH ap Pebid Penllyn. 

[Swale flu... in ... in which Paulinus baptized. ''In provin- 
cia Deirorum, ubi saepius manere cum rege solebat, Paulinus 
baptizabat in fluvio Sualva, qui vicam Cataractam praeterfluit." 
(Bede.)— W. Z>.] 

Sws, SwYS, and Swswen, Caer Sws, the ruins of an ancient 
city of the Britons in Montgomery, on the banks of the Severn, 
now a small village. Mr. Camden says it is reported to be both 
ancient and to enjoy ancient privileges. A lame account, 
indeed ! Mr. Ilwyd, in Notes on Cainden, says it is said to have 
been the seat of the lords of Arwystli, and supposes it to have 
been of Eoman foundation, without giving any reasons for it. 
Encampments about it at three several places, Gwynfynydd^ 
Jihos Ddiarbed, and Cefn Carnedd ; and also on the hill above 
Llanddinam, y Gaer Fechan, an entrenchment. 

Powys a Chaerswjs wen. — L, G, Cothi. 

Cawr o Seysyll Caer Sws wen 

Caem roi i*n byw Cymro 'n ben. — D. I. LI, 

It is called also Cadr Swysson. Cadw o Gadr Swyssons was 

one of the pillars or supporters of arts and sciences. See Cadw, 
SwYDD Y Gre, one of the four commots of Cantref Melienydd 

See Maelienydd. 
SwYDD Y Fam, one of the commots of the Cantref of Buellt, 
Swydd^Wynogion, or, in Price's Description, Swydd Ynogen, 

one of the commots of Cantre'r Clawdd, between Wy and Severn. 

Amgylch cyminawc cymynai Saesson 

Ar Swydd Wynogion yd wynnygai. — Cynddelw, 

SYBYiiLTiR, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey ; q, d. Tir Sybwll, wet 
ground. 

Sycharth, a gentleman's seat in Powys, qu. ? 

Sychnant, the name of the valley near Holywell in Flint- 
shire ; i.6., dry brook or dry valley. Nant is properly a brook. 
Several brooks of this name in Wales. Sychnant in Melynddwr, 
etc. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 397 

Sykker Sand, a port in Scotland, in Lat. Tuta Arena, (Jo. 
Major, Hist Scot., L i, fo. 9.) From the British siccr, i,e,, safe. 

Sylfaen, a gentleman's seat. (*/. D.) [Castle Caereinion 
parish. — W, D.] 

Syluaiu, a river in Scotland. (Major, ffid. Scot) 

Syllwyr, the people of Esyllwg (H. Llwyd) ; hence Siluras 
{H, Llwyd), GwentUwg, he says, is Gwentsillwg in Monmouth- 
shire; Leland's Ventoluga, 

Syrwen, one of the four cantrefs of Cardiganshire, containing 
the commots [of] Gwinionydd and Iscoed. (Price, Descr,) Wrote 
by Deio ap leuan Du Surwem, q. d. Gwem Sur. 

Dechran o ddeaa ydd wyf 
Y Surwem gwlad ni sorrwyf. 

Sythia (Scythia), a country on the continent, so called from 
the people being expert at shooting, which in the Celtic is saethu, 
from saeth, an arrow. The Irish antiquaries derive the ancient 
Scots of Ireland from the Scythians, and so Ead. de Diceto. 
Scythia, Scita, Sciticus, Scoticus, Scotus, Scotia. But I think 
the name of Scot comes more naturally from their name in the 
British Tsgwydiad, from the Celtic ysgwyd or ysgod, a shield ; 
and Meilir Brydydd, in the year 1079, calls them Ysgodogion 
dynion Uedflfer. 

T. 

Taerus. Dafydd Ddu Taerus. 

Taf, a river which rises near Vrenni Fawr, and, taking in 
several rivers, falls into the sea near the Towi in Caermarthen- 
shire. Upon this river the Abbey of Whitland, called Ty Gwyn 
ar Daf, was, which was built of white rods of hazle for a sum- 
mer house. {Camden,) See also other Tslfs in Glamorganshire 
and Brecknockshire that go by Llandaf to Caerdyt Mr. Ed. 
Llwyd says he cannot conjecture what might be the original 
signification of the word T^lf, but thinks the Thames to be of the 
same origin. (Notes on Camden.) 

Taf Fawr and Taf Fechan, rivers that rise in Brecknock- 
shire and run by Lland&f and Caerdyf to the Severn Sea. Cam- 
den says this is the Khatostabius or Ehatostibius of Ptolemy, — 



398 CELTIC REMAINS. 

a maimed word for the British Traeth Tav ; but more likely a 
corruption of Ystrad Taf and Ystrad Tyf. (Qu. whether there 
be not a small river that runs into the Taf or Caerdyf, whence 
it might be called Caer Aberdyf.) Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks 
that the first syllables of Tawy, Towy, Teifi, and Dyfi, are but 
so many various pronunciations of Tav or Taf; but it surprises 
me that Mr. Llwyd should fall into such a blunder as to think 
that all these rivers should have the sarru name. Were words so 
scarce among the Britons that they could not afford different 
names for their rivers ? 

Tafwys (fl.). 

Tafarn, a surname. 

Dafydd Tafarn a farnwjd 
Yn hael iawD, nn o'i hil wjd. 

G, op J. Hen, i Gr. ap Daf. Tafarn. 

Tafod Aur, i.e., Chrysostomus. Edeyrn Dafod Aur. 

Taguy, wrote anciently for Tawy. {E, Llwyd) 

Taix, river. Abertain. 

Tal, in the composition of names of places, signifying a fore- 
head, as, Tal y Lan ; Tal y Bont ; Tal y Sarn, etc. Hence Eith- 
dal, Italy, now yr Eidal. Hence Ardaloedd, borders of a country ; 
talaith, a head-band or diadem ; Talaith Aberffraw. Also talar, 
a headland in ploughing. 

Tal y Bont, one of the three commots of Cantref Meirion, 

[Tal y Forwyn Castle, near Aberbechan, hanging over the 
Severn, now in ruins. Several things were dug up there by astro- 
logers in search of treasure. — W. 2?.] 

Tal y Treuddyn, a gentleman's seat. 

Tal y Voel, a place in Anglesey where there is now a ferry 
from the town of Caernarvon. This is Tal Moelvre mentioned 
in Gwalchmai ap Meilir's Arwyrein 0. Gwynedd, where he says 
0. Gwynedd had a sea-fight against three powerful fleets, and 
defeated them. He says the river Menai (that arm of the sea) 
did not ebb that tide because kept full by the blood of the slain. 

A Menei heb drai o drallanw gwaedryar 
A lliw gwyar gwyr yn heli. 

The three fleets were from Ireland, the Baltic, and Normandy. 
These are his words : 



CELTIC REMAINS. 399 

Tair lleng a ddaethant liant lestri 
Tair praff prif lynges iw bres brofi 
Un o Iwerddon, arall arvogion 
Or Llychlynigion, llwrw hirion Hi 
Ar drydedd dros for o Nortmandi, etc. 

Mr. Moses Williams, in his Notes on the Oeslyfr, published 
with H. Llwyd^s Descr, Brit, supposes the battle of Tal Moelvre 
to be that descent made by Mad. ap Mredydd of Powys with 
Henry II's ships in the Isle of Anglesey, a.d. 1157, where they 
robbed the churclies of Llanvair and Llanbedr ; and those that 
landed were all killed by the islanders, which caused the ships 
to make the best of their way, and weigh anchor ; and he says 
there is a place called Moelvre near those churches of St. Peter 
and St. Mary ; but it is plain this wm a different action, and is 
fully and beautifully described by Gwalchmai, and was a sea- 
fight. 

Tal Prydain, a battle fought by Gr. ap Cynan. {Meilir 
Brifdydd.) 

Tal y Llychau, Caermarthenshire. 

Tal Llwyn Elgain, near Brecknock, in Caradoc. Qu. whether 
Trallwng Elgain ? See Trallumg. 

Tal y Ehedynog Ddu, in Scotland. {E. Lhvyd) 

Tal y Bolion, or Talebolion, or Tal Bolion, one of the six 
commots of Anglesey. Some derive it from Polion or Bulinus. 
Cors y Bol, a bog, lies in this commot, which has its name from 
the same origin ; perhaps from Bolg, and a place called Penbol. 
See Bolg, 

Talacharn, one of the three commots of Arberth in Dyfed. 
(Price, Descr) 

Talacharn, in Caermarthenshire, where Lord Rees did homage 
to Henry II, a.d. 1172. Syr Gei de Brean, Arglwydd Talacharn. 

Talavan. Maenor Talavan, one of the four commots of Can- 
tref Penny then, Morganwg. (Price, Descr,) 

Talacrau or Talacre, a gentleman's seat in Flintshire. {J, D) 
Mostyn's. 

Talgarth, one of the three commots of Cantref Canol in 
Brecknockshire. (Price, Descr,) The mountains of Talgarth 
mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis in Itin, 



400 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Talhayarn. Llanvair Talhayarn, a church aiid parish in the 
deanery of Rhos, Denbighshire. 

Taliaris, rect^ Taliarus, a place in Caermarthenshire. 

Taliessin, a Cambrian poet or bard, commonly called Taliessin 
Ben Beirdd, the chief of bards, flourished in North Wales in the 
reign of Maelgwn Gwynedd, who is called by Gildas the Island 
Dragon. Sir John Price, in his Description of Wales, calls him 
the famous clerk and great wise man Taliessin. It seems Maelgwn 
made use of him as a prophet, by which help he goyemed an 
unruly people enthusiastically martial. This was not a scheme 
of Maelgwn only, but of all the kings of the Britons before him. 
Taliessin was brought up by Elphin, son of Gwyddno Goronhir, 
lord of Cantre* Gwaelod. 

Talog. Coed Talog or Coed Halog, yn Neheubarth [near 
Llan Erful — W. D.] ; Bod Talog, Meirion, or perhaps Halawc. 

Talvrith (Y) ap Trehayarn Goch o L^n. 

Talwrn, a spot of ground, qu. ? 

Talwrn, a gentleman's seat. (J. B.) 

Talwrn, a gentleman's seat in Eifionydd. (J, D.) 

Talwrn Mawr (Y), in Anglesey. Lloyds of Talwrn. 

Tallwch, father of Trystan. {Tr, 24.) 

Tam. Mr. Edward Llwyd says a great many of our larger 
rivers began with Tav and Tiv, or, as anciently written, Tam and 
Tim : hence Thame or Thames, Tav, Tawy, Tywj, Teivi, Dy fi, Deva 
(Eom.), now Dee, Dove in Shropshire, etc. This Tam, says he, 
is in all probability the same with the Greek tam^s in potamos; 
and he therefore takes the initials pa, pe, and po, in such Greek 
words, to be old prepositives which the Britons never had, which 
implies that the I'am or Tav of the Celtse is the most ancient. 
But probably in the course of explaining the names of the above 
rivers some other etymologies may be hit upon. 

Tanad, river in Montgomeryshire [issues from Berwyn Moun- 
tains, joins the Eirth at Llangynog, the Mochnant at Aber 
Ehaiadr, etc. — W. D.] Abertanad. 

Ysjmy rwydd arglwydd erglywiad 
A glywir or tir gar Tanad. 

Einion ap Owgaum^ i Ln. ap lorwerih. 

Cllan Tanad, a gentleman's seat. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 401 

Tanwg Sant o Lydaw. Llandanwg in Merionetlishire. 

Tanwyn (n. pr. v.) See Dr. Davies. 

Tangusius, a holy man in Gwent, who brought up St. Beuno, 
in the time of Ynyr, King of Gwent. {Buckedd Beuno) 

Tangno ap Tstrwyth. See Ystrvn/th river and Ystwyth. 

Tanged ap Padriark Frenin. 

Tangwystl (i tarig and gwystl), nom. foem. Also a Saxon 
name at Gwaith Perllan Fangor. 

Pan ddiholer Tangwystl yn hir o dir Gwynedd. 

Hoi, Myrddin, 

Tangwystl, daughter of Llywarch Goch, lord of Rhos, Ehy- 
foniog, and Anglesey, was the first wife of Lly welyn ap lorwerth, 
by whom he had GruflTudd ap Lly welyn, though Caradoc says 
he was base born. (PoweFs Oaradoc, p. 298.) See the White 
Book of Hergest^ and also Polyd. Virgil, 1. xvi, p. 391. Upon her 
death he married Jone, the daughter of King John and sister of 
Henry III, and disinherited, or attempted to disinherit, GruflFudd, 
which caused great disturbance and wars ; but Llewelyn, the 
son of Gruffudd, at last got the Principality. 

Tangwn fn. pr. v.), father of RhinerL {Tr. 21.) 

Tangwyn Sant yn Llangoed, M6n, ap Caradog Freichfras^ 

Tanglwst, alias Tangwystl, verch Brychan Brycheiniog. 

Taradr, a river's name. Abertaradr, a place mentioned in 
Hoiane Myrddin. See Abertaradr. 

Tarddenin, afon. (Ci^foesau Myrddin a Gwenddydd) 

Tarddenni. Llyn Tarddenni, a lake in Eryri, called also Llynn 
Cwellyn or Cawell-lyn. 

Tabogi, a river in Gwent is Coed. {Tr. 30.) Yn Abertarogi 
yngwent is y Coed y doeth ir tir. {Id) Abertarogi, now Fries 
Throgoye, in Monmouthshire. (Mordents Map.) 

Tathal ap Amun Ddu, brenin Groeg. Caer Dathal, which 
see. 

Tathaius, a British saint mentioned by Camden in Mon- 
mouthshire, others say Lrish, who governed an academy at Caer- 
went in the time of King Caradog ap Ynyr, who invited [him] 
thither from an hermitage. See Gildas. See Lib, Landaff; Notes 
on Camden, Penlrokeshire. 

51 



402 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Tawy, a river rising near Cappel Callwen in Dyfynnog hnn- 
dred, runs by Ystrad Gynlas, by Ilanguge, by Llansamlad, and 
to sea at Swanzey ; in Welsh Abertawy ; by Camden, corruptly, 
Abertawi ; and he says the English name is derived from siinne 
or sea-hogs, q. d. Sweinsey. 

Tat, a river in Scotland. (Major, Hist.) 

Tecca, AngL fairest. lancyn Decca. 

Teccwy Sant ap Dingad. 

Teccwyn Sant. Llandecwyn in Meirion. Docunus or Docu- 
inus. Called also by Capgrave St. Cyngarus. (Brit, Sanct., 
Nov. 6.) He is mentioned in Spelman's Coundh, in the Acts of 
the Synod of Llandaf, as abbot, as is Cadoc and lUtut, abbots. 

Tegla Sant, virgin and abbess in Thuringia or in. Hesse, 
A.D. 725. Uandegla yn lal. 

Teg. Gruflfydd Deg ap GruflF. ap Einion. 

Tegai Sant yn Maes Ilanglasawc. Uandygai 

Teganwy, for Deganwy or Dyganwy, qu.? King John, in the 
year 1211, came thus far with the power of England, of South 
Wales, of Powys, Chirk, and Yale, and Cydewen, and with an 
intention to destroy all that had life within North Wales. Here 
Llywelyn ap lorwerth so distressed the King and his army by 
skirmishing and cutting off his victuals, that his soldiers were 
glad to eat their horses, and to return with great loss. Next 
year he came again with the same army, and encamped to the 
west side of the river Conwy, entering Wales at Oswestry, and 
sent part of his army to bum Bangor, and took the Bishop 
prisoner. Then the Prince sent Jone, the King's daughter, who 
was his wife, and submitted and did homage. {CaradoCy in 
Lin. ap lorwerth.) In 1215 Llywelyn ap lorwerth laid siege to 
Dyganwy and Bhuddlan, and took them, and so left the King 
not one castle in his land. (Caradoc) In 1244 Henry III 
came to Dyganwy, or Gannoc, with English and Gasgoignes, and 
sent for the Irish, but was obliged to return with loss. (Caradoc, 
p. 310.) In 1256 Henry III and his son came as far as Teganwy 
with all the strength of England in great rage ; but Llywelyn 
ap Gruffudd sent his fleet to meet that of the Irish that sided 
with the King, and defeated them, and kept the straits and 
passes so narrowly till he obliged the King to retreat with great 



CELTIC REMAINS. 403 

loss. {CaradoCy in IJn. ap Gruffudd.) This Castle lay in Creuthyn 
in Cantref y Ehos. [IS. Llwyd,) Camden says it is plainly a 
variation of Conwy : perhaps not. 

Tegau Eurfron, gwraig Cariadog Freichfras, un o dair diwair 
ferch Ynys Prydain, yn cael gair fal Penelope; roedd tri thlws 
na wasnaethynt i neb ond iddi ei hun, ei mantell, ei phiol anr, 
a'i chylleU. (2). J.) Tegau Eurfron's mantle was one of the 
thirteen rarities of the Isle of Britain. It would fit no woman 
but what was chaste. Wrote also Tegeu Eurfron. {Tr. 54 and 
78.) See Eluned. 

Tegawg ap Cyfnerth ap Madog Madogion. 

Tegeingl (rectA Tegengl), a country, now Flintshire. Mr. 
Camden says it signified in the British Fair England. This is 
owing to his ignorance of the British, for Eitigl signifies Angles^ 
a people, and not a country. 

Eingl ar gyohwyn 

Bhag Llion Llychlyn. — Myrddin, 

And is also the plural of Ongl or Engl, a corner or angle. There- 
fore Teg-Engl is a fair corner. The British name for England is 
Lloegr, and not Eingl, and we have no other name for it. Mr. 
Camden^s caution was not necessary against the author who 
called it in Latin Tegenio, for there might be Igeni as well as 
Iceni. I think it was Humphrey Lloyd. It means cornel deg. 

Cantref Tegengl contains three commots, Coimsyllt, Prestatyn, 
and Bhuddlan. 

Tegerin, vulgo Teigryn, ap Carwed. 

Tegfan Sant. Llandegfan, a church in Anglesey, dedicated 
also to St. Tydecho. I suppose Decumanus, hermit and martyr. 
Capgrave says he left Wales, and led a hermit^s life in a wood 
on the south side of Severn, where he was murdered. {Brit. 
Sanct, March 1.) Tegvan Sant ap Carcludwys. (MS.) Tegfan, 
father of Coel Godebog. 

Ap Tegfan frwydr Gamlan gynt. — Bhys Ooch Eryri. 

Tegfedd Santes, sister of Tydecho. See Tydecho. 
Tegla. Uandegla yn lal. 

Teglaf (n. pr. v.). liandeglaf yn lal, a parish and church in 
the deanery of lal, Denbighshire. 



404 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Tegiawc verch Tnyr Gwent. See Beuno. 

Tegid Voel, Benllyn. Tegvedd neu Tegwedd, ei ferclu 

Tegid. Llyn Tegid^ a lake near Bala; in English^ Pinible 
Mere, [Gh. Edvjards) Limne Cataigidos. 

Tegonwy ap Teon. 

Tegwared ap Griffri ap Carwed ap Aelaw. 

Tegwared ap Iddon ap Idnerth. 

Tegwas Felyn, arglwydd HwlfFordd. 

Tegyngl or Tegengl, daughter of Cynedda Wledig. {Ack 
Cattwg,) 

Teibion. Meirion (in Meirionydd) ap Teibiawn ap Gunedda 
Wledig, or Tibion. 

Teifi, a river in South Wales, called by Tibius; by 

Ptolomy, Tuerobiiis [GaTnden) ; rises in Ilyn Teifi, near the 
Abbey of Ystrad Fflur, and falls to the sea below Cardigan town, 
taking in its course many other rivers. It had beavers in it in 
Giraldus Cambrensis's time^ and now hath an excellent salmon 
fishery. Aherteifi, Cardigan town and county. By Ainsworth, 
Eatostathybius. TuerdbiuSy corruptly for Dwrteifi, says Camden. 

Teilo or Teilaw Sant, son of Encisus or Ensic, a nobleman, 
and bom at Eglwys Gunniau (Uanwnnio). He was instructed 
by St. Dubricius, and afterwards by St. Pauleus, a disciple of St. 
German, at the same time with St. David. He came from Little 
Britain here about the same time with Dewi and Padam, being 
relatioas to King Arthur, and were promoted in the church, — 
Dewi made Penescub Ynghaerlleon ar Wysg, i.e,, Head Bishop 
(TV. 7), Padarn was made Bishop of Ilanbadarn Vawr in Ceretica, 
and Teilaw of Llandaf, with great privileges ; and with whom 
he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The yellow plague (y 
fall felen) happening while he was^ at Llandaf, he went over to 
Armorica, where he remained with Sampson, Bishop of Dole, 
and afterwards returned to TJandaf. This Teilo had gained such 
a character for sanctity and learning that in after ages, when 
Popery prevailed, it was pretended that God had made him 
three bodies, that the church of Llandaf and Llandeilo Fawr and 
Penalun might have each a body to show to sanctify their 
several churches, and to avoid their disputing who should have 
his body to keep. (Tr. 44.) These preachers came over to 



CELTIC REMAINS. 405 

Britain when tlie Gwrtheyrn faction lost ground here, and Gildas 
and others obliged to retire to Little Britain to make room for 
them. See the Triad, " Tri chorpV, etc 

Teirgwaed or Teirgwaedd, the father of Menyw the philo- 
sopher. {Tr, 31.) This Teirgwaed was cotemporary with Gwrth- 
eyrn Gwrthene. {Tr. 32.) 

Teirtref (Y), a lordship near Bishop's Castle, now corruptly 
called Tatrifif. 

Teirtref (Y), one of the commots of Cantref Iscoed in Gwent 
(Price, Descr,) 

Teirw : see Dinteirw. 

Temis, Tamesis fl. (T. Williams and Tr. 4.) 

Teneuan ap Lludd, the 73rd King of Britain. 

Terfynnon (n. pr. qu. ?). 

Terwyn (n. L). Gwaith Terwyn, a battle fought on Bryn Ter- 

wyn in between Llewelyn ap Gruffydd and his brother 

Owain or Owain Goch, a.d. 1254 (Aer. Cambr.) 

Teuddwr. Cwm Teuddwr in Badnorshire. 

Teudric ap Tithflfalt ap Teithrin ap Tathal ap Amun Ddu, 
brenin Groeg. 

Teulu, a family or clan. Diwair deulu and aniwair deulu. 
(Triades.) See Gwys. 

Teuthoneg, the Teutonic language. {E. Llwyd) 

Tevriaucus was father of Honorius (Ynyr). See Tnyr, (Le* 
land, Script. Brit., c. 38.) 

Tewdor or Tewdwr (n. pr. v.). Bhys Tewdwr; in others, 
Bhys ap Tewdwr. 

Tewdor am ysgor am isgell grawn. 

CyndddtOf i Gad. ap Madog. 
Tewdrig, id. quod Teudric, 

Tewdos ap Cadwgon. 

Teyrnllug. Cadell Deymllug ; in another place, Teymllys. 

Tetvediat (Price, Descr.), recti Tefeidiat. See Dyffryn. 

Theonia, Abbess of Gwytherin, mother of Elerius, the Abbot, 
who entertained Gwenfrewi in her [monastery], whereof she 
became Abbess after the other's death. (Life of Winifred.) 

Throgoy, river (Camden, Britannia) ; in the British, Tarrogi. 
(Tr.) "Ac yn Abertarogi yngwent y tiriodd", etc. 



406 CELTIC REMAINS, 

TiBEBiNUS, the river Tiber^ which weisheth Borne. The iiame 
in Celtic is Dwrfrenin, king of waters. (/. Jf.) 

TiBiE ferch Brychan. 

TiBOD verch Einion ap GrufifudA 

TiBiON^ son of Cunedda Wledig, died in the Isle of Man^ which 
island the Irish Scots won, headed by Builke, the son of Glam 
Hector. (Price, Descr., out of Nennius.) This Tibion was &ther 
of Meirion^ who had Gantref Meirion given him. 

TiMWB. Llandimwr, tir yn perthyn i Syr R Vychan. 

TiNBOD, a castle on the top of a hill in Maelienydd, mentioned 
in Camden's Britannia to have been destroyed by Llewelyn 
Prince of Wales, A.D. 1260. [Duribod, the place of a fort. — W, I).] 

TiNDAETHWY, rect6 Dindaethwy, which see. Vid. also Cynan 
Tindaethwy. 

TiNDAGOL or TiNTAGOL, a castlc in Cornwall, which Buchanan, 
from his utter ignorance in the British history, says is the name 
of a man. 

TiNLLAES. Mredydd Dinllaes ap Dafydd. 

TiNLLEYN, one of the commots of Cantref Ileyn in Caernar- 
vonshire. See Porthdinlleyn, 

TiNTERNE, Monastery in Wales (at Gresham, Norfolk, No. 19, 
Davies MS.), the grant in being then. This was Dintam in 
Monmouthshire, where there [are] two parishes^ Dintam Uchaf 
and Isaf, to this day. 

TiNWAED (n. pr. v.). Tinwaed Faglawg, one of the three 
strong crooks. (TV. 21.) 

Tib Amalgad, in Conacht in Ireland. 

Tie Mon, Anglesey, See Man. 

Tie Eaulph, one of the three commots of Cantref Mawr, 
Brecknockshire. (Price, Descr.) 

TiRiON (n. L). Williams of Tirion. 

Titan or Tytan, a Celtic Prince, nephew of Sadwm. The sig- 
nification of the word in the British is " the house of fire*', t.e., 
T^ T&n ; for which reason he is taken by the Eomans for Hype- 
rion or the Sun. 

TiviDiAUC, the river Teme in Shropshire. (Oamden) See Tef- 
eidiat. 

Tlyswk, i.e., pretty man. lerwerth ap leuan Dlyswr. 



CELTIC BEBfAINS. 407 

ToGVAEL OP Dogvoel, or Dogwel, or DygweL Llanddygwel 
Church in Anglesey. 

ToLWYTH, q. d. Tylwyth. Tolwyth Gruflfydd ap HoeL 

ToMMEN, a barrow or low, being a tump of earth thrown up 
on the graves of great men among the Britons ; a tumulus or 
tomb. In some parts they are called cnigauy which word is used 
in South Wsdes : Tri Chrug Aeron ; Crugau Gefn Ceidio, near 
Bhaiadr Gwy ; Tommen y Bala; Tommen y Mur; Tommen Madog 
[near Pont Fadog — W. JD.] ; and Tommen Coginam in Cardigan- 
shire ; Tom Elwyddan (in Taliesin, Beddau) ; Tommen liansan- 
firaid, near Bhaiadr Gwy. 

Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks that Tommen y Bala was a Boman 
watch-mount^ and not for um-buriaL They might be first for 
urn-burials, and since for watch-mounts. See Snvynllys, 

Ton Sawndwb, Monmouthshire. 

ToNKAU, in lianylltyd, Glamorganshire. 

ToNWEN verch Gynyr o Gaergawch. See Nan, 

ToNWY verch Llawdden or Uawddyn Lleddog. 

ToRCHOG. Llywelyn Aurdorchog, — ^Aurus TOTquatus. 

ToBDDU, a cognomen, black-bellied. Philip Dorddu, etc. 

Da wr oeddyd o wreiddyn 

T Torddu gjnt a'r ddau Gwynn. — Bh, D. 

ToTENYS and Totnes {TyssUio), q. d. Tot Tnys. Traeth Tot- 
enys, or the Sands of Totenys, was the place where Brutus the 
Trojan landed with his fleet from GktuL (TyssUio.) This is Tot- 
nes in Devonshire, near Torbay. See Cathness. 

Towi (by Camden, Britannia, Towy), a river which runs by 
Llanymddyfri, Ilandeilo Fawr, and Caermarthen ; the Tobius of 
Ptolomy. {Camden.) 

Y dydd hwn y daodd hi 

Wybr a daiar Bro Dowi. — L. Morganwg, 

Wrote also Tyrvi : 

Teym gwyr Tstrad Tywi 
Tomas mawr yw'ch urddas chwi. 

Bedo Phylip Bach, 

It rises in Mevenydd in Cardigansliire, runs by Llanymddyfri, 
Uangadog, Llandeilo Fawr, Dinefwr Castle, Caermarthen, and 
to the sea at lianstephan Castle. 



408 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Ac ymladd jn daer am ddwylan Tjwi 

Ac jBghyfenw Difian djfod iddi. — Hoian. Myrddin, 

Pan fo pont ar Daf ac arall ar Dywi 

Y daw 7 diwedd rhjfel iddL — Boian. Myrddin, 

TowLBWBDD GwENDDOLAU ap Ceidiaw was one of the thirteen 
rarities of Britain. See Owenddolau. This was a chessboard or 
pair of tables : the ground was gold^ and the men silver, and 
would play themselves when set agoing. N.B. This may pos- 
sibly be some piece of wheel work. See Ehined for a full account 
of these rarities. 

Traeth Edrtwi, Newport in Penbrokeshire. 

Traethy Garn, in Irish Traigh an Chaim, on the sea-coast 
of Sligo in Ireland, where a great battle was fought between the 
natives and the Belgae, a.m. 2737. (Ogygia,) 

Traeth Maelgwn, yn Aberdyfi. This is the Sands on the 
Cardiganshire side, over against the village of Aberdovey in 
Wales, known by this name to this day. It is on the skirts of 
the bog called Cors Vochno, and overflowed every tide. On the 
Britons losing the crown of London, and being drove by the 
Saxons out of Loegria, all their petty princes agreed to meet 
together on this Sand to choose one of the worthiest among them 
for their chief king ; the intent of their meeting here being, it 
seems, that there might be no delay, but that they should resolve 
on it in the compass of one tide. Here came the Prince of 
North Wales, Maelgwn Gwynedd, and also the Prince of Powys, 
of Deheubarth, of Bhieinwg, Esyllwg, and Morganwg (in another 
MS., and to that place came Powys, Gwynedd, Deheubarth, 
Euas, Gwent, Morgannwg, and Sersyllwg) ; and by a contrivance 
of one Maelda Hynaf ap Unhwch Unarchen, lord of Pennardd 
in Arvon, Maelgwn was chose king ; for he made him a kind 
of a chair or seat of quills or wings, so that when the flood came 
none of them could stand his ground except Maelgwn by the help 
of his floating chair, upon which he was chose their chief king. 
Perhaps because he had more wit than the rest of them as well 
as more valour. See No. 2 Appendix to H. Llwyd's Brit. Descr. 

Trafal, fl. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.) 

Trahaern, one of the commots of Gantref Selef in Brecknock- 
shire. (Price, Descr.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 409 

Trahaern Brydydd Mawr, a poet, an. 1380. {Arch Brit,, 
p. 264.) His Satire upon Cadwgan, the vicar, and his niece was 
80 bitter that Gadwgan set his own house on fire, and killed his 
niece, in a week after the Satire was published. (E. Llwyd) 

Trahaiarn vel Trehaiarn ap Tynhaiam. 

Trahaus. Gwladus Drahaus. 

Trallwng, or Trallwm, or Trallwngc. Some derive it from 
tre and llyn, as Tre'r Llyn, but is wrote and pronounced Trail wng; 
in English, Welsh Poole, or Poole town, in Montgomeryshire, 
on the banks of the Severn ; and is interpreted by Mr. Camden, 
the town by the lake. Mr. Edward Llwyd (in Notes) says Tra- 
llwn, from Tre 'r Llyn, is an etymology agreeable enough to this 
place ; otherwise he would suspect Trail wn to be the name of a 
place near this pool, for Trallwn, he says, is a common appella- 
tive in Glamorganshire for soft places on the roads, which he 
takes to be an abbreviation of Traethlyn, a quagmire. [A bog 
or quagmire in Glamorgan. — I. if.] 

Y Trallwng teilwng fu'r tad. — Or, Llwyd ap Eign. Lygliw. 

Y mwDg y Trallwng y trig. — 8* Keri, 

See Trallwng Elf ad. Dafydd Say o'r Trallwng. 

Trallwng Cynfyn is in Brecknockshire. Moses Williams 
{Notes on H, Llwyd), who derives it from Tre Llyn ; but see 
Elfad. 

Trallwng Elfael is in Caermarthenshire (Powel, Caradoc, 
p. 269) ; called Tal Llwyn Elgain. Here GruflF. ap Lin. ap lor- 
werth fought the Normans and defeated them. A place between 
Llanymddyfri and Brecknock called Trallwng. 

Gwnaeth drallif gp^yar neb Trallwng Elfael 
Pan fa ymdrafael dmd ac erddrwng. 

Ein, op Madawg, 1250. 

Trallwtn Cau, in Llanvair y Bryn, Caermarthenshire. 

Tranch, in Treveihyn. 

Trawsfyntdd, a parish and church in Meirion. 

Trawsnant, a river that falls into the Towi, q. d. cross-brook ; 
another by Cwmervin. 

Tre, or Trev, or Tref, is a British word signifying a town, 
village, or society of men : hence eantref, English cantred, t.e., 

52 



410 CELTIC REMAINS. 

100 villas : hence gartref, home ; or, as H. E., gar tir ef, which 
is a little strained. Tre is in the composition of the names of 
several towns and places, as Tre Ferwydd ; Tre Feirig ; Tre 'r 
Ddol ; Tre Fadog ; Tre Friw ; Tre Ly warch ; Tre 'r Maen or Tre- 
maine ; Trewen ; Trefor or Trevoire ; Tre ^r Dry w ; Tre 'r Gof ; 
Trefaldwyn ; Tre 'r Llyn ; Tre Filan ; Treflech ; XJcheldre ; y 
Goedtre ; y Faerdre ; y Pentre ; Tregamedd ; Tre Gastell ; Tref 
Loddaith, But I never met with the name of a very ancient 
place, or before the Norman conquest, in Wales beginning with 
Tre; so that it is all a joke to say, as some do, that the city of 
the Trinobantes was called by the Britons Tre Newydd, and not 
Tro Newydd, or New Troy. 

Tre Aeddon, vulg6 Tre Eiddon, a place in Anglesey, near 
Aberffraw. See Aeddon, 

Tre 'r Bardd. Ilanvihangel Tre 'r Bardd, parish and church, 
Anglesey. 

Tre Brys [in Mochnant — W, D,], a gentleman's seat. (J, D.) 

Tre 'r Driw, Edward Uwyd interprets the town of the 
Druid, in Anglesey. But see more of this in Eowlands' Mona 
Antigua, I must observe that Tref here doth not signify a town, 
but a house or habitation ; as in South Wales " myned i dref ' is 
to go home. So Trewyn, Tre 'r Gof, Trefeurig, etc., etc. 

Tre Lettart, or Letterston, in Penbrokeshire. 

Tre Lywarch, in Anglesey. 

Brondorf farch Tre Lywarch traidd. — Qruff, ap Mredydd. 

Tre 'r Twr. 

Trebafared, village, Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here. 

Trebuclo {Camden) for Tref y Clawdd, Knighton. The natives 
call it, for shortness, Tryclo or Tryclaw, and not Trebuclo, for 
Tre Clawdd. 

Trebwll, some place in Powys. 

Am DrebwU twll dy ysgwyd. — Lly warch Hen, i Gynddylan. 

Perhaps Welsh Pool. 

Trecastell, a harbour and gentleman's seat in M6n. Trecas- 
tell in Ilywel, Brecknockshire. Fairs kept here. 

Tredestiniet (qu. whether Distainiaid ?), a village or town- 
ship in the commot of Malltraeth, Anglesey. (Prince's Extenty 



i 



CELTIC REMAINS. 411 

1352.) Here were two loeles of free land. One of them was so 
free that the Prince had no revenue out of it except a suit to 
the comraots and hundreds, and the two grand turns yearly ; 
the other was a harder tenure, though free. The cashiers of it 
paid the Prince a rent of £4 : 11 : 2. A suit to the commots and 
hundreds : — for every relief, Is. 8d. ; for every gobr, 10s, ; for 
every amobr, Is, 8d, Must do the work at the Prince's palace at 
Aberffraw ; and all the heirs except two must pay cylch stolon. 
In this last wele there were two parcels of escheat land, and one 
lying ffryth, i.e,, without being set, or left in common, in the 
Prince's hands. 

Tkedderwen, a gentleman's seat in Montgomeryshire. Moch- 
nant, qu. ? 

Trefdraeth, a village in Penbrokeshire; in English, Newport ; 
one of the three commots of Cemais in Dyfed. (Price, Descr.) 
The castle was erased by Llywelyn ap lorwerth, anno Dom. 
1215. Also a church and parish in Anglesey, near Malltraeth 
{k tref, a village, and traeth, sands). 

Tree Alun (n. 1.) . Trefor of Trefalun. 

Tree Dreyr, a cantref in Cardiganshire. 

Tree Ithael, a house where lolo Goch frequented. {Rhys 
Goch Glyndyfrdwy.) 

Tree y Grug, one of the four commots of Cantref Gwent. 
(Price, Descr.) 

Tree Erbin, a place in Cornwall ; Erbin's town. (H. Llwyd.) 

Trefaldwyn, the town and castle of Montgomery, — a town 
so called after Baldwin, Lieutenant of the Marches of Wales in 
William the Conqueror's time. {Gamden in Montgomery.) * It 
was called by the English Montgomery, after Eoger de Mont- 
gomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, who won much land there. Flori- 
legus says it was so called by Henry III from its situation, J/otw 
Gomericus, after he had rebuilt [it] ; for the Welsh had over- 
thrown it in the year 1095, and put the garrison to the sword. 
{Camden.) 

Trefedryd, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire. {J. D) 

Trefedwyn, a place in Tegengl, where, and at Rhuddlan and 
Caerwys, the causes of Tegengl were to be heard in the time of 
(Powel, Oar., p. 360.) 



412 CELTIC REMAINS. i 

Trefeka, near St. David's. 

Trefawith. Camden (in Herefordshire) says that the Britons 
called Hereford (before the name of Hereford town was known) 
by this name, from beech-trees, and ffenford from an old way ; 
but a little before he derives Hereford, which he writes also 
Hareford and Hariford, from Ariconinm. 

Trefethyn, Monmouthshire. 

Trefgaian, a parish and church in Anglesey. See Caian. 

Trefin, Penbrokeshire, a village. Fairs kept here. 

Trefilant Castle, built by Maelgwn Vychan, ab. 1230. 

Treflech, near Oswestry [vulgo Treflach — W,D,]. 

Treflech, church and parish, Caermarthenshire. 

Treflydan, in Gilsfield, a gentleman's seat. {J. J)J) 

Treflygan, Cardiganshire. 

Trefnant, a gentleman's seat by WelshpooL 

Trefor. Several places in Wales thus named, and from thence 
it is become a surname of families. Sometimes it comes from 
tref, a dwelling, and mSr, the sea, when the situation is so, as in 
Cefn Trefor Pawr and Cefn Trefor Fach, near Harlech. Some- 
times it might come from tref and mawr, great, as Tre'fawr. So 
Trefor in Anglesey, which is not on the sea. Tudur Trefor. 

Trefred. Cantref Trefred, in Powys Vadog, containing the 
commots of Croesfain, Tref y Waun, and Croes Yswallt. 

Trefred Alun. Ysgawl torf rhag Trefred Alun. 

Trefriw (qu. whether from treffriw or tref y rhiw), a village 
in Caernarvonshire. 

Trefry, a place in Meirion. 

Trefrydd (enw Ue). Gronw o Drefr^dd {k tref Bjid rhydd). 

Treffyitnon, a town and castle in Flintshire, fortified by 
Hugh Earl of Chester, ad. 1210. 

Tregaron, a town in Cardigansljire, so named from Carawn, 
a King of Britain, called by Latin writers Carausius. It lies in 
the lordship of Carawn or Caron. Tyssilio calls him Carawn, 
and the common people pronounce [it] Caron. There is a river 
called Caron in Scotland, and the name of the river at Tregaron 
is also Caron, in memory of that Prince. 

Tregeiriog, a gentleman's seat. {J, D) Uoyd. 

Tregynon, in St. Asaph diocese, or Tregyman Chapel, St. 
Knomkell in Cedewain. 



^ 



i CELTIC REMAINS. 413 

Trehayarn or Trahayarn, the 89th King of Britain. 

Trehedyn wrth Emlyn, in Cardiganshire. Fairs kept here. 

Treredynog (wrote falsely Tredynock or Tredonock), church 
three miles of CaerUion, Monmouthshire^ where there is a Soman 
inscription. 

Trewalchmai, church and parish in Anglesey. 

Trewastrodion, a township or villa in the commot of Mall- 
traeth in Anglesey, mentioned in the Extent of Edward UI, 
1352. This was probably the estate of the Master of the Horse 
to the Prince, from gwastraivd. In this villa there were six free 
weles, and one of native land, or terra ruitiva. This tenure of 
native land was very slavish. This wele, called Wele Bleddyn 
Goeg, for example, paid yearly rent to the Prince, 17«. 6rf., and 
suit to the lord's mill at TindryvoL Eelief and amobr, 6s. 8d.; 
both must pay part of Slaurum [?]; must carry the lord; must 
pay cylch stalon, cylch rhaglon, cylch hebogyddion, cylch dour- 
gon ; and make their part of any house in the manor of Aber- 
£&aw, as the Prince thinks proper. So in the effect they were 
the Princess slaves as well as the proprietor's slaves. Free land 
may fall to be native land. See Tredestinet. 

Trewen. Swydd y Drewen. 

Treweithan, a gentleman's seat in Montgomeryshire and 
Monmouthshire. Jones. 

Trewommon, al. Brimestone, in Penbrokeshire. 

Trewyddfa, Glamorgan. Craig Trewyddfa, 

Trewylan, a gentleman^s seat. Kynaston. 

Tren, river. Blaen Tren, Carmarddenshire. Tren, a river in 
Llywarch Hen's Marwnad Cyndylan. Mr. Edward Ilwyd 
thinks it to be the Tern in Shropshire. There is a small river 
between Cardigan and Montgomeryshire called Trennig, i.e,, 
little Tren, near Eisteddva Gurig. 

Td a Tren yn y Trydonwy. — Llywarch Hen, 

Caer Dren, Stafford. (Thos, Williams.) 
Tren, a town in Powysland. 

AmuBcai Tren tref i dad. — Llywarch Hen, 

Caer Dren. {Thos, Williams,) See Tren, a river, and Trennig. 
Trennio, q. d. Little Tren, a river which falls into Gwy. See 
Tren. 



414 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Treuddyn, a gentleman's seat. Wynne's. {J, D.) Tal y 
Treuddyn, a gentleman's seat. 

Treul (n. f.). Treul Difefyl, daughter of Llynghesawl Llaw- 
hael, noted for her chastity. {Tr, 54.) 

Treyr: vid. Tredeyr. 

Teiades, a British book in MS. quoted by Camden in Shrop- 
shire, endeavouring to prove Caradoc Freichfras to be the famous 
Caractacus in the time of Claudius Caesar ; and also in his dis- 
course on the manners of the Britons, to prove three great 
armies raised in Britain, one of which was settled on the Grse- 
cian Sea, after destroying a great part of Europe. And yet 
Mx, Camden runs counter to every[thing] eke said in that 

ancient book. 

Mwy i arial na Da'r Moroedd 

Maint ei rym ai antur oedd. — Tudur Aled, 

Du'r Moroedd is mentioned in the Triades. 

Trigfylchau, or Treigl Fylchau (B, Llwyd), a mountain near 
Llanberis in Eryri. 

Trillo Sant. Llandrillo, in the deanery of Edeymion, Powys. 
Llandrillo'n Ehos is called also Duneurth ; a house hard by 
there of the name of Duneurth, vulgo Dinerth. Qu. whether 
the same with Troilus ? 

Trin (fl.), Trent. (R Llwyd) 

Trinio or Trunio Sant. Llandrinio in the deanery of Poole. 

Llandrunio Uwyn derw anial. — D. LI, 

Tristfardd, Bardd Urien, one of the three red-speared poets. 
{Tr. 17.) 

Tristram (n. pr. v.), by Camden falsely wrote for Trystan or 
Drystan ap TaUwch. He says he knows not whether the first 
of this name was not christened by^ King Arthur's fabler, and 
yet owns Tristan is a name used in France. But if he had seen 
the Triades, a book which he himself yet quotes in his Britan- 
nia, he would have seen that Trystan was an officer of King 
Arthur^s, or said to be so by an author 1,200 year old. 

Tro, Troia, and Troea, Caerdro, and Caerdroia, the city of 
Troy in Phrygia; TPOIA. The ancient tradition among the 
Britons is that tliey descend from some Trojans that wandered 



CELTIC REMAINS. 415 

here after the destruction of Troy ; and even the shepherds on 
the mountains in Wales to this day cut in the ground the form 
of the walls of Troy, which is a kind of a regular labyrinth. The 
Britons had also a kind of play which they called gware gioyr 
TrOy i.e., the play of the men of Troy, performed by boys with 
their officers, etc. 

The city now called London was at first called Tro Newydd, 
or New Troy, and by Latin writers Trinovantum ; it being cus- 
tomary with the wandering Trojans, wherever they settled, to 
call their chief town Troy, so great an aflTection had they for 
their ancient Troy. 

The publisher of the Laws of Edward the Confessor, who 
was the predecessor of William the Conqueror, says that there 
was a court in London called the Hustings, erected in memory 
of the ancient Troy, and kept according to the custom of Troy. 
The Troy weights, etc., kept in that court, seem to favour that 
opinion. But whether that ancient tradition be true that a 
colony of Trojans under one Brutus or Prydain, or some such 
name, ever came here, is not at all material or to the honour of 
the nation ; yet since our ancient writers, the Triades, Taliesin, 
Nennius, Tyssilio, etc., all say that they came, we must abide 
by what they say tiU. we can derive ourselves better. 

Spelman says the passage before Edward the Confessor's Laws 
breathes of Galfrid of Monmouth, which, perhaps, is not a very- 
fair remark till it can be proved that it was wrote after the 
time of Galfrid, whose book did not appear for near a hundred 
years after the time of Edward the Confessor. This is the 
passage speaking of the court of Hustings held in London : — 
" Fundata enim erat olim et aedificata ad instar et ad modum et 
in memoriam veteris magnae Trojae et usque in hodiemum diem 
leges et jura et dignitatem libertates regiasque consuetudines 
antiquae magnae Trojae in se continet", etc. "And nobody hath 
a claim to this island except the Cambrian nation, the remains 
of the Britons who came formerly from Caer Dro/' {Tt. 6.) See 
Caerdro. 

Tro ^WNTDT>,Nova Troja, or Trenovantum, i.e., " urbem novan- 
tem". (H. Llwyd, Brit. Descr., p. 25.) This is the Trinobantum 
of Caesar, called afterwards Llundain, London. See Llundain. 



416 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Tkodwydd, fl. {Llywa/rch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan) ; in 
Mordents Map, Trothy, qu. ? 

Troverth, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.) Wynn's, 

Trowyn, a gentleman's seat. {J. D.) 

Trum, the top of a house or mountain. Trum Paethnant, a 
mountain near Pkimlumon. Also the name of a place in Ire- 
land. Wrote also Trim. Trum Tryri, the top of Snowden; 
hence Drum Albin, Drum Connor, Dromore in Ulster ; Drum- 
bender in Scotland. 

Mae ty ar drum y tir draw. — Tudur Aled, 
Tretad i tithan yw Trum 
Tan Qastell teg i Ystum. 

lolo Oochf to Sir Rog. Mortimer, E. of March. 
Mor oer a thram Eryri. — H, D. ojp leuan ap Rhys. 

Trwyx, used ip the composition of names of places, and sig- 
nifies a nose, as the Saxon ness in Totness^ Sheerness, eta^ as 
English antiquaries say. Trwyn Garddwr or Garwddwr; Trwyn y 
Balog ; y Trwyn Du ; Trwyn y Gogarth [the promontory feuding 
Priesholme Isle on the Carnarvonshire side. See Tvdno. — TT.I?.]; 
Trwyn Caergybi 

Trwyndwn. lerwerth Drwyndwn (Jt trwyn and twrC). 

Trydelig. Cadwgan Tiydelig ; in some copies, Ehydhelyg. 

Trydonwy, fl. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.) See 
Dyfrdonwy and Onwy. 

Tryfrwydr, appellative, q. d. Tfwyfrwydr. Meurig Tryfrwydr 
ap Tegonwy. 

Trypfin ap Drem o Frecheiniog. 

Tryffon ap Mervyn ap Bhodri Mawr. 

Trygan or Trygam (n. L), Caernarvonshire. 

Trygarn Sant. Llandrygam Church, Anglesey. 
• Tryphin (n. pr. v.). Tryphin, father of Drudwas. {Tr. 82.) 
PwU Tryphin, near Holyhead, Anglesey. 

Egin Tryphin wyt Bnffadd. — 0. ap LI, Mod. 

Trythin or Tryphin Chapel belongs to Mold Church, Flint- 
shire. 

Trystan Hwland. 

Trystan ap Tallwch, un o'r tri galofydd. {Tr, 24.) Wrote 
also Drystan. Taleithiawc cad. {Tr, 26.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 417 

TUBRAWST (gwraig Elgiid ap Cadfarch) o'r Tathlwyniaid. 

TuDAU ap Tyfodedd ap Gwylvyw. 

TuDCLTD Sant ; church at Penmachno. 

TuDFYL verch Brychan. 

TuDNO Sant ; hence Llandudno, on Trwyn y Gogarth. Mab 
Ithel Hael o Lydaw. (MS.) Hogcden Tiidno Tudclyd was one of 
the thirteen rarities of Britain, kept in the Museum at Caerllion; 
i,e,y Tudno^s whetstone. A coward that whetted his weapon 
upon it would never sharpen it, but it would immediately bring 
a man of courage's weapon to an edge. See Eluned. 

TuDUR (n. pr. v.). Latinized commonly Theodoras. But these 
real British names have been abused by the too great affectation 
of the provincial Britons to imitate their Soman masters. Tudur 
is no Latin or Greek name, but signifies literally steel side, or 
side of steel, as Ironside was used by the English. So the name 
should have been Latinized Tvdurus. This would have saved 
much confusion which hath happened in history by taking 
one person for another. Camden says the Welsh Britons cor- 
ruptly call Theodore Tydder; but they know of no such name. 
I know that about the year 980 a nobleman in South Wales^ 
from an affectation to follow foreign names, named one of his 
sons Tewdor or Theodore, who was afterwards called Tewdwr 
Mawr, whose son was Rhys ap Tewdor, Prince of South Wales 
afterwards ; but this proves nothing in relation to Tudur, for it 
is not .the same name^ and he was at liberty to caU his own son 

what he pleased. 

Aer drud ar Bys ap Tndnr 

Ergyd pell ar y gwaed pur. — Inco Brydydd, 

See Arthur, larddur^ 

TuDUB Aled, a poet, an. 1490. He lived at Garth Geri in 
Ohwibren^ in the parish of Llansannan. {E. Uwyd,) 

TUDWAL ap Credic ap Dyfnwal. 

TuDWAL Gloff, one of the sons of Ehodri Mawr, who had this 
surname from a wound in his knee, got in the battle with the 
Saxons and Danes at Conwy, called Gwaith Cymryd Conwy, or 
Dial Bhodri ; and for his bravery had lands given him by his 
brother Anarawd, the reigning Prince, A.D. 880. He was half- 
brother to the Prince. 

53 



418 CELTIC REMAINS. 

TuDWAL Tytclud, father of Ehydderch Hael and of Gwen- 
fedon the Chaste. (TV. 54.) 

TwDWG Sant. Llandudwg. 

TuDWEN Santes, qu. ? Llandudwen Chapel in Ueyn. 

TUEDD (fl.), the Tweed, a river rising in Scotland. {E, Llwyd) 

TuFYD ap Tangno ap Tstrwyth ; qu. whether Divitiacus 1 

TuKAM, the ancient name of the river Severn before it was 
called Hafren. (TyssUio.) 

Tweed, river. See Tuedd. 

TwLET, Toledo {Dr, Davies), Toledo {E. Uwyd). 

TwN (fl.). Harri Dwn. Gruflf. Dwn. 

TwNNA ap Ithel neu lethelL Porthdwnna. 

TwNNOG. Bodtwnnog, a chapel in Ileyn. 

TwB, an ancient Celtic root used in the names of places in 
Wales, etc., signifying a tower or castle. T Maendwr (n. L) sig- 
nifies the Stone Tower. Y Twr Moel, a gentleman^s seat. Yr 
Hendwr (n. L), — Madog o'r Hendwr, signifies the Old Fort, 
Meirion. Y Twr Gwyn, the White Tower ; i.e., the Tower of 
London. Mynydd y Twr, a mountain near Holyhead, from 
the fort on it in ancient times. Tre'r Twr. Twr Celyn, in 
Anglesey. Twr Branwen, the ancient name of Harlech, i.e., 
Branwen's Fort. And I suppose several of the fortified towns 
in Britain and Gaul, to whose name the Bomans have prefixed 
DuTo, were so called from TW, and not from Bwr, water ; as 
Durocornovium, Durocasses, Durolenum, DurocataJlauni,etc.,etc. 

Twr Baldwyn : see Trefcddwyn. 

Twr Tewdws, the Pleiades, q. d. Tewdos's Tower ; or, per- 
haps, Twrr or Pentwr tew. 

TwRCELTN, a house at Llannerch y Medd in Anglesey, which 
gives njtme to one of the six commots of Anglesey, — Cwmmwd 
Twrcelyn. [Twr Cuhelyn yn Mon. (i. Dvm.) — W. JR.] 

TwR Cynfael, CasteU Cynfael yn Meirion. 

Twrf tonn torchawg hael— 
Twr Cynfael yn cwyddaw. 

OynddelWf Ho. ap 0. Gwynedd. 

TwR GWENOG. {leuan Tew,) 

TwB MoEL, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) 



CELTIC REMAINS. 419 

TwrcJh (n. pr. v,). 

Nid adfer Twrch tref i dad. — Llywarch Hen. 

See Tspaddaden, 

TwRCH Trwyd (n. pr. v.). 

— nith ddirblygwyd 

— mael aer Twrch Trwyd.— Or. ah Mredydd^ qu. P 

TwRCH, fl. {Llywarch Hen), a river in Caermarddenshire, falls 
into Cothi ; another Twrch falls into the Tawy below Ystrad 
Gynlais. [Another about Ilan Gadfan. — W. 2>.] 
' TwRK, the Turk. 

Tyrciaid, Turks, a nation about the Lake Moeotis, mentioned 
by Mela about 45 years after Christ, and by Pliny soon after. 
They revolted from the Saracens, and drove them to the East, 
and the Saracen name is now hardly known. 

TWRLLACH. Ehyd y Twrllachau. 

TwRLLACHiAiD or TwRLLACHiAD, a place near Dulas in Angles- 
ey ; wrote in the Prince's Extent Book, Turghlaiet. 

TWROG Sant. Llandwrog in Caernarvonshire : hence Maen 
Twrog, a parish in Meirion. 

TwYMLYN Llwyd ap Madog lAwyd ap Griflfri. 

TWYSOG, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire. Parry. 

TwYTHWAL Merin (or, as another MS., Twythwal Werin) in 
Gorhoflfedd Gwalchmai, a place near Craig Freiddin, Montgome- 
ryshire. See Merin. 

Ty Ddewi, village, St. David's, Penbrokeshire ; the see of the 
Archbishops of Wales formerly. Fairs here. 

Ty Fry (Y), a house in Anglesey. 

Ty Illtuo, an ancient monument of rude stones in Llanham- 
mwlch, Brecknockshire. {E. Llwyd.) 

Ty Walwern, a castle in Cyfeiliog. Here was the eighth 
battle of Llewelyn ap lorwerth. See Cylch Llywelyn, 

Dybnant dybyddan vydd 

Dy Walwem drywern drefydd. 
See Walwem. 

Ty Gwyn ar Daf, the first abbey or friar house in Wales 

(after the destruction of Bangor is y Coed, which savoured not 

of Eomish dregs) was this Ty Gwyn, called Whitland Abbey, 



420 CELTIC REMAINS. 

built anno Dom. 1146. (Humph. Lloyd, JVb/e on Claro^foc.) There 
are fairs kept here. 

Tybio and Tibie (n. pr. v.). Llandybio, Caermarthenshiie. 
Fairs kept here. 

Tydecho Sant ap Anun Dda, an Armorican Britain, had a 
church and a monastery at Mowddwy and Llandudoch about 
A.D. 530 or 540. His legend, according to Dafydd Llwyd ap 
Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, is this (Cywydd Tydecho Sant) : — ^That 
he resided at Mowddwy ; that he and St. Dogwel and St T^- 
war once lived together at Llandudoch (which lies in Penbroke- 
shire, on the river TeiiSi, below Cardigan town, where there hAs 
been a large monastery called St. Dogmael's) ; that he was an 
abbot, and a relation of King Arthur; that upon a quarrel 
between him and Emyr Uydaw (ie., Emyr, King of Armorica) 
he came over to Mowddwy and built a temple (teml) there, and 
kept a good house ; that his bed was the blvs rock on the side of 
the valley, and that he wore a hair coat (pais rawn), and was a 
confessor. Maelgwn Gwynedd, in the heat of his youth, sent 
his horses and dogs to be fed by his prayers. Tydecho turned 
them loose into the mountain ; and when they were fetched, 
though it had been cold winds and hoar frost, they were found 
fat and strong, and their white colour changed into a gold colour. 
Maelgwn Gwynedd, provoked at this, took away Tydecho's oxen; 
but the next day deer instead of oxen were found in his team 
aploughing, and a grey wolf drawing the harrow after them. 
Maelgwn came with a pack of white dogs to hunt to these 
rocks, and sat upon Tydecho's blue stone ; but when he endea* 
voured to get up, he found his backside was quite fastened to 
the stone that he could not stir, and so was obliged to make 
matters up with the saint. He sent back his oxen, and gave 
him for atonement the privilege of sanctuary for a hundred 
ages, so that neither man nor beast could be taken from his 
land ; no battles, or burning, or killing, to be admitted there. 
He cured the lame, blind, and deaf, etc. When Cynan the 
Prince stole St. Tegfedd, his sister, a nun, her ravishers were all 
struck bUnd, and she came home a maid; in satisfaction for 
which Cynan gave him the lauds of Garth Beibio. No mortu- 
aries, nor amobrage, nor other services, from these lands. The 



( 



CELTIC REMAINS. 421 

Pope granted these privileges, and Howel ap Cadell corrobo- 
rated them. When an army of about 500 men once came npon 
his land, he miraculously conquered them without fighting, by 
enervating them, as the Devil is said to have done by the Friar 
Preachers formerly, as this author says : 

Y modd y daliodd Diawl meddynt 

Y Brodyr Pregethwyr gynt. 

D. Llwyd cvp LI, ap Chruffydd, 
Thus endeth the legend : 

Eled bawb o'r wlad y bo 

I duchan at Dydecho. — B, U. ap LI, ap Oruffydd, 

Tydiau verch Brychan, yn y tri Gabelogwar, qu. ? 

Tydknwy : see Bhiw Dydmwy, 

Tydweiliog, chapel dedicated to Gwy ven Santes. {Br, Willis.) 

Tyfid ap Cadwgon : qu. Divitiacus ? 

TYFODoa or Tywodog, river; i.e., sandy. Ystrad Dyfodog, 
Glamorganshire. 

Tyfriog Sant liandyfriog. 

Typrydog Sant ap Dingad. Ilandyfrydog Church in Anglesey. 
See Gir. Cambrensis in Itin. Cambr, A miracle done by this 
Saint. There is also a stone pillar in that parish, called Ileidr 
Tyfrydog, or Tyfiydog's Thief. The story is, that a thief rob- 
bing this Saint of his books, was turned by him into a piUar of 
stone with the books on his back ; and the bundle of books are 
seen as plain on his back as they were the day they were turned 
into stone. 

Typyrdd, fl. (Zl. Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.) 

Tygai Sant. LlandygSi, Caernarvonshire. 

Tygent or Tygen, a river mentioned by Ilywarch Hen in 

Marwnad CadwaUon. Qu. in Powysland, the north side of Haf- 

ren? 

Llnest CadwaUon ar Havren 

Ao o'r ta draw i Ddygen 

A breiait yn Uosgi Meigen. — Llywarch Hen, 

Tygwnning Sant. Llandygwning. 
Tyguy, wrote anciently for Tywy. {E, Llwyd) 
Tygwydd or Tygwy Sant. Llandygwydd, Cardigansliire. 
Tyngyr (n. pr. v.). Vid. Gwelygorddau Powys. 



422 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Tyngyrion, the people or tribe of Tyngyr ; as if yon would 
say the Campbells, the Hamiltons, or other clans, in Scotland* 
So from lorwerth comes lorwerthion ; from Madog, Madogion ; 
from Gwalchmai, Gweilchion, etc. See Gwelygorddau Powys. 
The land belonging to these tribes was afterwards called after 
their names : Tyngyrion, Gwrtheymion, Edeymion, Gwynogion* 
i.e., Swydd Wynogion, 

Tyndaethwy, un 6 chwmwd M6n, or Dindaethwy. 

Tyno Bydwal (n. L) {Cylchau Cyrn/ru) 

Tyrnog, Lat. Tighemacus. (E, Llvryd,) Llandymog in Den- 
bighshire. Vid. Dymog. 

Tyssul (n. pr. v.). Ilandyssul in Caermarthenshire [Cardi- 
ganshire]. The same with 

Tyssilio Sant, son of Brychwel Tsgithrog, Prince of Powys, 
wrote a history of the Britons about the year 666, qu. ? But 
Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks 610, It was, I suppose, wrote in 
Latin, and carried over to France by the British refugees about 
that time. It was seen at the Abbey of Bee, in Normandy, by 
H. Huntingdon before Galfrid published his translation, — a 
very ancient copy. See Lambard. Out of Latin it was tran- 
scribed into the Breton language, or the language of the Bretons 
of Armorica. In that shape Walter Mappeus or Calenius, Arch- 
deacon of Oxford, found it in Armorica, and gave it to Galfrid 
Arthur, then Archdeacon of Monmouth, to translate into Latin, 
whose translation we have in print and MS., as also the Welsh 
translation of Walter Mappeus out of the Breton. 

Canu i DyssiUo Sant. (Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, apud Uyfr 
Coch Hergest. Arch, Brit,, p. 258.) 

Uandyssil, in Cedewain, Powys; liandyssilio Church, An- 
glesey ; LlandyssiUo Gogo, Cardiganshire ; Liandyssilio yn lal, 
a church and parish ; Liandyssilio in the deanery of PooL 

Tyssel ap Corun, Llandyssel. 

Tyuiot, a river in Scotland. (Major, Hist, Scot) 

Tywyn Meirionydd, a village. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 423 

V. 

Vadum Salicis, Willowford. 

Vaga, the Latin name for Gwy, fl. 

Vectukiones, the Picts of the Highlands of Scotland, or the 
North Picts ; the Southern Picts being Dicalidones, or Deau 
Gelyddion, South Caledonians, from Coed Celyddoa See Uchdir. 

Venedotia and Gwynethia, Gwynedd, North Wales. 

Venjlia, wife of Neptune ; in the Celtic, V'anwyl, or Gwen- 
^yl, or Genhilles. See BrtU y Brenhin. and Gwalchmai. 

Venus, the name of several women in the Boman history. It 
was made from Gwener, a Celtic Princess, and niece of Sadivm 
(Saturnus). There was also a daughter of the Celtic Prince lou 
of that name ; from whence the Britons call Friday (Dies 
Yenen8)Dydd Gwener, from the Celtic gwSn, a smile — ^the smiling 
goddess ; therefore Cicero^s derivation of Venus from veniendo, 
or her readiness to come to man, is ridiculous. 

Verwic (Y) : see Ferwig and Aberwig. 

Vesta : see Feda. 

ViNVED, a river in Yorkshire, where Penda, King of Mercia, 
was slain in battle by Oswy, and the place called Winwidfield. 
(Bede, 1. iii, c. 24.) prnps^^ in the Saxon. Qu. whether a 
British name ? See Wynyet, 

Vl Cassar. {Tr. 48.) 

VoRGANiUM, the town of Morlais in Gaul, so called by Ptolomy 
and the ancient Gauls {Camden in Glamorgan) ; and frx)m hence 
he gathers that the county of Morganwg was so called from 
lying on the sea, as Morlais doth. Why, then, is not every 
country that lies on the sea called Morganwg ? And why must 
the ancient national tradition be laid aside for a modem guess ? 

Vbghbichiad. Spelman's gloss in Adelingvs. See Oivrthry- 
(Mad, 

Vrnuch: see Vmach. 

Vrnach or Vrnuch. Caer Vmach {Nennius, qu. ?). Vmach 
{Triad) ; another copy, Vmas. (Usher, CataL) Caer Fumach, 
qu. whether Brynaich ? 

VwcHFOELiAiD, Helvetii, the Switzers ; ie., Highlanders. {E. 
Llwyd.) 



424 CELTIC REMAINS. 



XJcHDlR, perhaps wrote for Uclieldir yr Alban, the Highlands ; 
and from thence might be formed Uchdirion, which the Romans 
turned to Veeturiones, the Northern Picts, who inhabited the 
Orcades and to the north of the Grampian Mountains. 

UcHDRYD ap Edwin. 

XJcHELDDiN, Lat. Axelodunum. It should be Ucheldunum. 
(K JUioyd) 

UCHELDREF, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey. Another in Meir- 
ion, qu. Meyrick ? 

UcHELGOED GWYNEDD, lands given by his brother Anarawd 
ap Rhodri to Tudwal Gloff, in reward for his valour at Gwaith 
Cymryd Conwy, commonly called Dial Rhodri, A.D. 880. (R, 
Vaughan^ 

UcHTRYD (a pr. V.) ; hence Hafod Uchtryd in Cardiganshire. 
Cwmmwd Mab Uchtryd in Cantref Mawr, Caermarthenshire. 
(Price, Descr,) Camden makes Uchtryd a German name, signi- 
fying high counsel ; but it is British, formed from t^, above, 
and drud, stout. 

lach draw a dawn Uchtryd oedd. — D. L LI. 

Udd Kesab. {B. Vaughan) Wlcaesar is common in Brut y 
Srenhinoedd, 
Ufydd. Llanufydd. Nefydd. 
Ull (n. pr. v.), Julius. 

Rybn Ull Kessar. — Prydydd y Moch, 

Unwrch ap Unarchen ap Mor, qu. ? See Traeth Maelgum. 
Unhwch or Ynhwch (n. pr. v.). Unhwch Unarchen : vid. 
Traeth Maelgvm. Hence Caer Ynhwch near Dolgelleu. 

Dym kywarwyddiat Ynhwch. 

LlywoTch Hen, in Mar. Yw. ap Urien. 

Mr. Edward Uwyd is induced from this to think that this Un- 
hwch killed Ywein ap Urien ; but the Triades says that he was 
killed by Uofan Uawddino; some Saxon, it seems. [Llofan 
killed Urien, and not Owen his son. Vide Llywarch Hen. — 



CELTIC REMAINS. 425 

Urael (n. pr.). 

Llew tip Buellt a'i Hnrael. — L. 01. Cothi, 

Urbgen. This Dame in Nennius (who is said, with Ehydderch, 
Gwallawc, and Morgant, to have fought Hussa the Saxon Bang) 
is the XJrien Reged of Taliessin, Llywarch Hen, Aneurin, etc., 
who, and his sons, is also said by the same Nennins to have 
stoutly fought with Deodrw, son of Ida. {Nenn., c. 65.j 

XJrful, enw lie. (Z. 01. Cothi.) Llanurful Ynghaereinion. 

Uriconium : see Oiorygion. 

Uriel (n. pr.), one of the seven archangels. 

Mihangel, Unel yn arwain graddau 

A dynn eneidiaa dan ei adain. — L. G. Cothi. 
See Oahriel. 

TJrien Reged, or TJrien ap Cynfarch, called by Nennius Urb- 
gen ; so called because he was Prince of Reged in North Britain. 
He was son of Cynvarch Hen, and brother to Llew ap Cyn- 
farch, who married King Arthur's sister Anna. His son, Ywain 
ap Urien, was one of King Arthur's generals. He was cefn- 
derw of IJywarch Hen. 

Gwae fy llaw lladd fy nghefnderw. 

This Urien was killed by Llofan Llawddino {Tr. 38) : some 
Saxon, qu. ? His mother was Nefn, daughter of Brychan (Tr. 
52), and his wife Modron verch Afallach. {Tr. 52.) On account 
of his great feats in the wars he was called "un o*r tri tharw cad'^. 
(Tr. 12.) Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks he was killed by Unhwch. 
(Arch. Brit., p. 259.) Camden says some learned Danes have 
told him Urian is the same with George, — a Greek name signi- 
fying a husbandman. He need not have gone further than the 
Triades (a MS. of the Britons which he quotes in his Britannia), 
and there he would have found that Urien ap Cynfarch was a 
Prince of Reged, in North Britain, in the time of Uthur Ben* 
dragon, about the time the Saxons came into Britain ; and that 
his son, Owain ap Urien, was a general under King Arthur. 
Would anybody go to Denmark, Sweden, Italy, or Greece, to 
search for the meaning of this name when he could find it at 
home ? But far fetched is best for ladies. 

Urien, the 51st King of Britain. 

Urp (n. pr. v.), a Teutonic name. Urp Luyddawc, UrpusBd- 

54 



426 CELTIC REMAINS. 

licosusy Urp the Warlike, or Urp with the great army. This 
Prince came from Llychlyn to desire succours of the King of 
Britain (who the Triades calls) Cadyal mab Eryn, whom I take 
to be Cadell mab Geraint, the 43rd King after Brutua (About 
this time, perhaps, the second Brennus and Belgius spoiled 
Macedon and Greece, and ruined the Temple at Delphos.) This 
Urp Luyddog agreed with the King of Britain, for a certain sum 
of money, to have out of every one of his principal cities as 
many men as he would bring into it ; and there went into the 
first city but himself and his General, Mathutafwr, or Mathuta 
Fawr. But when the islanders understood what a bad bargain 
they had made, they were sorry, and yet were obliged to stand 
to it. This was one of the greatest armies, the Triades says, 
that ever went out of this island ; and none of them ever re- 
turned, but settled themselves in two islands on the coast of 
Greece, called Gals and Avena. {Tr, 40.) One of these, Mr. 
Edward Llwyd thinks to be Corfu. Camden, quoting the Triades, 
thinks they settled in Galatia. 

This Urp, with his Cimbrians from the coast of the Baltic, 
or perhaps the Netherlands, may be the Belgius that joined with 
the second Brennus to invade the Romans, who then had laid a 
scheme for universal monarchy ; and if he was from Belgium, 
he might be called Urpus Belgius. The number of these British 
auxiliaries were 61,000 men. (Tr. 40.) Or it might be that 
army of Cumbrians that invaded Rome in Marius's time, A. 
Chr. 107. 

There is a mistake here in the number of men, for 15 cities, 
in arithmetical proportion (getting two men out of the first city), 
will produce 65,536 men. But perhaps Urp was contented with 
61,000, and would not be too hard upon people that he had out- 
witted. 

Uksula (n. f.), said to be a British saint, a lady martjrred by 
Attila, King of the Huns, and daughter of Dianotus, King of 
Cornwall ; but we have no such name' as Ursula in the British 
History or MSS., and seems to have been coined by Galfrid, and 
foisted into his Latin translation of Tyssilio, or by the monks 
that transcribed him afterwards. 

UsBEB (n. pr. v.), father of Rore. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 427 

XJsK, Monmouthshire, Vid. Wysg, 

UsLOYN. Mjmydd Usloyn, Monmouthshire. 

UssA ap Cynedda Wledig gave name to Maesuswallt, now 
Oswestry. (Price, Descr) 

UsSA, son of Ilafyr. {Caradoc in Howel Dda.) 

Uthur (n. pr. v.), Latinized Uter. XJthur, the son of Constan- 
tine, surnamed Uthur Bendragon, the 99th King of Britain after 
his brother Emrys (called by Latin writers Aurelius Ambrosius). 
Both brothers were brought up in Armorica in France, where 
they escaped from the hands of Gwrtheyrn, who killed their 
brother Constaus, whom he first made king from a monk, to 
make room for himself; and in his distress called in the Saxons 
to assist him. This was in the year 449. The lands of Witur 
mentioned in the Armorican writers as part of Little Britain, 
seems to belong to this Uthur. His father Constantin being 
brother to Aldwr, King of Britanny. 

Hu(^ Uthur Bendragon, un o^r tri prif hud. (IV. 32.) This 
was Myrddin. 

Camden says he was surnamed Pendragon because of his ser- 
pentine subtil ty. (Gibson's Camden, p. 298, 1st edit.) And yet 
nothing of that subtilty appears in history, except the battle 
which he fought at St. Alban's, and beat the Saxons, be reckoned 
such. 

Uthur had two sons, Arthur and Madoc, and a daughter Anna. 
{Tr, 82.) See Fendragon. 

UwcH Aeron, the country to the north of the river Aeron in 
Cardiganshire. See Aeron, 

UwcH Cerdin : see Cerdin river. 

UwcH Conwy. 

UwcH CoEp, one of the commots of Cantref Iscoed in Gwent. 
(Price, Descr.) 

UwLLYN, qu. ? LlanuwUyn, parish and church in Penllyn 
deanery, St. Asaph diocese. Some say from Uwch y Llyn, and 
Llanyccil. from Cil y Llyn (sed qu. ?), i.e., Llyn Tegid. 

Uwch Mtnydd^ one of the commots of Cantref Elfel, between 
Wy and Severn. 

Uwch Nant, a cantref in Powys Vadog, containing the com- 
mots of Merffordd and the two Maelors. 



428 CELTIC REMAINS. 



W. 

Waith. Ynya WaitL Vid. Owaith. 

Wallia, the present Latin name of the country now called 
Wales. This is the name given it by most of the Saxon writers 
who had occasion to mention this country. Giraldus Cambrensis 
falls foul of Galfrid, in his translation of the British history, for 
his foolish etymology of Wales from Wallon, a general, or Wen- 
dolen, a queen ; and calls it false and fabulous, as there never 
were such persons in Wales ; nor is that passage to be found in 
the British original, which, no doubt, Giraldus knew when he 
called it a fable of Galfrid, which he had added as a flourish in 
his translation of the old British history. Giraldus insists that 
Wallia is a Saxon word signifying foreign, and therefore the 
Cambrians are called Wallenses, and the country Wallia. Poly- 
dore Virgil ignorantly claims this etymology as his own, or had 
not read Giraldus. I own that the Saxons called the Cambrians 
Weales, and even the North Britains Stradcluyd Weales, and the 
Cornish Comweales ; but how came TaKessin, who lived within 
a hundred years after the Saxons coming to Britain, and before 
they had any learning among them, to call this country Wallia ? 

Eu tir a gollant 
Ond Gwyllt Wallia. 

There was no such a letter in the Latin as W, therefore there could 
not be such a word as Wallia in Taliessin's time; for the Eoman 
language and learning flourished then among the Britons, as is 
well known to persons the least versed in the ecclesiastical his- 
tory of those times. And this word in Taliessin's poem must be 
wrote either Valia or Galia ; the latter rather, which, by the 
British grammar rules and nature of the language^ would be 
here wrote Gwyllt Alia, which afterwards, in imitation of the 
English, was wrote Wallia, or rather WaUa. G^lia was certainly, 
in the ancient British, the name of Gaul, and the people Gal- 
iaid. The Irish at this day call an inhabitant of France Gallta. 
Why might not the inhabitants of Wales (upon a supposition 
that they came originally from Gaul) be called Walians By the 
Saxons, and the country Walia, as the idiom of the English is to 



CELTIC REMAINS. 429 

turn Welsh words beginning with G into a W ? as Gwal, Wall ; 
Gwin, Wine ; Gwlan, Wool ; Gwynt, Wind ; Gwan, Want, i.e., 
pale ; Gair, Word ; Gwae, Woe ; Gwerth, Worth ; Gwjmn, 
White ; Gwaeth, Worse ; Gwaith, Work, etc., etc. Comugallia, 
the name of Cornwall, seems to be of the same origin, and Corn- 
weales was the Saxon name. John Major (Hist. Scot) calls it 
ValUa. 

Walwern, a castle in Cyfeiliog : vid. Ty Walwem, 

Watgin, Angl. Watkins : vid. Gwatcin. 

Waun (Y), Chirk in Denbighshire, a church and parish and 
castle. Y Waun, in Glamorganshire. There are fairs kept here. 

Wddyn. Uanwddyn. Vid. Gwydden. 

Weir. Caer Weir [Triad), Caer Wair {Th. Williams), War- 
wick (Usher's CataL). Caer Gwrig is Warwick. 

Welsh Poole : see Trallwng, 

Wenni (Y) river runs by Llanha... and Wenni, and to Og- 
more Castle. 

Wenallt (Y), a place in the lordship of Maesaleg in Mon- 
mouthshire, mentioned by Dafydd ap Gwilyn. 

Nid oes bran yn y Wenallt 

Ka bo*n wyrdd ei ben a*i wallfc. — B. Q, 

A'u gangan yn an gyngerth 
Ai wn a'i bais yn un berth. 

Wentset or Wentsland, the English name of the county of 
Monmouth. (Camden, Britannia.) In the British, Gwent and 
Casgwent and Castell Gwent.' Vid. Caerwent 

Went. Caerwent [Triades) ; Usher, Caerwent ; Nennius, Caer 
Gwent; Chepstow in Monmouthshire, near the mouth of the 
river Gwy (Engl. Wye), the Venta Silurum of the Romans. 
Gwent is the name of the country thereabouts. Vid, Gwent 
Blaen Gwent, Monmouthshire, ch. and sch. Vid. Blaen Gwent, 

Wen^yn ap IdnertL 

Wen Ynys (Y), {TyssUio), Albion, according to Galfrid ; not 
in the Brut Tyssilio ; one of the ancient names of the isle of 
Britain. 

l^ysgngettawr perchen y Wen Ynys. — Tyssilio. 

See YFel Ynys. 



430 CELTIC REMAINS. 

Wbrddon (Y) : vii Ewerddon. 

Wern (Y) : see Gwem. 

Wern Ddu (Y), a gentleman's seat. Parry. 

Ween Fawr (Y), a gentleman's seat. Parry. 

Wern Goch (T). Maes y Wern Goch, Meirion. 

Werthefin: vid. Gwerthejm. 

Wewenhyr. Caer Wewenhyr. {Ystori K. op KUydd.) 

Wic and Wick : see Oicig and Gwic. 

WicwAiR neu Wickwair. Khys ap Cwnnws o Wicwair. A 
place in Dyffryn Clwyd, wLere Sion Tudur the poet lived, and 
had an estate of his own^ in Qaeen Elizabeth's reign. Qu. Wig 
y Gwair ? 

WiDAWLWiR. Caer Widawlwir. {Triades.) In another copy, 
Wedawlwir ; qu. one of twenty-eight cities ? 

WiLCOC MOWDDWY. 

WiLCOG ap Lly welyn ap Ywain. 

Winifred, or Winifrid, or Gwenfrid as Camden will have it, 
is said to be a British name signifying fair and beautiful ; but 
we find it not in the British. By the Britons named Gwen- 
frewL Said to be Abbess of Gwytherin in North Wales. This 
is she that gave name to Holywell in Flintshire, Ffynnon Wen- 
frewi ; but we have nothing in our British history or MSS. that 
I have met with relating to that name, though this St Winifred, 
if ever there was such a person of that name, should have been 
mentioned by some writer since the time of Maelgwn Gwynedd, 
A.D. 540, about which time St Beuno, who is said by the 
legends to replace her head on. Her life, in Latin, is in the 
Cottonian Library, which seems to be ancient (Claud. A, 5) ; 
another, by Eobert Salopiensis, in the Bodleian Library at Ox- 
ford, wrote about 1140 ; another, said to be out of the Cottoi^ 
life, in Sir James Ware's library, — an abbreviation out of Bobert 
of Salop by John of Timnouth about 1366, afterwards transcribed 
by J.Capgrave. An account of her life in the Breviary of Sarum 
read like the Epistles and Gospels in churches. J. Capgrave's life 
of her was abbreviated by Lawrence Surius, a Carthusian, and 
from him abbreviated by a German monk. J. Capgrave's was 
also transcribed into M. Alford the Jesuit^s Annals^ and after- 
wards Englished by Cressy. Her life in English rhyme, about 



CELTIC REMAINS, 431 

A.D. 1300, in the Public Library, Oxon. (A. 72, fol. 189), and in 
prose in the English Legend. In 1635 one J. F., a Jesuit, trans- 
lated Eobert of Salop into English, which was reprinted in 1712, 
and published with Dr. Fleetwood's Notes, a.d. 1713. 

Dr. Fleetwood seems to doubt whether there ever was such 
persons as Winifred, or Beuno that is said to have put her head 
on. But this is too stoical, and a bad way of reasoning. The 
monks have invented lies about St Winifred in order to get 
money ; therefore there never was such a person as Winifred. I 
find no church in Wales dedicated to her name, unless Llan- 
ddewivrewi be one, dedicated to her and Dewi. But the river 
is, perhaps, Brefi. And what is still more remarkable, of the 
many churches said to be erected or founded by Beuno, none of 
them bears his name, or are called Llanveuno. 

Tudur Aled, about the year 1490, wrote the Legend of Gwen- 
frewi in verse, and mentions one Pennant, then Abbot of the 
Monastery near Holywell. Qu. whether at Sychnant? The 
time allotted by Alford and Cressy to St. Winifred is A.D. 660. 
See Gwenfrevri and Beuno, 

WiNOC Sant : vid. Gvniniog. 

Wlcaesar {Brvi y Brenhinoedd), Julius Caesar. 

Wrexham : vid. Qwrecsam. 

Wrw : vid. Erw. 

Whygion. Caer Wrygion mentioned by Dr. Thomas Williams 
in his Catalogue of the British Cities, and by Usher in his Cata- 
logue. The word signifies to grow strong, to grow manly, from 
g%or, a man, and Caer Wrygion, the city of strong men. I take 
the place to be- the city called by the Eomans Uriconium, which 
is Wroxeter in Shropshire. Here was found an inscription on 
the tomb of an officer of the Legio Vicesima Victrix, which 
favours the meaning of the British name (if it was given after 
the Romans fortified it). I suppose the Caer Gorgorn in the 
Triades is the same, and also the Caire Guirigon of Nennius. 

Wydigada, one of the four commots of Cantref Mawr in Caer- 
marthenshire. (Price, Descr,) 

Wyddgrug (Yr), or Mold Castle in Flintshire, village, parish, 
and church, vulgo Yr Wyrgrug, a very strong fort of the Nor- 
mans in the year 1144, which had been often besieged but never 



432 CELTIC REMAINS. 

won. Taken by Owen Gwynedd after several assaults, and 
erased to the ground. (Caradoc.) 

Wyddfa (Yb), or Y Widdfa, in English called Snowdon or 
Snowden, from whence the name of the Forest of Snowden was 
given to all that range of mountains by the natives called Creig- 
iau or Mynyddoedd Eryri, q. d. the Eagle Mountains. Eagles 
bred there in the memory of man. But the name Snowden was 
made from eiry, snow, q. d. the Snow Mountains, or Eiryriw, i,e,, 
EhiVr Eira. Vid. Bhiw. 

Wygyb: vid. Gwygyr. 

VfYLFA. (Yr), nomen loci, literally the watch-place, Pen'r 
Wylfa in Anglesey. 

Wynstay, Rhiwabon parish, the seat of Sir Wat Williams 
Wynn, Bart. 

Wynt. Caer Wynt. This is the Guint Guic of the lib. Cot- 
ton, of Nennius, and Gwentguic of the Lib. Cant, of Nennius, 
and Caer Wynt of the Triades, i.e., the Wind City, now Win- 
chester, properly Windchester. 

Wynyaon. The castle of the sons of Wynyaon in Caradoc 
(in 0. Gwynedd, p. 220), is a mistake of the translator out of 
the Welsh for Mahwynion^ one of the cantrefs of Cardiganshire. 
See Mabwynion. 

Wynyet and Wynnedd, a river where Oswydd Aelwyn killed 
Penda and thirty princes more. (TyssUio.) See Vinved. 

Wyrangon. Caer Wyrangon {Triades) ; in Ifennius, Guricon ; 
in Usher, Caer Wrangon ; in Dr. Th. Williams, Caer Wrangon ; 
Worcester: in Latin, Vigomia, Brannogenium (-4in«Twr<A), Bran- 
gonium. From hence the modem name Caer Frangon. The 
name seems to be derived from gwyr, men, and eang, free, pL 
eangon, q. d, Caer Owyr Eangon, i.e., the city of freemen, or the 
freemen's city ; and the Latin name Brannogenium, if of British 
original, is literally the same thing, derived from braint, privi- 
lege, and geni, to be born, i.e., persons bom there to have the 
privilege of freedom. 

Wyre Fach (Y) and Yr Wyre Fawr, rivers in Llansani&ed, 
Cardiganshire. Qu. Arwyre ? 

Wysg, anciently wrote Vise, the name of a river in Wales, by 
the English called Usk. The meaning of this word in Irish is 



CELTIC REMAINS. 433 

water, from whence Mr. Edward Llwyd infers that our British 
ancestors, at their first coming and driving ofF the Gwyddelian 
Britons, being ignorant of their language, retained the word as 
a proper name of a river, as the Saxons, on the like case, have 
called some rivers by the name of Avon, which in British sig- 
nifies only river in general But Mr. Llwyd should have con- 
sidered that Visg or Visge did not signify a river, but was the 
word for water in general ; and by that way of reasoning they 
might have called a lake, or the sea, visg, as well as one river. 
But, says he, abundance of rivers in England were called by 
them, from that word^ by the name of Aifc, JEse, Isc, Ode, and Usk. 
It is very extraordinary that the same word should run through 
all the vowels. I am afraid it is too great a scope to take even 
in etymology. The English, he says, have partly retained these 
names afterwards, and partly varied [them] into Ax, Ex, Ox, Ux, 

This hypothesis, which may be denied with the same confi- 
dence as it is asserted, doth not prove that our ancestors did not 
understand the language of the Gwyddelian Britains, or first 
inhabitants (see the word Llwch), for the very word visg with 
them had the same meaning with the word Vi or Wy with us, 
as appears in the names of rivers, Conwy, Elwy, Llugwy, etc. ; 
and in all waterfowl, gwydd, hwyad, gwylan, etc., etc. So that it 
might be but a difference of dialect. And as for Asc, Esc, Isc, 
and Osc, they may be accounted for otherwise, without that licen- 
tious liberty of changing all the vowels at our pleasure, which 
Mr. Baxter in his Glossary hath also been ridiculously guilty of. 

Why should Mr. Llwyd attempt to bring Oxford (which was 
once Oxenford) fipom Ouskford, without proving that the Britons 
had a river called OiLsk, unless he had catched the infection 
from Mr. Baxter ? Mr. Llwyd very well knew that Ehydychen 
was the name in British which signifies the ford of oxen, and 
not ox J and this from very ancient times, 

Y. 

Yal, enw lie. Vid. lal 

YcciL, qu. ? Llanyccil, church and parish in Penllyn. Some 
say from dl y llyn. 
YcH, river. Aberych. 

55 



434 CELTIC REMAINS. 

YcHEN. Bodychen, yn sir F811. Ehydychen, jm Lloegr. 

Ydon or Yddon, fl. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cadwallon.) 
Llueat Gadwallon ar Ydon. [Ar Eithon, qiL avon Ystrad £nni, 
Maesyved ?— TF. JD.] 

Yfed, qu. ? Pen Yfed, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) Gwemyfed 
in Brecknockshire. [Ednyfed, qu. ? — W. J),] 

Ylched Sant, qu. ? Uechylched Chapel, M8a 

Ynad, a judge. Yr Ynad Coch a'r Ynad Du. Adda ap yr 
Ynad Du. Cillyn Ynad. 

Ynellan, qu. ? Rhisiart Mostyn o Fodynellan. 

Yngharad, recti Angharad. 

Yngnad, id. q. Ynad. Madog Yngnad. 

Ynfyd, a cognomen. Cadavael Ynfyd [Cadavael Ynad, medd 
Syr S. Meyrig, ei ddisgynydd — W. D., 1842] ; qu. whether the 
Cadgubail of Nennius ? 

Yniwl (n. pr. v.). Yniwl larll, father of Enid, one of the 
ladies in King Arthur's court. 

Ynllj, wrote anciently for Enlli, Vid. Ynys Erdli, 

Ynwch (n. pr. v.). Oaer Ynwch, near Dolgelleu. Tudur 
Fychan o Gaer Ynwch ; but rightly Unhwck Vid. Traefh Mad- 
gym and Ewch, 

Ynyr (proprium nomen viri) putatur significare veteribus 
agricolem. Heb. nur, arare. Nvr, ager cultus. (B. VattgJuin,) 
A nephew of King Cadwaladr (according to Tyssilio), whom he 
sent with Ivor his son to Britain with auxiliaries obtained of 
Alan, King of Uydaw, i.e., Armorica, when he himself, like a 
wise Prince, thought himself safer at Borne. Caradoc, in his 
Chronicle, seems to make Ivor a son of Alan, and Ynyr a nephew 
of Alan ; but our ancient British MSS. say that Cadwaladr had 
three sons, Ivor, Alan, and Idwal Iwrch, which is the most pro- 
bable story ; for Ivor might be of years fit to be a general, and 
Alan also a youth in the army; but Idwal so young that he left 
him in the care of Alan, King of Armorica. This Ivor, Caradoc 
says, is he who the Saxon writers call Ive apd lew. King of the 
West Saxons, that reigned after Cedwall. A MS. of John 
Castor or Blever, quoted by Dr. PoweU {Caradoc, p. 16), makes 
both Ivor and Hcnyr to be sons of the daughter of Cadwaladr, 
King of Britain, and that they came over from Ireland ; and 



CELTIC REMAINS. 435 

makes Inas, King of West-Sex, to oppose them, and that this 
Inas laid siege to the Castle of Snowdon (perhaps Penmaen 
Mawr), and took 

Ynyr, King of Gwent (according to Buchedd Beuno) gave 
Beuno a gold ring and crown, and became a monk and a disciple 
under Beuno, and gave him three estates in £uas, and the 
people, with their goods and chattels, in those divisions. See 
Iddon ap Ynyr. 

Ynyk Fychan ; hinc family of Byners or Ab Yn)rr. 

Ynts is a most ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of 
places, and signifies an island or spot of ground surrounded by 
water. Old orthography, enes ; in the Greek, nesos; lAt, insula; 
Cornish, ennis; in the Armoric, enezen; in Irish, innshe; in the 
Scotch Irish \insh\ Hence Totness, Cathness, Sheerness, etc., 
and not from nose. 

The Isle of Britain had these names in ancient times : — 

1, Clas Merdin (TV.). 

2, Ynys Fel (Tr.), Y Fel Ynys. 

3, Ynys Prydain (Tr.) and Ynys Bryt. 

4, Ynys y Cedyrft (Prov.), the Isle of Heroes. 

5, Y Wen Ynys (Tyssilio), or Albion (Gal/rid). 

The three islands once belonging to North Wales were — 

1, Mon, Anglesey, called also Yr Ynys DowelL 

2, Manaw, the Isle of Man. 

3, Ynys Wair, Lundey Isle. 

Tair rhag ynys tir Gwynedd : 

Ynys F6n, Ynys Fanaw 

Ynys Wair dros Ddendr draw. — L, 0, Cothi. 

The adjacent islands of Mon : 

1, Ynys Seiriol, Priestholm Island. 

2, Ynys Llygod, or Ynys Moelvre. 

3, Ynys Gadam, against Dulas. 

4, Ynys Amlwch, East Mouse. 

5, Ynys Badrig, Middle Mouse. 

6, Ynys Bigel, West Mouse. 

7, Ynys y Moelrhoniaid, Skerry Isle. 

8, Ynys Gybi, makes Holyhead Harbour. 

9, Ynys Arw, North Stack. 



436 CELTIC REMAINS. 

« 

10, Ynya Lawd, South Stack. 

11, Ynys y Gwylyn. 

12, Ynys WeUt. 

13, Ynys y Meibion. 

The adjacent islands of Caernarvonshire : — 

1, Ynys Enlli, Bardsey. 

2, Ynys y Gwylyn. 

3, 4, Ynjrsoedd Tudwal, i.e., St. Tudwal's Islands. 

On the coast of Meirion : — ^Ynys y Brawd, at the entrance of 

Abermo. 
On the coast of Cardiganshire : — ^Ynys Aberteifi. 
On the coast of Penfro : — Ynys Hyrddod, Eamsey Isle, and its 

adjacent islands : 

1, Esgob. 

2, Bhosson. 

3, Deufych. 

4, Emskym. 

5, Eilin a'r Canonwyr. 

Y Scarlas, at Solvach ; St. pride's Isle, at Goldtop ; Walis or 
Gresholm ; Skomar ; Skokam ; Ynys Pyr, or Caldey, at Tenby ; 
Ynys Arddon on the coast of Wales (Buchedd Or, wp Cyrum) 

Ynys Adar, Skerries {Eurrvph. Lloyd) ; Edron Nesos of Pto- 
lomy. 

Ynys Dowell (Yr), Anglesey. 

Nos da fo i'r Ynys Dowell 

Ni wn oes un ynys well. — L, 01, Coihi, 

Yr Ynys Dowell cell cerdd 

Y gelwid Mdn wegilwerdd. 
Vid. Mdn. 

Ynys Greigiog, a gentleman's seat (/. D.) in Cardiganshire, 
Here [was bom] the famous Edward Ilwyd, Keeper of the Ash- 
molean Museum, and author of Archceologia Britannica and 
Li(hop\hylacii Britannici Ich/nographia], His mother was Mary 
Pryse of Ynys Greigiog, a branch of the Pryses of Gogerthan ; 
and his father was Charles Lloyd of Llanvorda, an extravagant 
young fellow, who sold Llanvorda to Sir W. Williams. 

Ynys y Maengwyn, a gentleman's seat in Meirionydd. 

Ynys Waith, the Isle of Wight. See Choailh. 



CELTIC REMAINS. 437 

Yrth, the surname or cognomen of several persons, supposed 

by Mr. H. Bowlands to mean urddy or honourable ; but I believe 

not, for the poets took care to pronounce it TrtK See Oyrth in 

Diet. 

Brycban Yrth brelchiau nerthawg. — T). op Owih/m, 

Einion Yrth was son of Cunedda Wledig, a Prince of the. north 
of Scotland, drove from thence by the Scots. Hence Caer Einion 
Yrth in Montgomeryshire. Vid. CuTicdda Wledig. 

Yrwith, of Caerllion, a courageous Briton, that defended it 
against the forces of Henry IL {Camden in Monmouthshire.) 
Qu, whether lorwerth ? 

Yrybi {Tho8, Williams), recti Eryri or Eiiyri, which see. 

YsBWTS ap Cadrod Calchfynydd. 

YsBYDDADOG, cuw lie. Ifan Llwyd o Ysbyddadog. 

YscAR, river, qu. ? Aberysker on the river Wysg. (Mor- 
den's Map.)